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Diet and mental health an up-to-date analysis,the paleolithic diet explained,omega 3 fish oil 1000mg natrol - For Outdoors

A new study has found that people receiving mental health care are up to four times more likely to be infected with HIV than the general population. Researchers at Penn Medicine and other institutions tested over 1,000 patients in care in Philadelphia and Baltimore. The study is one of the largest studies to date to estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors among persons receiving treatment in mental health settings and included researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as well as the University of Maryland and Columbia University Medical Center. The research team found that 4.8 percent of the mental health patients receiving care (51 individuals) were infected with HIV, which is about four times the base rate in each city and about 16 times the base rate for the United States population. Thirteen of the 51 infected patients reported that they did not know they were HIV positive, which represents an important failure in our public health system since they were already receiving ongoing mental health care. Results of the study also showed that persons with more severe symptoms of mental illness were at higher risk for being HIV-infected.
Depression and other mental health problems can be caused by a high-fat diet, a new study reveals.
A high-fat diet may be harmful for mental health, potentially leading to depression, according to a new study. Eating foods high in fat has been tied to physical health problems, including an increased risk of heart attacks and strokes.
The gut microbiome, the complete mixture of bacteria in the digestive system of humans, can be altered by consumption of a diet rich in fat, researchers theorize. Mice who were fed a normal diet were implanted with bacteria from rodents who had consumed large amounts of fat. Mice who received bacteria from rodents fed a diet high in fat were found to exhibit repetitive behaviors, anxiety and memory impairment. This new study suggests that behavioral changes caused by consumption of a high-fat diet can take place even in animals that are not obese.
Previous research has found correlations between gut bacteria and certain psychological conditions.
Obesity and depression are both known to be strongly influenced by genetics, and each condition can compound the other issue. Analysis of the role of high-fat diets and gut bacteria on mental health was profiled in the journal Biological Psychiatry. AbstractIntroductionResidents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts.
IntroductionResidents of rural communities in the United States experience disproportionately high rates of obesity and other nutrition-related chronic diseases than do urban and suburban residents (1–3). MethodsWe conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify, extract, and integrate findings from empirical research on the use of nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities.
ResultsThe search identified 663 articles, and 33 articles (reporting the findings from 29 studies) met inclusion criteria after exclusions (Figure) (Table 2).
DiscussionWe assessed the state of research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. Historically, though, HIV testing is often not implemented in mental health care," the researcher said. These animals were then monitored over time, and their behavior and cognition were measured against a control group who received microbes from mice fed a normal diet. The animals also showed signs of inflammation and increased permeability in their intestines. The mechanism by which a high-fat diet causes mental changes is still unknown, and future research could examine how bacteria in the gut could alter behavior. Depressed people often eat fatty foods as a means of feeling better, but obesity, and the social stigma attached to it, can increase feelings of depression.
Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. The review was conducted by members of the Rural Food Access Work Group of the CDC-funded Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN), a nationwide network of more than 15 funded and affiliated partners that identifies and prioritizes a policy research agenda to improve access to healthy, affordable foods in rural communities (6). The review identified 29 studies that implemented COCOMO nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities.
Prevalence of obesity among adults from rural and urban areas of the United States: findings from NHANES (2005–2008). Alterations in the microbiome have also been tied to the ability of bodies to fight off illness and heal from injuries. We value your privacy and we will never sell or distribute your email or personal data to third party advertisers. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. This project included the Policy Identification, Policy Evaluation, and Translation, Communication, and Dissemination of Research concepts from the NOPREN policy continuum (18).Data sourcesPubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases were searched for articles published between January 1, 2002, and June 30, 2013, in English, that reported findings from formative, process, or outcome research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural settings. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) flow diagram for study inclusion is a systematic review of nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention applied in rural communities.
Other obesity prevention reviews have typically focused on effectiveness or looked at specific populations and settings.
Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013.
The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings.MethodsThe review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies.
Poverty in rural areas and a paucity of healthy retail food outlets limit access to healthy foods and contribute to less healthy diets (5–7).
