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Between preparing healthy meals for Minnesota’s students, adhering to strict nutrition standards, navigating student food allergies and offering service with a smile, school nutrition professionals are true heroes! School Nutrition Employee Week is the perfect opportunity to recognize the hardworking professionals in school cafeterias across the state. About the MSNAThe Minnesota School Nutrition Association (MSNA), founded in 1956 as a state-wide association with local chapters, is a non-profit association of members who work to ensure that all children have access to healthy meals and nutrition education in Minnesota. Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily.
Subjects included first to sixth graders from one elementary school in a large suburban school district, 324 boys and 314 girls. The pizza product made with a crust containing a 50:50 blend of WWW flour was as well accepted by children as pizza crust made entirely with RW flour. Most whole-grain bread products, particularly yeast breads are made with red whole-wheat flour (Atwell, 2001). A previous study showed that children preferred bread made with WWW flour over bread made with red whole-wheat flour (Lukow et al., 2004). The strategy of substituting healthier ingredients for less healthy options has been advocated to effectively change dietary behavior (Kumanyika et al., 2000). Pizza crust is an excellent food for the incorporation of WWW flour because the whole-grain flavor and color might be masked by sauce and toppings.
Subjects included children in the first through sixth grades from one elementary school in a large suburban school district.
A hard white winter whole-wheat (WWW) flour (Ultragrain) and a refined hard red winter wheat flour were used to make the cheese pizza products that were developed and manufactured by ConAgra Foods, Inc., Omaha, NE.
Plate waste was collected based upon previous study protocols (Adams, Pelletier, Zive, & Sallis, 2005; Comstock, Symington, Chmielinski, & McGuire, 1979) by grade level for grades one through six on a table near the food disposal area. Ten servings of pizza were selected from the school kitchen for each day of data collection and weighed using a scale (Edlund, model SR-2, Burlington, VT) to calculate the mean weight of one serving.
Children in grades four and five were asked to rate their liking of the pizza each time it was served. The mean weight per serving of pizza made with RW flour versus the 50:50 blend based on daily weighing of ten random samples was 129g vs. 1Values are means of two measurements for the refined pizza and four measurements for the 50:50 blend pizza.
To our knowledge, there are no studies in the literature that have examined consumption of pizza made with partial WWW flour vs.
Similar to previous studies, our data suggests that grade level may influence the amount of whole-grains children consume.
The limitations of the study include a relatively small sample of students from only one elementary school in the mid-western United States.
This study suggests that a modified pizza product made with a crust containing a 50:50 blend of WWW flour was as well accepted by children as pizza crust made entirely with RW flour. Environmental approaches such as introducing pizza made with WWW flour addressed children’s barriers to consuming whole-grain foods.
With the introduction of the 50:50 blend pizza, some fourth and fifth graders participated in a program including classroom whole-grain lessons and several community child-parent activities related to increasing their consumption of whole-grains.
Additional research is needed to examine school foodservice personnel’s perceptions about children’s whole-grain requirements and ability to overcome barriers in whole-grain selection, purchasing, preparation, and service and the assessment of students’ dietary intake of whole-grain foods. The aggregate plate waste method in this study is a valid approach to assess the intake of whole-grain foods in a school cafeteria. The use of a sensory evaluation form may provide another technique to assess students’ liking for whole-wheat foods. On the contrary, we would also expect little change in liking given that the 50:50 blend pizza was perceived by students to be quite similar in liking as the RW pizza.
Particular attention that is paid to the selection, production, service and assessment of whole-grain intake among children will provide a strong base to more successfully introduce whole-grain foods into schools. The authors thank the school district personnel who provided assistance with this research (Dr.
Click on the Meal Deal tray below to see what the new USDA School Meal Regulations are and what makes a Meal Deal for students in grades K-8 and High School!Meals, foods and beverages sold or served at schools meet state and federal requirements which are based on the USDA Dietary Guidelines. Persons with disabilities who require alternative means of communication for program information (e.g. We try to deliver every vistor to our site the best experience possible, while maintaining an easy to use, elegant design and keeping up to date with the most current web standards.
