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United will find out their European fate when the draw for the Champions League group stages takes place at 4.45pm on Thursday. A convicted paedophile grilled his traumatised victims about their ordeals in a series of meetings organised by Jehovaha€™s Witnesses. Women who complained that former Jehovaha€™s Witness elder Jonathan Rose, 40, had molested them as children relived their nightmares in front of him after he was released from jail. In October, the MEN reported how Rose was jailed for nine months for abusing two little girls, one aged five, another aged 10, at the Jehovaha€™s Witness congregation he belonged to. The two victims came forward after a third woman, who Rose had previously been acquitted of molesting as a teenager, branded him a a€?paedoa€™ on Facebook. The three complainants were told if they wanted him barred from the church they would have to recount their ordeal before elders.
Rose was even allowed to ask the women about the abuse he was jailed for - as eight elders looked on. A source, who asked not to be named, told the MEN: a€?Before each meeting the women were read a scripture on false witnesses and told to consider it carefully. Ita€™s understood Rose was finally a€?disfellowshippeda€™ after complaints to the police and Charity Commision. The Jehovaha€™s Witnesses do not deny the meetings took place, but say Rose is a€?no longera€™ a Jehovaha€™s Witness, or allowed to a€?share in activitiesa€™.
They said no-one would be a€?forceda€™ to confront an a€?alleged perpetratora€™, adding that victims were supported with a€?spiritual shepherdinga€™, with membersa€™ welfare of a€?paramount concerna€™.
A spokesmana€™s statement said: a€?You ask about allowing individuals such as Mr Rose to attend our congregation meetings.
A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain. The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complicated and remain a topic for debate, with some historians feeling the Revolution as an outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century. One question of active interest to historians is why the industrial revolution occurred in Europe and not in other parts of the world in the 18th century, particularly China, India, and the Middle East, or at other times like in Classical Antiquity or the Middle Ages. The debate about the start of the Industrial Revolution also concerns the massive lead that Great Britain had over other countries. Another theory is that the British advance was due to the presence of an entrepreneurial class which believed in progress, technology and hard work.
In the early 18th century, British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans, doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises. The major change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of organic fuels based on wood with fossil fuel based on coal. An improvement was made in the production of steel, which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs.
The 1698 Savery Engine - the world's first engine built by Thomas Savery as based on the designs of Denis Papin. The first safe and successful steam power plant was introduced by Thomas Newcomen from 1719.
The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools, for they enabled manufacturing machines to be made.
Apart from workshop lathes used by craftsmen, the first large machine tool was the cylinder boring machine used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early steam engines. A new method of producing glass, known as the cylinder process, was developed in Europe during the early 19th century.
In the mid nineteenth century John Fowler, an engineer and inventor, began to look at the possibility of using steam engines for ploughing and digging drainage channels. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea.
All the major rivers of the United Kingdom were navigable during the Industrial Revolution.
Canals began to be built in the late eighteenth century to link the major manufacturing centres in the Midlands and north with seaports and with London, at that time itself the largest manufacturing centre in the country.
Much of the original British road system was poorly maintained by thousands of local parishes, but from the 1720s (and occasionally earlier) turnpike trusts were set up to charge tolls and maintain some roads. Wagonways for moving coal in the mining areas had started in the 17th century and were often associated with canal or river systems for the further movement of coal.
In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry.Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines.
The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase, but the chance of surviving childhood did not improve throughout the industrial revolution (although infant mortality rates were improved markedly). Living conditions during the Industrial Revolution varied from the splendour of the homes of the owners to the squalor of the lives of the workers. The Industrial Revolution concentrated labour into mills, factories and mines, thus facilitating the organisation of combinations or trade unions to help advance the interests of working people.
The application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper and popular book publishing, which reinforced rising literacy and demands for mass political participation.During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically.
As in Britain, the United States originally used water power to run its factories, with the consequence that industrialisation was essentially limited to New England and the rest of the Northeastern United States, where fast-moving rivers were located. Samuel Slater (1768–1835) is popularly known as the founder of the American cotton industry.
Despite such words, there have been some in France who have expressed anger as his short career with PSG. Celebration: Beckham on an open top bus celebrates winning the French league with his PSG team-mates. However the knee injury did not stop him from getting up off his seat to encourage the Portugal team.He was almost permanently unseated as the clock ticked towards the final whistle, directing proceedings from the touchline like a coach.
