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Acid value of oil experiment,walnuts chocolate chips,paleo desserts recipes chocolate - PDF Review

The formation of trans fatty acids during the production of partially hydrogenated oils in the food industry is a negative consequence due to the adverse health effects that have been attributed to dietary trans fats.2,5,6,7 In particular, initial research showed that increases of dietary trans fats gave rise to significantly higher risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) in humans.
This research investigated the effects of heating common cooking oils on their trans fat content. In accordance with past research that quantified trans fat content, standards were prepared using trielaidin (2,3-bis[[(E)-octadec-9-enoyl]oxy]propyl (E)-octadec-9-enoate) as a pure trans fatty acid and triolein (2,3-Bis[[(Z)-octadec-9-enoyl]oxy]propyl (Z)-octadec-9-enoate) as a pure cis fatty acid standard.11,12 Specifically, Nu-Chek Prep trielaidin and MP Biomedicals triolein were used. The specific oils used in this experiment were FisherВ® reagent grade pure oleic acid, Great ValueВ® (GV) pure corn oil, GV pure canola oil, GV pure olive oil, and Filippo BerioВ® olive oil. For each heated sample, moderately sized aliquots of the cooking oils were put in a beaker and heated with a Corning PC-420D hot plate.
The areas of the 966 cm-1 band for all corn oil, generic olive oil, and premium olive oil were under the calibration range.
Unlike canola oil, spectra of unheated neat samples from the remaining vegetable oils showed no initial trans band, shown in Figures 15-17.
Spectra from oleic acid samples, seen in Figure 18, showed a trans band that was clearly defined and easily distinguishable, much like spectra from the calibration standards.В  This is due to the fact that there were no saturated fatty acids in the samples to interfere with trans absorption. The GC-MS method used here did not elicit the desired chromatogram.4,10,14,19 Instead of a clearly isolated peak for every individual fatty acid, the peaks overlapped and had long tails as they eluted, as seen in Figure 19.
All peaks in the chromatogram were identified by the mass spectrum to be fatty acid methyl esters. The results indicate that heating canola, corn, and premium and generic olive oil to their smoke point for at least 15 minutes does not quantifiably increase their respective concentration of trans fatty acids.   Those who are inclined to cook with a vegetable oil medium, to avoid the saturated fats of butter or margarine and to have the health benefits from the oil’s polyunsaturated fats, now have further justification for their choice of cooking medium. Even when trans fat standards were analyzed relative to air, as opposed to a reference oil, the -2D method eliminated the sloping baseline, and clearly resolved bands from interfering fats away from the 966 cm-1 band.4,12,13An absorbance spectrum compared to a second derivative absorbance spectrum is shown in Figure 6a-b.


Furthermore, oleic acid, which is the greatest monounsaturated fat constituent in canola oil, was also studied in this manner. These fatty acids are identical, except for the geometry of their carbon-carbon double bond. Except for oleic acid, all oils were purchased at Wal-MartВ® which sells Great ValueВ® products as the generic brand. For all oils, except canola oil, samples were brought to the smoke point, 50 В°C below the smoke point, and 100 В°C below the smoke point. Differences in area, however, were minimal.В  As seen in Figure 14, there was no correlation between temperature and the 966 cm-1 band area within the experiments time range. Spectra shape shifted with increasing temperature in the same way as canola oil for the remaining oils. Once again, the areas for all samples within a given temperature were averaged together and are listed below in Tables 8 in comparison to the trans band area of the neat oleic acid.
The ATR-FTIR, without any special modification, was able to assess trans content from standards and oil samples, that required no preparation, in about 5 minutes per analysis. Therefore, the GV pure olive oil was considered the generic brand and Filippo BerioВ® olive oil the name, or premium brand. As with canola oil, band areas fluctuated slightly within a given temperature and no correlation was seen between area and increasing time.
Food and Drug Administration Labeling Requirements for Trans Fatty Acids via Pressure-Controlled Hydrogenation. This research used the aforementioned method to quantify trans fat content in common cooking vegetable oils.


The -2D method was employed to achieve the greatest accuracy in quantifying total trans fat concentration in the oils.
An additional measurement for canola oil and generic olive oil was taken where an oil sample was heated to 10 В°C above the smoke point. The areas for all samples within a given temperature were averaged together and are listed in Tables 5-7 in comparison to the trans band area of the neat oil. However, this is indicative of very little, considering how identical the spectra of neat oleic acid and the 200В°C sample are, as seen in Figure 18. Before analysis, the oil samples were heated to different temperatures that were less than or equal their respective smoke point. For the purposes of comparing methods, a fatty acid rich cooking medium was analyzed qualitatively via GC-MS.
For convenience, all area values for a given temperature were averaged together and are listed in Table 4 in comparison to the trans band area of “neat,” or unheated, canola oil.
Once again, the areas of the neat oils were higher than some of the heated sample averages. Furthermore, for a desirable spectrum to be obtained, the proper column would have to be purchased and properly installed in the GC oven.В  The above limitations of the GC-MS alone, without further complications from analyzing quantitatively, would have made it a very cumbersome, time consuming, and expensive method use in order to analyze the trans fat content in the vegetable oil samples of this experiment.
Determination of total trans fats and oils by infrared spectroscopy for regulatory compliance.



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