While all browsers would deliver the content we are distributing, we strongly suggest, if you are not already, using the following browsers to greatly enhance your website browsing experiences, not just for our site but for all websites. This 15 minute educational film explains to families how to pack a school lunchbox for primary school children. The DVD has been recorded in three languages (English, Vietnamese and Arabic) and is suitable for primary school parents, teachers, community dietitians and community groups. The school is located in an isolated area with a few, if some, food shops and packaged food has increased greatly in the last 4 years due to this.
The National School Nutrition Association has designated this week to remind everyone that school nutrition employees are superheroes that deserve recognition.
Krosoczka, author of the “Lunch Lady” book series, and Random House, to kick off SNEW with School Lunch Hero Day on May 2nd.
This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Substitution of WWW flour resulted in nearly a full serving of whole-grain in fifth and sixth grades.
The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage daily consumption of three or more servings of whole-grain foods for children (U.S. These products are generally darker in color and have a stronger taste compared to refined-grain foods (Atwell, 2002). However, no studies have examined children’s acceptance of grain products made with WWW flour compared to products made with refined-wheat (RW) flour. Baseline data from a recent intervention showed that children were consuming a quantity of pizza that accounted for 6-10% of total energy intake, and together with snack foods and desserts, accounted for one-third of the daily energy intake (Van Horn, Obarzanek, Friedman, Gernhofer, & Barton, 2005). Marlette, Templeton, and Panemangalore (2005) indicated that pizza had the highest acceptance rate and the least plate waste among mixed dishes served to elementary school children. As children left the serving line with their trays, trained research assistants counted the number of students who were served pizza within each grade level.


The total weight of pizza served was determined by the mean weight of one pizza serving multiplied by the total number served to students during the lunch meal.
The developmental level of fourth and fifth graders (aged 9-11) was more appropriate for assessing liking of whole-grain pizza than for younger students. Nutrient content for the 50:50 blend and refined-wheat pizza slice* based on a 100g serving. The nutritional data were generated using Genesis R&D nutrition and labeling software by ESHA Research, Inc., Salem, OR, February 2005. Mean (± standard error) consumption (g) of pizza for refined and 50:50 blend flours for the entire school by grade1. Based on the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, Harnack, Walters, and Jacobs (2003) indicated that older children (12-18 years) consumed more total grain servings per day than younger children (2-11 years) with pizza contributing 5-9% of total grain servings for older children.
Substituting WWW flour for refined-flour in cheese pizza allowed for consumption of nearly a full serving of whole-grain in the fifth and sixth graders. These included the use of popular and familiar products that allow children to consume whole-grain foods without varying too far from their familiar eating patterns.
Some students were aware of the use of whole-grain foods in the school cafeteria through this program.
Directors and managers should have a sound working knowledge of the whole-grain ingredients and whole-grain food definitions along with the type (white whole-wheat vs.
However, it is labor-intensive, requiring an individual to account for the number of students that select the particular item, along with several staff responsible for collecting the plate waste. This is also somewhat labor intensive where an individual will need to devote their full attention to the distribution of sensory forms and writing utensil as well as collecting the finished surveys. In addition, the four exposures were not carried out over a long enough period of time in order to allow students to become tired with the same pizza product.
The gradual introduction of lower level whole-grain foods may be one approach to successfully introduce familiar products that are accepted and readily consumed by children.
Rosemary Lawrence, Principal, Eisenhower Elementary School, Bertrand Weber, Supervisor School Nutrition, and Michele Wignall, Assistant School Nutrition Supervisor), graduate students Leila Sadeghi and Renee Rosen for their assistance with data collection, and Elizabeth Arndt, ConAgra Foods, Inc., for her technical assistance. Department of Health Human Services, Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition, in Two Volumes, 2000).