In typical shirtless fashion, Portugal's leading star took to the pitch to share the joy with his team-matesAfter Eder's strike sealed Portugal's first ever international tournament win Nani gave Ronaldo back the captain's armband to lift the trophy. He questioned the women in detail about the abuse with no one stepping in to stop bullying as would happen in court.
Of course it may not be possible to handle a matter in the congregation until the authorities have completed their investigations or if the person is incarcerated. The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe and North America and eventually the world, a process that continues as industrialisation.
As national border controls became more effective, the spread of disease was lessened, therefore preventing the epidemics common in previous times.
European 17th century colonial expansion, international trade, and creation of financial markets produced a new legal and financial environment, one which supported and enabled 18th century industrial growth.
Numerous factors have been suggested, including ecology, government, and culture.Benjamin Elman argues that China was in a high level equilibrium trap in which the non-industrial methods were efficient enough to prevent use of industrial methods with high costs of capital. Some have stressed the importance of natural or financial resources that Britain received from its many overseas colonies or that profits from the British slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean helped fuel industrial investment. The existence of this class is often linked to the Protestant work ethic (see Max Weber) and the particular status of the Baptists and the dissenting Protestant sects, such as the Quakers and Presbyterians that had flourished with the English Civil War.
Workers who were trained in the technique might move to another employer or might be poached.
The burning coal remained separate from the iron ore and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities like sulphur.
Much of this happened somewhat before the Industrial Revolution, based on innovations by Sir Clement Clerke and others from 1678, using coal reverberatory furnaces known as cupolas.
Before the steam engine, pits were often shallow bell pits following a seam of coal along the surface, which were abandoned as the coal was extracted. Newcomen apparently conceived his machine quite independently of Savery, but as the latter had taken out a very wide-ranging patent, Newcomen and his associates were obliged to come to an arrangement with him, marketing the engine until 1733 under a joint patent. With the close collaboration Matthew Boulton, he had succeeded by 1778 in perfecting his steam engine, which incorporated a series of radical improvements, notably the closing off of the upper part of the cylinder thereby making the low pressure steam drive the top of the piston instead of the atmosphere, use of a steam jacket and the celebrated separate steam condenser chamber. The first of these was the production of sulphuric acid by the lead chamber process invented by the Englishman John Roebuck (James Watt's first partner) in 1746. They have their origins in the tools developed in the 18th century by makers of clocks and watches and scientific instrument makers to enable them to batch-produce small mechanisms.
The planing machine, the slotting machine and the shaping machine were developed in the first decades of the 19th century. Though others made a similar innovation elsewhere, the large scale introduction of this was the work of William Murdoch, an employee of Boulton and Watt, the Birmingham steam engine pioneers. The system that he invented involved either a single stationary engine at the corner of a field drawing a plough via sets of winches and pulleys, or two engines placed at either end of a field drawing the plough backwards and forwards between them by means of a cable attached to winches.


Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed. Canals were the first technology to allow bulk materials to be easily transported across country. Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the 1750s to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of some turnpike trust. These were all horse drawn or relied on gravity, with a stationary steam engine to haul the wagons back to the top of the incline.
However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the Industrial Revolution took place.
Arguably the first was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721.
The movement started first with lace and hosiery workers near Nottingham and spread to other areas of the textile industry owing to early industrialisation. The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production. As a boy apprentice in Derbyshire, England he learnt of the new techniques in the textile industry and defied laws against the emigration of skilled workers by leaving for New York in 1789, hoping to make money with his knowledge. Nevertheless, elders will always comply with restrictions imposed by the courts or police on offendersa€™ movements. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human society; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way.
The percentage of children who lived past infancy rose significantly, leading to a larger workforce. It has been pointed out, however, that slavery provided only 5% of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution.Alternatively, the greater liberalisation of trade from a large merchant base may have allowed Britain to produce and use emerging scientific and technological developments more effectively than countries with stronger monarchies, particularly China and Russia.
Reinforcement of confidence in the rule of law, which followed establishment of the prototype of constitutional monarchy in Britain in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the emergence of a stable financial market there based on the management of the national debt by the Bank of England, contributed to the capacity for, and interest in, private financial investment in industrial ventures. Without some earlier ones, such as spinning jenny and flying shuttle in the textile industry and the smelting of pig iron with coke, these achievements might have been impossible. A common method was for someone to make a study tour, gathering information where he could. These were operated by the flames, which contained carbon monoxide, playing on the ore and reducing the oxide to metal. In other cases, if the geology was favourable, the coal was mined by means of an adit or drift mine driven into the side of a hill. All this meant that a more constant temperature could be maintained in the cylinder and that engine efficiency no longer varied according to atmospheric conditions. He was able to greatly increase the scale of the manufacture by replacing the relatively expensive glass vessels formerly used with larger, less expensive chambers made of riveted sheets of lead.