To be comprehensive and capture strategies in addition to those of COCOMO, we searched broadly for nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies applied to obesity prevention. This review included studies conducted with varied populations and settings and thus findings were too diverse to empirically assess effectiveness. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Policy and environmental strategies (eg, zoning policies that facilitate the location of farmers markets in underserved areas) can help increase access to healthy foods and beverages and thereby increase opportunities for making healthy food choices (8–10). Each search was conducted by using the following terms: rural AND (nutrition or food) AND (community or environment or policy) AND (obesity or overweight or “chronic disease”). Instead, our findings provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities.In support of our a priori hypothesis, we found that many, but not all, COCOMO strategies were applied in rural settings (Table 3) and that multiple approaches were used to adapt them.
Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus.ResultsOf the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. Study locations, settings, and approachOf the 29 studies included, 4 took place in Canada (14%) and 25 in the United States (86%) (Table 2).


The COCOMO strategies most commonly implemented in rural areas focused on increasing the availability of healthy foods and beverages and limiting the availability of unhealthy ones.
The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options.
Rural communities may have distinct cultures and infrastructures that limit the transferability of strategies from nonrural contexts (12–15). The predominantly rural states were identified using the Rural-to-Urban Continuum Codes, the Office of Management and Budget maps, or the Rural Assistance Center’s Frontier map where substantial portions of the state are frontier.
Fewer studies examined approaches to limiting advertising of less healthy foods and beverages or modifying portion sizes. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships.ConclusionFindings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. Rural areas may also lack financial and human resources necessary to adopt and implement policy and environmental changes that work in an urban context.
The search included relevant references cited in each of the identified studies and in prior reviews of the literature on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies. The most common settings were schools (n = 13, 45%), small retail food outlets (n = 10, 34%), worksites (n = 5, 17%), and farmers markets (n = 5, 17%).
These findings are consistent with formative work with stakeholders in rural eastern and western North Carolina, which found that rural stakeholders rated strategies related to limiting advertising of less healthy foods and beverages as less feasible and acceptable than other COCOMO strategies (15,56). The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the CDC, the USDA, or the National Institutes of Health. Still, rural areas may have assets, such as greater collaboration across public and private sectors, which may lead to strong obesity prevention partnerships (15).The purpose of this study was to synthesize the evidence on the adoption, implementation, and effectiveness of nutrition-related policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. NOPREN colleagues also recommended relevant articles.Study selectionAt least 2 members of the research team screened titles and abstracts and then reviewed the complete text of relevant articles to select articles for inclusion.
The review was guided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies (16), which are widely used in public health (17). Instead, many studies focused on improving the availability of healthier foods and beverages in small retail food outlets and increasing access to farmers markets, which may be more feasible targets for change than increasing availability of supermarkets in rural areas given the cost associated with locating supermarkets in rural areas.Guidance on adapting and implementing strategies in rural communitiesIn rural communities, policy and environmental strategies that aim to increase access to healthy foods may also promote economic development through support of farmers, retail stores, and other businesses involved in food production, distribution, and sales (57). The term “rural” was broadly defined so as to allow for inclusion of any study in which authors described the setting as “rural,” “non-metro,” “small town,” or “remote” or a study conducted in counties that the Health Resources and Services Administration characterized as rural in 2005 (19). Half of the studies (n = 15, 52%) reported findings from formative or process evaluations and did not include outcome data. Our a priori hypothesis was that some but not all of the COCOMO strategies had been implemented in rural areas and that implementation required adaptations to the rural context. Policy and environmental strategies included, but were not limited to, the 10 nutrition-related COCOMO strategies (Table 1).
To tailor interventions to local cultures and taste preferences, those planning rural interventions may benefit from conducting formative work to identify traditional and locally grown foods, as well as local approaches to food preparation. Types of nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies usedThe COCOMO strategy used most often was strategy 1, “increase availability of healthier food and beverage choices” (Table 3).
Articles that included both rural and urban communities were included only if they reported rural-specific findings.Data were abstracted from each article by using a standardized form. That is, strategy 1 was used in 22 studies (76%), followed by strategy 7, “restrict availability of less healthy foods and beverages” (n = 11, 38%). The strategies used least frequently were strategy 8, “institute smaller portion size options in public service venues” (n = 1, 3%), and strategy 9 “limit advertisements of less healthy foods and beverages” (n = 1, 3%).