The Nutrition Services department is made up of a team of food and nutrition professionals that are dedicated to students' health, well being and their ability to learn. We provide students with access to a variety of affordable and appealing foods that meet the health and nutrition needs of students.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) civil rights regulations and policies, the USDA, its Agencies, offices, and employees, and institutions participating in or administering USDA programs are prohibited from discriminating based on race, color, national origin, sex, disability, age, or reprisal or retaliation for prior civil rights activity in any program or activity conducted or funded by USDA. Braille, large print, audiotape, American Sign Language, etc.), should contact the Agency (State or local) where they applied for benefits. Some features and designs on this site may include elements that may not function or look as intened if your computer's internet browser is not up to date or does not take advantage of the new and current web standards. Packed full of ideas and lots of fun, this film helps parents to understand what they need to provide in the lunchbox to feed their children throughout the school day.
It was shared amongst the teachers as a useful learning tool to incorporate with their students. The DVD was used with parents and their kids at an after school meeting in regards to help with the increasing number of unhealthy packaged foods. With the prep classes, the first 10 minutes of the DVD was watched as the teachers wanted the important parts of the DVD to be remembered.
They have created a nude food diary where foods are audited and the class with the most nude foods wins a prize.
The day aims to showcase the ways in which school nutrition professionals make a difference for every child who comes through the cafeteria. For liking, there was no difference for pizza crust made with RW flour compared to pizza crust made with the 50:50 blend. White whole-wheat (WWW) flour has been used in yeast bread products that tend to be less bitter, lighter in color, and softer in texture compared to products made with red whole-wheat (Lukow, Guinard, & Adams, 2004; Syms & Cogswell, 1991).
Modifications in pizza to incorporate WWW flour in the crust would improve the healthfulness. The inclusion of some whole-grain flour in pizza may be an effective approach to deliver whole-grains to children given their high acceptance level. In addition, other grade levels were not included due to a lack of personnel to distribute, administer, and collect liking surveys for all grade levels.
There was no difference in children’s consumption of the 50:50 blend pizza (106g) compared to the refined counterpart (100g). This was consistent with our results showing that first grade children consumed about 10g (nearly two-thirds of a 16g serving; 16g is equivalent to one serving of whole-grain) of WWW flour while sixth grade children consumed about 13g (over three-quarters of a serving). However, we did not emphasize the fact that whole-grain pizza was being served in the school cafeteria. A more practical approach may be casual observation of students’ acceptance of whole-grain foods. The liking rating of the 50:50 blend pizza remained relatively constant over the four times that we assessed students’ liking.
A periodic use of this survey with random samples at each grade level in an elementary school cafeteria may provide some valuable feedback. Acceptability of peanut butter cookies prepared using mungbean paste as a fat ingredient substitute. Children's bite size and intake of an entree are greater with large portions than with age-appropriate or self-selected portions. Food type, food preparation, and competitive food purchases impact school lunch plate waste by sixth-grade students. Acceptability of oatmeal chocolate chip cookies prepared using pureed white beans as a fat ingredient substitute. Children's adaptations to a fat-reduced diet: The Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). We support learning by promoting healthy habits for lifelong nutrition and fitness practices. Individuals who are deaf, hard of hearing or have speech disabilities may contact USDA through the Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. The school is very interactive with the nude food idea and this has shaped the school in a lot of beneficial ways.


But beware, along with lots of good stuff, there’s plenty of misinformation and bad nutrition advice. Both types of whole-wheat flours have similar macronutrient and micronutrient content (Syms & Cogswell). The pizza sauce and crust provide an ideal means to soften the strong flavor of whole-grain foods. Research assistants supervised this process to ensure that all uneaten pizza was collected.
Given that students are rating only one food, the term liking was used in this study as it more closely reflects our survey objectives. Since the modified pizza crust was made with a 50:50 blend of WWW flour (16 g whole-grain) and RW flour (16 g refined-grain), offering the modified pizza could make an important contribution to intake of whole-grain food by children.
We cannot draw any conclusion regarding the impact of the whole-grain education program on the consumption of whole-grain pizza due to the limitation of research design (lack of control group).
The flavor tends to be milder in products made with white whole-wheat with a lighter colored appearance.
