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In 2004, CDC, in collaboration with Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, contributed to formation of the Flour Fortification Initiative (FFI), a network of government and international agencies, wheat and flour industries, and consumer and civic organizations, to promote global flour fortification because none of these sectors can effectively address all the issues alone. Alternate Text: The figure above shows countries with regulations for fortification of wheat flour with folic acid, by program status, worldwide as of June 2010. Published economic evaluations have shown that folic acid food fortification is cost saving in the United States and other countries. Fortification of flour and other high-consumption, high-penetration staples with folic acid is a feasible, economical, safe, and effective public health policy to prevent NTDs worldwide. Predicted contribution of folic acid fortification of corn masa flour to the usual folic acid intake for the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001--2004. Recommendations on wheat and maize flour fortification meeting report: interim consensus statement. After mandatory fortification began in 1998, NTD prevalence declined 30%–40% among the three largest racial and ethnic groups. A total of 53 countries had regulations for mandatory fortification of wheat flour with folic acid, although many of these programs had not been fully implemented, and the existence of regulations did not imply compliance. Minimum effective dose of folic acid for food fortification to prevent neural-tube defects.


The mandatory fortification of standardized enriched cereal grain products in the United States resulted in a substantial increase in blood folate concentrations and a concomitant decrease in NTD prevalence. A 2008 study estimated that current folic acid fortification produces an annual savings of about $300 million, or $100 for each $1 invested in fortification (9). Most of these concerns are associated with consumption of high levels of folic acid from supplement use rather than fortification. Currently, 53 countries have regulations for mandatory fortification of wheat flour with folic acid, although many of these programs have not been fully implemented and the existence of regulations does not imply compliance† (Figure 3).
By 2015, the target date of the WHO Millennium Development Goals, the FFI goal is for 80% of the world's roller mill wheat flour to be fortified.
Efforts are needed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of fortification of corn masa flour in the United States and to expand fortification of staple foods across the globe. The other form, folic acid, is the synthetic form found in supplements, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, and fortified foods.
Non-Hispanic black women have consistently had lower NTD prevalence than Hispanic women and non-Hispanic white women (Figure 2), despite having the lowest folate levels before and after mandatory fortification. Micronutrient fortification programs that include folic acid are only preventing an estimated 9% of total annual cases of folic acid-preventable NTDs (15).


Future efforts should focus not only on expanding fortification of wheat flour with folic acid but also on fortifying other common staples such as corn and rice. Current research and increasing fortification efforts have demonstrated the ability to eliminate those NTDs that are sensitive to folic acid. This number declined to 3,000 pregnancies in 1999--2000 after fortification of enriched cereal grain products with folic acid was mandated (1). Fortifying foods with folic acid has been a highly effective and more uniform intervention, because fortification makes folic acid accessible to all women of childbearing age without requiring behavior change. Chile has demonstrated a savings of $11 (in international dollars) for each $1 invested in fortification (10).
In addition, the possibility of selectively fortifying foods not included in the current fortification regulation that are staples in Hispanic communities, such as corn tortillas or other products made from corn masa flour, is being considered.



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Comments to “Fortified flour initiative”

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