Although the milling machine was invented at this time, it was not developed as a serious workshop tool until during the Second Industrial Revolution.Military production had a hand in the development of machine tools.
The process consisted of the large scale gasification of coal in furnaces, the purification of the gas (removal of sulphur, ammonium, and heavy hydrocarbons), and its storage and distribution. Fowler's ploughing system vastly reduced the cost of ploughing farmland compared with horse-drawn ploughs. The major international seaports such as London, Bristol, and Liverpool, were the means by which raw materials such as cotton might be imported and finished goods exported. Some were improved, or had navigation extended upstream, but usually in the period before the Industrial Revolution, rather than during it.The Severn, in particular, was used for the movement of goods to the Midlands which had been imported into Bristol from abroad, and for the export of goods from centres of production in Shropshire (such as iron goods from Coalbrookdale) and the Black Country. A single canal horse could pull a load dozens of times larger than a cart at a faster pace. The first applications of the steam locomotive were on wagon or plate ways (as they were then often called from the cast iron plates used). However, the rise of the factory came somewhat later when cotton spinning was mechanised.The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city, as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories. Employers could pay a child less than an adult even though their productivity was comparable; there was no need for strength to operate an industrial machine, and since the industrial system was completely new there were no experienced adult labourers. Many weavers also found themselves suddenly unemployed since they could no longer compete with machines which only required relatively limited (and unskilled) labour to produce more cloth than a single weaver. Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffer the cost of the lost production. It was not until after the American Civil War in the 1860s that steam-powered manufacturing overtook water-powered manufacturing, allowing the industry to fully spread across the nation.
Slater started Slater's mill at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793 and went on to own thirteen textile mills. In the later part of the 1700s the manual labour-based economy of some parts of Great Britain began to be replaced by one dominated by the manufacture by machinery. The Enclosure movement and the British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labour-intensive, forcing the surplus population who could no longer find employment in agriculture into cottage industry, for example weaving, and in the longer term into the cities and the newly developed factories.
Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by financial plunder and economic collapse, and possessing the only merchant fleet of any useful size (European merchant fleets having been destroyed during the war by the Royal Navy). Similar technology was subsequently applied to spinning worsted yarn for various textiles and flax for linen.Steam power - The improved steam engine invented by James Watt was initially mainly used for pumping out mines, but from the 1780s was applied to power machines.
Later inventions such as the power loom and Richard Trevithick's high pressure steam engine were also important in the growing industrialisation of Britain.
During the whole of the Industrial Revolution and for the century before, all European countries and America engaged in study-touring; some nations, like Sweden and France, even trained civil servants or technicians to undertake it as a matter of state policy.
This has the advantage that impurities (such as sulphur) in the coal do not migrate into the metal. These improvements increased engine efficiency by a factor of about five, saving 75% on coal costs.Nor could the atmospheric engine be easily adapted to drive a rotating wheel, although Wasborough and Pickard did succeed in doing so towards 1780. Instead of a few pounds at a time, he was able to make a hundred pounds (45 kg) or so at a time in each of the chambers.The production of an alkali on a large scale became an important goal as well, and Nicolas Leblanc succeeded in 1791 in introducing a method for the production of sodium carbonate.
This advancement allowed for larger panes of glass to be created without interruption, thus freeing up the space planning in interiors as well as the fenestration of buildings.
Also his ploughing system, when used for digging drainage channels, made possible the cultivation of previously unusable swampy land. Transport was by way of trows—small sailing vessels which could pass the various shallows and bridges in the river. The major turnpikes radiated from London and were the means by which the Royal Mail was able to reach the rest of the country. This made child labour the labour of choice for manufacturing in the early phases of the Industrial Revolution between the 18th and 19th centuries. Many such unemployed workers, weavers and others, turned their animosity towards the machines that had taken their jobs and began destroying factories and machinery. Skilled workers were hard to replace, and these were the first groups to successfully advance their conditions through this kind of bargaining.The main method the unions used to effect change was strike action. It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Britain's extensive exporting cottage industries also ensured markets were already available for many early forms of manufactured goods. When the restoration of the monarchy took place and membership in the official Anglican Church became mandatory due to the Test Act, they thereupon became active in banking, manufacturing and education. This enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where waterpower was not available.Iron founding - In the Iron industry, coke was finally applied to all stages of iron smelting, replacing charcoal. The application of steam engines to powering cotton mills and ironworks enabled these to be built in places that were most convenient because other resources were available, rather than where there was water to power a mill.In the textile sector, such mills became the model for the organisation of human labour in factories, epitomised by Cottonopolis, the name given to the vast collection of cotton mills, factories and administration offices based in Manchester.
