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Folic acid 1mg otc,the milk diet and gastric bypass,dairy diet problems,best way to lose weight exercise at home - Review

Folic Acid, N-[p[[(2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-pteridinyl)methyl]-amino]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid, is a B complex vitamin containing a pteridine moiety linked by a methylene bridge to para-aminobenzoic acid, which is joined by a peptide linkage to glutamic acid. Folic Acid Tablets, USP 1 mg contain the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate and stearic acid.
In man, an exogenous source of folate is required for nucleoprotein synthesis and the maintenance of normal erythropoiesis. Folic Acid is absorbed rapidly from the small intestine, primarily from the proximal portion. After a single oral dose of 100 mcg of Folic Acid in a limited number of normal adults, only a trace amount of the drug appeared in the urine. Folic Acid is effective in the treatment of megaloblastic anemias due to a deficiency of Folic Acid (as may be seen in tropical or nontropical sprue) and in anemias of nutritional origin, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.
Administration of Folic Acid alone is improper therapy for pernicious anemia and other megaloblastic anemias in which vitamin B12 is deficient. Folic Acid in doses above 0.1 mg daily may obscure pernicious anemia in that hematologic remission can occur while neurologic manifestations remain progressive. There is a potential danger in administering Folic Acid to patients with undiagnosed anemia, since Folic Acid may obscure the diagnosis of pernicious anemia by alleviating the hematologic manifestations of the disease while allowing the neurologic complications to progress. There is evidence that the anticonvulsant action of phenytoin is antagonized by Folic Acid. False low serum and red cell folate levels may occur if the patient has been taking antibiotics, such as tetracycline, which suppress the growth of Lactobacillus casei. Studies in pregnant women have not shown that Folic Acid increases the risk of fetal abnormalities if administered during pregnancy.
Allergic sensitization has been reported following both oral and parenteral administration of Folic Acid. In an uncontrolled study, orally administered Folic Acid was reported to increase the incidence of seizures in some epileptic patients receiving phenobarbital, primidone, or diphenylhydantoin.


Except during pregnancy and lactation, Folic Acid should not be given in therapeutic doses greater than 0.4 mg daily until pernicious anemia has been ruled out. Folic acid in doses above 0.1 mg daily may obscure pernicious anemia in that hematologic remission can occur while neurological manifestations remain progressive. Conjugates of Folic Acid are present in a wide variety of foods, particularly liver, kidneys, yeast, and leafy green vegetables. Folic Acid is the precursor of tetrahydroFolic Acid, which is involved as a cofactor for transformylation reactions in the biosynthesis of purines and thymidylates of nucleic acids. Naturally occurring conjugated folates are reduced enzymatically to Folic Acid in the gastrointestinal tract prior to absorption.
A patient whose epilepsy is completely controlled by phenytoin may require increased doses to prevent convulsions if Folic Acid is given. Folic Acid requirements are markedly increased during pregnancy, and deficiency will result in fetal damage (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE). During lactation, Folic Acid requirements are markedly increased; however, amounts present in human milk are adequate to fulfill infant requirements, although supplementation may be needed in low-birth-weight infants, in those who are breast-fed by mothers with Folic Acid deficiency (50 mcg daily), or in those with infections or prolonged diarrhea. Rare instances of allergic responses to Folic Acid preparations have been reported and have included erythema, skin rash, itching, general malaise, and respiratory difficulty due to bronchospasm. Another investigator reported decreased diphenylhydantoin serum levels in folate-deficient patients receiving diphenylhydantoin who were treated with 5 mg or 15 mg of Folic Acid daily. Patients with pernicious anemia receiving more than 0.4 mg of Folic Acid daily who are inadequately treated with vitamin B12 may show reversion of the hematologic parameters to normal, but neurologic manifestations due to vitamin B12 deficiency will progress.
Although most patients with malabsorption cannot absorb food folates, they are able to absorb Folic Acid given orally.
The 500 mcg of cyanocobalamin (B-12) contained in each tablet of Foltrate should address this precaution.
Impairment of thymidylate synthesis in patients with Folic Acid deficiency is thought to account for the defective deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis that leads to megaloblast formation and megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias.


Folic Acid appears in the plasma approximately 15 to 30 minutes after an oral dose; peak levels are generally reached within 1 hour. Because studies cannot rule out the possibility of harm, however, Folic Acid should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Doses of Folic Acid exceeding the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) should not be included in multivitamin preparations; if therapeutic amounts are necessary, Folic Acid should be given separately. Folic Acid occurs as a yellow or yellowish-orange crystalline powder and is very slightly soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. Gastrointestinal side effects, including anorexia, nausea, abdominal distention, flatulence, and a bitter or bad taste, have been reported in patients receiving 15 mg Folic Acid daily for 1 month.
Folic Acid is readily soluble in dilute solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates, and solutions of the drug may be prepared with the aid of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, thereby forming the soluble sodium salt of Folic Acid (sodium folate).
Cerebrospinal fluid levels of Folic Acid are several times greater than serum levels of the drug. Folic Acid is metabolized in the liver to 7,8-dihydroFolic Acid and eventually to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroFolic Acid with the aid of reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPNH) and folate reductases.
Decreased vitamin B12 serum levels may occur in patients receiving prolonged Folic Acid therapy.
TetrahydroFolic Acid is linked in the N5 or N10 positions with formyl, hydroxymethyl, methyl, or formimino groups. TetrahydroFolic Acid derivatives are distributed to all body tissues but are stored primarily in the liver.



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