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This report is the second in a two-part series to provide engineers with the necessary background knowledge of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) technology and its fundamental characteristics as an alternative to other construction methods. Cantilever retaining walls can respond externally to earthquake ground motions by sliding or by rotating, or internally by stem wall yielding. The purpose of this report is to provide methodologies for conducting a performance-based earthquake evaluation related to plastic yielding in the stem wall. Performance-based evaluation methodologies are demonstrated with respect to a wall designed to current Corps ultimate strength design criteria and with respect to an older retaining wall designed to working stress design criteria. One of the most extensive reports ever written on the subject of lateral support systems and underpinning. Volume 2: This report provided current information and design guidelines on cut-and-cover tunnelling for practicing engineers.
A local failure that spreads throughout a tieback wall system can result in progressive collapse.
In practice, the procedures used to design flexible tieback wall systems differ from those used to design stiff tieback wall systems.
Comparisons are made between the safety with economy and the stringent displacement control designs for the wall heights indicated above. The results from the equivalent beam on rigid supports and equivalent beam on inelastic supports analyses are compared with each other and to the results obtained from other tieback wall analyses. In tieback wall design, the determination of anchor loads and wall forces requires knowledge about the interaction between the wall and the soil during successive stages of excavation, as well as after completion of the project.
This report describes state-of-the-practice analytical methods used to evaluate tieback wall performance and to design the tieback wall and ground anchor system. The applicability of the various design methods with respect to various tieback wall systems frequently used on Corps projects is described in the report.
This manual provides guidance for the safe design and economical construction of retaining and flood walls.
Note: in addition to a complete description of seismic design asepcts of retaining walls, this report has one of the best public domain description of lateral earth pressures available. This technical report deals with the soil mechanics aspects of the design of waterfront retaining structures built to withstand the effects of earthquake loadings. The effects of wall displacements, submergence, liquefaction potential, and excess pore water pressures, as well as inertial and hydrodynamic forces, are incorporated in the design procedures. This manual is primarily intended for the inspector of mechanically stabilised earth retaining walls. The successor to the classic Pile Buck Sheet Piling Design Manual, this Pile Buck exclusive is the definitive reference for the design of sheet pile walls. This technical supplement provides an introduction to the use of sheet pile, types of walls, sheet pile materials, classical method of design for wall stability, structural design, specification, and installation of sheet pile for stream restoration and stabilization projects. A guide to the design of sheet pile walls, primarily using the soil-structure interactive method. This report contains discussions and results of three separate studies of topics associated with sheet-pile wall design. Concrete sheet pile walls were seldom designed before de beginning of the 20th Century, dating the first design methods from the early 1900’s. This Master Thesis is framed into a wider study of the behaviour of sheet pile walls at failure. This report, written for the Corps of Engineers, summarizes the results of a brief investigation of the long-term application of vinyl sheet piles to address some of the concerns raised in a recent Engineering and Construction Bulletin about the integrity, durability, impact damage, construction standards, and allowable design of commercially available PVC sheet piles.
As part of a highway relocation project (RT44) in Carver Massachusetts, long sheet pile walls were installed in Cranbury bogs and ponds in order to mitigate environmental concerns.
The computer program CWALSHT was developed from specifications provided by the Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (CASE) Task Group on Sheet Pile Structures and is described in this report. This document presents information on the analysis, design, and construction of soil nail walls in highway applications.
The purpose of this manual is to provide field inspectors with the knowledge necessary to effectively monitor and document the construction of soil nail retaining walls. Appendix A contains blank forms that can be used for proper documentation and testing during soil nail wall construction.

Discussing earth retaining wall design issues with transportation or railway authorities sometimes feels like talking to a wall. The lateral loads on retaining walls by AREMA have their theoretical background in theory of elasticity for rigid walls. Figure 1 displays an excerpt from "Soil Mechanics Fundamentals", Isibashi, I, Hazarika, H, 2011 describes how Boussinesq loads are doubled to getĀ  the lateral load for non-yielding walls.
Another not obvious limitation of equations by theory of elasticity is that surcharges near the top of the wall tend to be overestimated in casesĀ  similar to the current project. In a case like this, trying to talking to officials and clarify this issue is like "talking to the wall". The procedures presented in this manual are based on 40 years of State and Federal research focused on GRS technology as applied to abutments and walls. The type of response that will have the greatest impact on post-earthquake performance will likely depend on restraint conditions at the base of the wall.
Lap splice deficiencies related to older walls are discussed and performance-based evaluation techniques proposed. The anchored systems discussed include flexible anchored walls, slopes supported using ground anchors, landslide stabilization systems, and structures that incorporate tiedown anchors.
The design recommendations and construction methods described herein are a summary of the more detailed information presented in the companion volumes of this study. The design considerations are presented for each technique or method (soldier piles, steel sheeting, diaphragm walls, internal bracing, tiebacks, underpinning, grouting and freezing.) The factors affecting the design or implementation of these schemes are discussed.
The risk of progressive collapse of tieback wall systems is inherently low because of the capacity of the soil to arch and redistribute loads to adjacent ground anchors.
Limiting equilibrium analysis procedures used for the internal and external stability of tieback wall systems are also described. In the design of flexible tieback wall systems, apparent pressure diagrams are commonly used to represent the maximum loads the tieback wall system might experience during construction.
Tieback wall systems covered in the report include vertical sheet-pile systems, soldier beam systems with wood or concrete lagging, secant cylinder pile systems, reinforced concrete slurry wall systems, and slurry wall systems constructed using soldier beams and concrete lagging. The report describes the characteristics of stiff and flexible tieback wall systems and indicates how the analysis method selected can be influenced by wall stiffness. It addresses the stability and movement of gravity retaining walls and anchored sheet pile walls, and the dynamic forces against the walls of drydocks and U-frame locks.
132042 and 132043 on Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes and reflects current practice for the design, construction and monitoring of these structures. However, it contains a great deal of information of general interest concerning the construction and configuration of these walls. It covers every aspect of sheet pile design including the soil mechanics and earth pressure theory involved in sheet pile design, structural considerations, design of both cantilever and anchored walls, earthquake design for sheet pile walls, seepage and hydrostatic loads, anchor systems and tiebacks, cofferdams, corrosion and more.
It describes typical applications for cantilever sheet pile wall in stream restoration and stabilization projects, types of sheet pile material, loads applied to the sheet pile, failure modes, design for cantilever wall stability, structural design of the piles, and some construction considerations. Cellular cofferdams are an important type of retaining wall that require a design approach like no other lateral earth retaining structure. It was in the 1950’s, when sheet pile walls were broadly established as a solution to solve problems associated with deep excavations near buildings, subterranean structures or below the water table.
In particular, it is the continuation of a previous work by Cuadrado (2010) [Stress-strain analysis at failure and safety conditions in cantilever and anchored sheet pile walls.
The program uses classical soil mechanics procedures for determining the required depth of penetration of a new wall or assesses the factors of safety for an existing wall. The Manual for Design and Construction Monitoring of Soil Nail Walls ( FHWA-SA-96-069R) and Soil Nailing Field Inspectors Manual (FHWA-SA-93-068) were published as a part of this demonstration project. It is the only software program that presents all calculations and allows you to generate a full calculation report. The research behind the proposed design method is presented along with case histories to show the performance of in-service GRS-IBS and GRS walls. Walls founded on soil without an invert slab are most likely to dissipate the inertial energy imposed by earthquake ground motions by sliding.
The later evaluation provides estimates of permanent (residual) displacement for walls dominated by a stem wall yielding response.