This would be expected as it takes eight to ten exposures to alter children’s liking towards a new food item (Birch, Birch, Marlin, & Rotter, 1982). Pyramid Servings Data: Results from USDA's 1995 and 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. They found it appealing and were highly interested in buying it and knowing more about Nutrition Australia.
Ultimately it achieved a noticeable difference in the food choices of the kids and parents, especially considering they are in an isolated area. Given that 30 million school lunches are served on a daily basis in school cafeterias across the country it is apparent that studies are needed to examine approaches that might facilitate increased consumption of whole-grain foods such as pizza among school-aged children (Food and Nutrition Service, U.S.
A scale (DHAUS C-11) was used to weigh pizza waste for each grade separately after correcting for bag weight. Liking is defined by Mela (2000) as the immediate experience or anticipation of pleasure from the orosensory stimulation of eating a food. Lukow and coworkers used sensory tests to examine preference for breads made with WWW flour compared to red whole-wheat flour. Flour milled to a smaller particle size can reduce visible bran specks, lighten the crumb color and provide softer textured grain foods. All meals are planned to meet the guidelines of the Child Nutrition Program of the US Department of Agriculture. I will be using this DVD regularly at my school transition and other family information nights we have at the school. This project was approved by the Hopkins School District Research Committee and the Institutional Review Board of the University of Minnesota. Initial training sessions were conducted with research assistants to assure that the counting and weighing procedures were accurate and reliable. The authors found that the ratio of children who preferred the pan bread made with lighter colored 100% WWW flour was two and one-half times higher for appearance as compared to the bread made with darker traditional 100% red whole-wheat flour. Further studies are needed to explore the use of whole-grain flour at various levels for pizza and grain-based products.
The quality of the grain product and functionality of the flour and ingredients, including protein content, absorption, and dough strength, need to be taken into account.
Taste and appearance may strongly affect children’s preferences for breads, cereals, and other grain-based foods.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether WWW flour can be partially substituted for RW flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by school children. Accuracy was monitored regularly throughout the data collection process by independent observers verifying the number of items served and that all waste was collected. It is defined as the selection of a food relative to other alternatives at the point of choice.
With the introduction of the 50:50 blend pizza, some fourth and fifth graders participated in a program including several classroom whole-grain lessons and several community child-parent activities related to increasing their consumption of whole-grains. Purchasing agents should be scanning the marketplace for new opportunities to introduce whole-grain foods into their schools. Teachers can't do it on their own and parents like receiving information from sources other than the school. What was summed up is that if foods are not in wrapping, then the environment would be a lot cleaner than it is today.
Focus groups conducted with children indicate that familiarity, appearance and taste of whole-grain foods were important factors that influenced acceptability (Burgess-Champoux, Marquart, Vickers, & Reicks, 2006). Greater than 99% agreement was observed in the number of items served when counted by two observers on each occasion.
A nine-point hedonic facial scale was used along with a Peryam and Kroll word description scale ranging from 1 = super bad to 9 = super good (Kroll, 1990; Popper & Kroll, 2003) (Figure 1).
A conscious effort must be made in order to balance the cost to benefit ratio of selecting certain types of whole-grain foods that may be higher in cost than other brands or their refined-grain counterparts. This is necessary to successfully communicate with bakers and food distributors about the selection and purchase of appropriate whole-grain foods. Liking rating forms and pencils were distributed on the dining tables for fourth and fifth graders who had pizza on their trays.
This is linked also with the directors’ knowledge about the barriers (taste, texture, flavor, color) that may prevent students from selecting and consuming these whole-grain foods. In the service of whole-grain foods encouragement by foodservice staff may provide additional incentive for students to taste and eventually accept whole-grain foods.
For data analysis, a score of 1 to 9 was assigned to the corresponding level of liking (ranging from super bad = 1 to super good = 9).
Data for each food item was combined for all students in grade four and grade five who completed the forms. The liking score was the dependent variable, while grain-type and grade were the independent variables.



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