In other countries, notably Britain and America, this practice was carried out by individual manufacturers anxious to improve their own methods. For example, the London-based Royal Society of Arts published an illustrated volume of new inventions, as well as papers about them in its annual Transactions.There were publications describing technology.
The engine's downward power stroke raised the pump, priming it and preparing the pumping stroke. However by 1783 the more economical Watt steam engine had been fully developed into a double-acting rotative type, which meant that it could be used to directly drive the rotary machinery of a factory or mill.
The Leblanc process was a reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium chloride to give sodium sulphate and hydrochloric acid.
A good example of how machine tools changed manufacturing took place in Birmingham, England, in 1830.
Canal construction served as a model for the organisation and methods later used to construct the railways.
Heavy goods transport on these roads was by means of slow, broad wheeled, carts hauled by teams of horses.
Steam-hauled public railways began with the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825 and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830.


For much of the 19th century, production was done in small mills, which were typically water-powered and built to serve local needs. Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible. These attackers became known as Luddites, supposedly followers of Ned Ludd, a folklore figure. The conflict resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing the devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe.
This had been achieved much earlier for lead and copper as well as for producing pig iron in a blast furnace, but the second stage in the production of bar iron depended on the use of potting and stamping (for which a patent expired in 1786) or puddling (patented by Henry Cort in 1783 and 1784). It was also applied to iron foundry work in the 1690s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace. The sodium sulphate was heated with limestone (calcium carbonate) and coal to give a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium sulphide. The invention of a new machine by William Joseph Gillott, William Mitchell and James Stephen Perry allowed mass manufacture of robust, cheap steel pen nibs; the process had been laborious and expensive.
Gaslighting had in impact on social and industrial organisation because it allowed factories and stores to remain open longer than with tallow candles or oil.
Later each factory would have its own steam engine and a chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler.The transition to industrialisation was not without difficulty. In England, the Combination Act forbade workers to form any kind of trade union from 1799 until its repeal in 1824. The introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity.
He also cites the monastic emphasis on order and time-keeping, as well as the fact that mediaeval cities had at their centre a church with bell ringing at regular intervals as being necessary precursors to a greater synchronisation necessary for later, more physical, manifestations such as the steam engine.The presence of a large domestic market should also be considered an important driver of the Industrial Revolution, particularly explaining why it occurred in Britain. While members of these sects were excluded from certain circles of the government, they were considered fellow Protestants, to a limited extent, by many in the middle class, such as traditional financiers or other businessmen.
Records made by industrialists and technicians of the period are an incomparable source of information about their methods. Cyclopaedia contains an enormous amount of information about the science and technology of the first half of the Industrial Revolution, very well illustrated by fine engravings. The foundry cupola is a different (and later) innovation.This was followed by Abraham Darby, who made great strides using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale in 1709. They were extremely inefficient by modern standards, but when located where coal was cheap at pit heads, opened up a great expansion in coal mining by allowing mines to go deeper.
Towards the turn of the 19th century, the Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick, and the American, Oliver Evans began to construct higher pressure non-condensing steam engines, exhausting against the atmosphere. Because of the difficulty of manipulating metal and the lack of machine tools, the use of metal was kept to a minimum. For example, a group of English workers known as Luddites formed to protest against industrialisation and sometimes sabotaged factories.In other industries the transition to factory production was not so divisive. The Luddites rapidly gained popularity, and the British government took drastic measures using the militia or army to protect industry.
Even after this, unions were still severely restricted.In 1832, the year of the Reform Act which extended the vote in England but did not grant universal suffrage, six men from Tolpuddle in Dorset founded the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers to protest against the gradual lowering of wages in the 1830s.
The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. However, the coke pig iron he made was used mostly for the production of cast iron goods such as pots and kettles. Despite their disadvantages, Newcomen engines were reliable and easy to maintain and continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the nineteenth century. The process produced a large amount of pollution (the hydrochloric acid was initially vented to the air, and calcium sulphide was a useless waste product). Wood framing had the disadvantage of changing dimensions with temperature and humidity, and the various joints tended to rack (work loose) over time.