Topics discussed include selection of design earth pressures, ground anchor design, design of corrosion protection system for ground anchors, design of wall components to resist lateral and vertical loads, evaluation of overall anchored system stability, and seismic design of anchored systems.
Included in this volume are discussions of displacements, lateral earth pressure, ground water, passive resistance, stability analysis, bearing capacity, soldier piles, steel sheeting, diaphragm walls, bracing, tiebacks, underpinning, grouting and freezing. Apparent pressure diagrams used in an equivalent beam on rigid supports analysis are demonstrated in this report. Important in the design of stiff tieback wall systems is the consideration of construction sequencing effects. As a result, simple methods of analysis have been developed for use in the design of various tieback wall systems. For the design of retaining walls which will not be subjected to hydraulic loadings or severe environmental conditions as described above, TM 5-818-1 may be used for computing the loadings and evaluating the stability of the structure. The procedures used to calculate the dynamic earth pressures acting on retaining structures consider the magnitude of wall displacements. This manual was prepared to enable the engineer to identify and evaluate potential applications of MSE walls and RSS as an alternative to other construction methods and as a means to solve construction problems. Since then, the growing need to use scarce land efficiently, along with the improvement and development of specialized machinery with a greater efficiency, have led to an increase in the use of sheet pile walls.
A large instrumentation program has been conducted over a period of 2.5 years, measuring the peat pressure developing along the sheet pile walls during construction and service. An example of such case is the AREMA manual specifications for lateral surcharges on retaining walls. When soldier pile walls are employed to provide shoring support they are generally treated as flexible wall systems. In this case, AREMA loads for non-yielding walls are not justified as they will produce an uneccerily overconservative solution for a very shallow excavation. An enhancement is proposed to provide estimates of permanent (residual) displacement for walls dominated by stem wall yielding.
Also included in the document are two detailed design examples and technical specifications for ground anchors and for anchored walls.
Army Corps of Engineers is to design tieback walls and ground anchorage systems with sufficient strength to prevent failure due to the loss of a single ground anchor.
In this study the author developed a detailed assessment of the classical methods for cantilever and single-anchored sheet pile walls and compared them with the Finite Element method. This project includes (i) original wall design and associated assumptions, (ii) a detailed field and laboratory study investigating the vertical and lateral properties of the peat, (iii) the instrumentation of the walls using inclinometers and vibrating wire total pressure cells along with a new thin film tactile pressure sensors, (iv) the measurements of the pressures and deflections developing along the wall and independent surveying over various stages of construction including excavation, fill, deep dynamic compaction (DDC) and MSE wall construction, (v) the modeling of the wall-soil interaction during the aforementioned stages using the FEM code PLAXIS, (vi) comparisons between the modeling results and measured values at the different stages, and (vii) the development of recommended parameters for future design of walls in peat.
Steepened slope and retaining wall applications also are addressed, but designers are referred to the FHWA Demonstration Project No. As rockery design procedures tend to vary regionally, studies were performed to determine the methods by which rockeries are designed and constructed in various regions throughout the western United States. Flexible wall systems include a soldier beam–wood lagging system and a sheet-pile system. With the aid of this text, the engineer should be able to properly select, design, specify, monitor and contract for the construction of MSE walls and RSS embankments. The performance of an individual manufacturer’s PVC sheet pile may vary from what has been generally reported here.
It includes the history, concept, construction procedures and cost data for soil nail walls. Walls founded on competent rock without significant joints, faults, or bedding planes and prevented by a strong bond at the rock-footing interface from either translating or rotating are likely to dissipate energy through plastic yielding in the stem wall. The software program CMULTIANC, newly developed to facilitate the equivalent beam on inelastic supports construction-sequencing analysis, is illustrated in the report. The MSE wall design within this manual is based upon Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) procedures.

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