Research in these often under-studied, at-risk communities is critical to identifying culturally and contextually appropriate approaches to reducing nutrition-related disparities. All 17 data abstractors were trained using a strategy similar to that employed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion Nutrition Evidence Library (20). However, tribally led nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity may not be generalizable to other rural communities because of tribal governments’ authority to determine their own governance structures, pass laws, and enforce laws through police departments and tribal courts (59). Advancing rural food access policy research priorities: process and potential of a transdisciplinary working group.
Similar to the USDA’s process, 2 members of the team independently abstracted data, compared abstractions, and then resolved discrepancies by consensus for each article.Data from the consensus abstraction forms were integrated using data matrices.
Approaches to adapting and implementing nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural areasThe literature reviewed yielded 3 themes related to strategy adaptation and implementation in rural communities (Table 3).Accommodate long distances to food sources when implementing strategies. More research can enhance our understanding of the role of tribal self-governance for nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity (60).Our aim was to obtain a broad picture of nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity in rural communities to identify gaps and guide future research. Four members of the research team reviewed the matrices to identify themes, and tables and narratives were created summarizing data related to those themes. In 11 studies, investigators discussed how the design and implementation of interventions in rural communities accommodated long distances between food suppliers and retailers and between retailers and consumers. For example, several studies noted that long distances can increase food costs and limit the availability of foods that have limited shelf lives or are sensitive to long transit times (30,39,42). Formative, process, and outcome evaluation studies were identified for this review, which limited our ability to compare findings across studies, as did what data were collected and reported. These challenges are compounded when communities are remote and may rely on specialized transportation, such as annual barge deliveries or food mail programs as seen in a First Nations community in the Canadian Arctic (39).
Those studies that assessed outcomes typically involved only a small number of settings and were often quasi-experimental in design. Efforts to address these challenges include strengthening networks between food producers, distributors, and retail food outlets (42). Furthermore, as with all reviews, the study was constrained by limitations in the existing literature and publication bias. Adaptations also may be required to reduce the distance customers need to travel from their residences to grocery stores and farmers markets (15,23,53) or from worksites to restaurants serving healthy foods or other retail food options (27).
Only a limited amount of research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural areas has been published in peer-reviewed journals.
For example, farmers markets may increase access by changing the locations where they sell produce (24,37).Tailor strategies to distinct cultures and food preferences. The authors recommend consulting websites, gray literature, and other forms of reporting for additional insight into effectiveness and implementation considerations for policy and environmental-level nutrition interventions in rural areas. None of the studies included in the review explicitly compared the effectiveness of policy changes in rural and urban communities.
Another study reported on the importance of understanding cultural values and practices, such as Southern approaches to food preparation (54).
Future investigations should report observed differences in rural settings compared with other settings to inform future research aiming to reduce health disparities in rural areas.
For example, 1 study highlighted the importance of engaging tribal leaders, recognizing the history of relationships among tribes, and identifying tribe-specific governance structures, priorities, resources, and champions (29).Build strong local partnerships when implementing strategies.


Therefore, more work is needed to assess policy and environmental, social, psychosocial, behavioral, and biological outcomes associated with nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies.Experiment with a variety of intervention settings. In 3 studies, investigators noted the importance of partnerships with groups that assist with the redemption of federal food and nutrition assistance program benefits, such as the Agricultural Extension Service (15,24) and Electronic Benefit Transfer administration organizations (28), and parks and recreation departments, hospitals, and health departments (44). Among the studies reviewed, the most common settings were schools, small retail food outlets, and worksites.
Although strong local partnerships are often beneficial in suburban and urban settings, partnerships may be particularly important to leveraging limited resources in rural settings. Additional research is needed to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in other rural settings, such as parks and recreational sites and hospitals, to identify the mix of settings that will yield the greatest population-level reach and effects.Explore the possibility of aligning federal food and nutrition assistance programs with efforts to increase access to local foods. Also, partnerships may naturally develop in rural communities where social and professional networks are likely to overlap at times because of small populations (55).4.