Some industrialists themselves tried to improve factory and living conditions for their workers.
In 1833 and 1844, the first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts, were passed in England: Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours.
Those rioters who were caught were tried and hanged, or transported for life.Unrest continued in other sectors as they industrialised, such as agricultural labourers in the 1830s, when large parts of southern Britain were affected by the Captain Swing disturbances.
They refused to work for less than 10 shillings a week, although by this time wages had been reduced to seven shillings a week and were due to be further reduced to six shillings.
The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The effects of patents, both good and ill, on the development of industrialisation are clearly illustrated in the history of the steam engine, the key enabling technology. He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs.
By 1729, when Newcomen died, his engines had spread (first) to Hungary in 1722 ,Germany, Austria, and Sweden. Nonetheless, this synthetic soda ash proved economical compared to that from burning certain plants ( barilla) or from kelp, which were the previously dominant sources of soda ash, and also to potash ( potassium carbonate) derived from hardwood ashes.These two chemicals were very important because they enabled the introduction of a host of other inventions, replacing many small-scale operations with more cost-effective and controllable processes. As the Industrial Revolution progressed, machines with metal frames became more common, but they required machine tools to make them economically. One of the earliest such reformers was Robert Owen, known for his pioneering efforts in improving conditions for workers at the New Lanark mills, and often regarded as one of the key thinkers of the early socialist movement.By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. In 1834 James Frampton, a local landowner, wrote to the Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, to complain about the union, invoking an obscure law from 1797 prohibiting people from swearing oaths to each other, which the members of the Friendly Society had done. In return for publicly revealing the workings of an invention the patent system rewards inventors by allowing, e.g, James Watt to monopolise the production of the first steam engines, thereby enabling inventors and increasing the pace of technological development.
Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce bar iron in forges until the mid 1750s, when his son Abraham Darby II built Horsehay and Ketley furnaces (not far from Coalbrookdale). A total of 110 are known to have been built by 1733 when the joint patent expired, of which 14 were abroad. Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels.
Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods. However, monopolies bring with them their own inefficiencies which may counterbalance, or even overbalance, the beneficial effects of publicising ingenuity and rewarding inventors.
In the 1770s, the engineer John Smeaton built some very large examples and introduced a number of improvements. Early uses for sulphuric acid included pickling (removing rust) iron and steel, and for bleaching cloth.The development of bleaching powder ( calcium hypochlorite) by Scottish chemist Charles Tennant in about 1800, based on the discoveries of French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet, revolutionised the bleaching processes in the textile industry by dramatically reducing the time required (from months to days) for the traditional process then in use, which required repeated exposure to the sun in bleach fields after soaking the textiles with alkali or sour milk. Small metal parts were readily made by this means, but for large machine parts, production was very laborious and costly. Bar iron for smiths to forge into consumer goods was still made in finery forges, as it long had been. In the 1830s and 1840s the Chartist movement was the first large scale organised working class political movement which campaigned for political equality and social justice.
This process involves sintering a mixture of clay and limestone to about 1400 °C, then grinding it into a fine powder which is then mixed with water, sand and gravel to produce concrete. Its Charter of reforms received over three million signatures but was rejected by Parliament without consideration.Working people also formed friendly societies and co-operative societies as mutual support groups against times of economic hardship. The first is referred to today as potting and stamping, but this was superseded by Henry Cort's puddling process. Portland cement was used by the famous English engineer Marc Isambard Brunel several years later when constructing the Thames Tunnel. Enlightened industrialists, such as Robert Owen also supported these organisations to improve the conditions of the working class.Unions slowly overcame the legal restrictions on the right to strike.
From 1785, perhaps because the improved version of potting and stamping was about to come out of patent, a great expansion in the output of the British iron industry began. The new processes did not depend on the use of charcoal at all and were therefore not limited by charcoal sources.Up to that time, British iron manufacturers had used considerable amounts of imported iron to supplement native supplies. This came principally from Sweden from the mid 17th century and later also from Russia from the end of the 1720s. However, from 1785, imports decreased because of the new iron making technology, and Britain became an exporter of bar iron as well as manufactured wrought iron consumer goods.Since iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it also became a major structural material following the building of the innovative Bridge">The Iron Bridge in 1778 by Abraham Darby III.



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