Intervention effects on policy, environment, behavioral, and health outcomesSixteen studies included data on the effectiveness of nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies (Table 4).
This aligns with a study conducted by the NOPREN Rural Food Access Working Group (RFAWG), examining rural stakeholders’ views about the most promising strategies for improving healthy food access in rural areas, finding that one of the highest ranked policy and research priorities included improving access to federal food and nutrition assistance programs (61).Report costs associated with implementing intervention strategies. Decision-makers often need information about costs as well as effectiveness when deciding whether to invest in evidence-based nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies (62). Unfortunately, cost and cost effectiveness data are often not reported in scientific articles.
Though results were mixed, interventions tended to improve participants’ intentions to consume healthier foods (34,37,40,47), dietary knowledge (37,47), and self-efficacy related to healthy food acquisition and consumption (40,47). Understanding and addressing barriers to implementation of environmental and policy interventions to support physical activity and healthy eating in rural communities. Each of these 6 interventions included multilevel strategies that targeted individual-level behavior change such as counseling and education, in addition to policy and environmental level change strategies that included increasing availability of healthy foods, and discouraging the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. When authors report cost or cost effectiveness information, decision-makers are granted important information from scientific studies that could influence their decision to adopt promising nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies.Explore the economic impact and the role of local champions related to increasing access to local foods.
A recent NOPREN Rural Food Access Working Group study examined rural stakeholders’ views about the most promising strategies for improving healthy food access in rural areas (63).
A community-driven approach to identifying “winnable” policies using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention. Among the workgroup’s top recommendations was research on the economic impact that strategies have on communities as well as the implications of revenue generation and job creation on increased healthy food access and purchasing power among individuals (61).
Another found that weight status increased (47), and 3 studies found that weight status did not significantly change (34,40,45). For example, policy and environmental changes that increase local market and supply chain business opportunities have potential economic benefits for agricultural communities while also increasing access to healthy foods (57).
The study’s recommendations align with COCOMO strategies 5 (“improve availability of mechanisms for purchasing food from farms”) and 6 (“provide incentives for the production, distribution, and procurement of foods from local farms”). There is little available research about the effect that local champions, such as policymakers, food policy councils, and other community-driven coalitions, have on nutrition-related policy and environmental change in rural communities.
A better understanding could be gained through qualitative work with community stakeholders to determine who local champions are and to identify the best ways to connect with and engage those champions.These findings help to inform the adaption and implementation of nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. Moreover, decision-makers should understand the limitations of adopting strategies generated from and tested in geographically diverse settings.
One major research gap that remains is the limited number of studies testing effectiveness of nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities.
Future work could identify strategies that have not yet been formally evaluated but that could be feasible in rural communities, such as mobile farmers markets and community garden initiatives. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network’s efforts. The systematic review methodology used to support the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee.
A food store intervention trial improves caregiver psychosocial factors and children’s dietary intake in Hawaii.
An integrated multi-institutional diabetes prevention program improves knowledge and healthy food acquisition in northwestern Ontario First Nations.
Increasing evidence-based workplace health promotion best practices in small and low-wage companies, Mason County, Washington, 2009.
Impact of the changing food environment on dietary practices of an Inuit population in Arctic Canada. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. Development and implementation of a food system intervention to prevent childhood obesity in rural Hawai’i.
Impact of a school health coordinator intervention on health-related school policies and student behavior.
The evaluation of Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 to reduce childhood obesity: conceptualization, design, and special challenges. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 to Reduce Childhood Obesity: its implementation and impact on child and adolescent body mass index. A pilot school-based healthy eating and physical activity intervention improves diet, food knowledge, and self-efficacy for Native Canadian children. Practicing food sovereignty: spatial analysis of an emergent food system for the Standing Rock Nation. Developing a coordinated school health approach to child obesity prevention in rural Appalachia: results of focus groups with teachers, parents, and students. The Central California regional obesity prevention program: changing nutrition and physical activity environments in California’s heartland.
Integrating formative assessment and participatory research: building healthier communities in the CHILE project. A community assessment to inform a multilevel intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk and risk disparities in a rural community.
Developing an agenda for research about policies to improve access to healthy foods in rural communities: a concept mapping study.



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