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Running water fish culture involves growing the fingerlings to marketable size in earthen ponds using water from rivers, irrigation canals, or plain rain water.
Commonly raised species in freshwater ponds are the carps, tilapia, catfish, snakehead, eel, trout, goldfish, gouramy, trout, pike, tench, salmonids, palaemonids, and the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium. In Asia, where the bulk of world production from aquaculture emanates, fish ponds are mostly freshwater or brackishwater, and rarely marine.
Recently in Latin America and the Caribbean, brackishwater pond culture of penaeid shrimps has expanded rapidly, as it has in some parts of Asia.
Proper site selection is recognized as the first step guaranteeing the eventual success of any aquaculture project and forms the basis for the design, layout, and management of the project (SCSP, 1982a).
The layout of the pond system depends on the species for culture and on the size and shape of the area, which in turn determines the number and sizes of ponds and the position of the water canals and gates. Milkfish culture in brackishwater ponds in the Philippines follows the traditional practice of providing for nursery, transition, and rearing operations.
It has been suggested that a similar progressive culture scheme be adopted for shrimp pond culture when no supplementary feeding is practised. Pond compartments are usually rectangular in shape although in Indonesia, running water ponds are generally triangular, raceway-shaped, or oval.
The elevation of the rearing pond bottom for milkfish is usually such that only a maximum of 40 cm of water can be held in the ponds during the culture period (Jamandre and Rabanal, 1975). The entire pond system is enclosed by a perimeter dike and the individual pond compartments are separated from each other by partition dikes. The entry and exit of water into ponds through the canals is regulated or controlled by gates.
Secondary gates, which regulate water exchange between the ponds and the canals, are usually made of wood. Shrimp ponds are provided with separate supply and drainage gates to effect flow-through water management and facilitate water exchange through supply and drainage canals (NACA, 1986). Gates should be located where they are not exposed to strong weather forces and where water of good quality can be allowed to enter the fish pond system. Ponds are totally drained and the pond bottoms dried prior to the application of pesticides.
After the pond is prepared, fish fingerlings or shrimp post larvae are stocked at the appropriate density depending on the culture strategy, size of pond, and the size of fingerlings, among others. The feeding rate is computed as a percentage of the estimated animal biomass in the pond, with higher rations given when the animals are small and gradually decreasing as they become bigger.
Pond water is not just maintained at a certain depth; its quality must also be kept high to ensure optimal growth of the culture organism.
A flow-through system of water management that allows the simultaneous entry and exit of water into and out of the pond is essential in any high-density culture system. The regular replenishment of pond water, independent of natural tidal fluctuations, is made possible by the use of pumps which draw water from the source even at low tide. Extensive ponds are fertilized regularly using either organic fertilizers like chicken, cow, or pig manure, or inorganic fertilizers like urea, ammonium phosphate, or both, to maintain the plankton population in the pond. In addition to fertilization, ponds also need to be given regular doses of lime to maintain water pH at alkaline or near-alkaline levels (preferably not lower than six).
Unwanted and predatory species which may have survived the application of pesticides during pond preparation or which were able to enter the pond through the gate screens or through cracks in the dikes, are eliminated by the application of pesticides, preferably organic, into the pond. Crabs, which are a serious problem in shrimp ponds because they are carnivorous and cause damage to the pond dikes, are not usually affected by known pesticides and are therefore best eliminated by the use of crab traps situated in the pond.

It is also important that the gates are properly screened and the screens kept whole, to prevent the entry of small unwanted fish into the pond.
The pond dike and gates are checked regularly for cracks that could lead to seepages and losses of stock. Both fish pens and fish cages are built around the same basic design concept: a net enclosure supported by a rigid framework.
It began in China, possibly due to the desires of an emperor to have a constant supply of fish. Freshwater aquaculture is carried out either in fish ponds, fish pens, fish cages or, on a limited scale, in rice paddies. In brackishwater ponds, common species include milkfish (Chanos chanos), mullet (Mugil sp.) and the different penaeid shrimps (Penaeus monodon, P. Controlled breeding is also carried out in ponds with goldfish, trout, Bagrus and, to a lesser extent, Lates niloticus, Heterotis niloticus, and Clarias lazera. A fish farm is considered properly planned if all the water control structures, canals, and the different pond compartments mutually complement each other (SCSP, 1982a).
In some cases, formation ponds are used for additional growth or stunting of fingerlings prior to stocking in rearing ponds (Fig. For growing to a medium size, a two-stage progression composed of a nursery pond (NP) and a rearing pond (RP) is adequate (Fig. The outer perimeter dike is usually wider and higher than the inner partition dikes and serves to protect the entire fish pond area from flooding and destruction brought about by tide and wave action. Dikes are usually earthen although intensive shrimp ponds are concrete-lined or brick-lined as in Taiwan (PC). Main gates regulate the exchange of water between the pond system and the tidal stream or sea, and may be constructed of reinforced concrete (Fig.
Pipes or culverts can also be used for smaller ponds such as nursery or fry ponds and transition ponds for milkfish culture. Proper gate location can also serve to aerate the pond water and promote water circulation (SCSP, 1982a).
The simplest fish feeds are prepared at the pond site using locally available raw materials like rice or corn bran, copra meal, and rice mill sweepings as sources of carbohydrates.
In semi-intensive and intensive shrimp ponds, small feeding boats are used by caretakers who go around the pond distributing the feed by broadcasting. In general, a pond water depth of 1 meter is considered best for culture of tilapia, carps, and shrimps; traditional milkfish ponds can do with just 40-60 cm of water. This is particularly important in semi-intensive and intensive culture systems where large amounts of metabolites are continously excreted into the pond and where excess, unconsumed feeds add to the bottom load and serve to pollute the water. This is effected by the provision of separate inlets and outlets for all the ponds, each inlet regulating the flow of water from the supply canal to the pond and each outlet controlling the discharge of water out of the pond into the drainage canal.
Oxygen depletion in high-density ponds results not only from the faster rate of utilization of dissolved oxygen for respiratory activities; it is also caused by the fast rate of decomposition at the pond bottom by aerobic or oxygen-consuming micro-organisms. The fertilizers are either broadcast over the pond water surface or kept in sacks suspended from poles staked at certain portions along the pond periphery. Agricultural lime is broadcast over the pond and applied on the sides of the dikes to correct soil and water acidity.
Double screens are usually installed at the main intake to ensure that pests and predators are prevented from entering the pond system.
The latter are harvested with a bag-net attached to the sluice gate as water is drained out of the pond at low tide.

The method, known in the Philippines as "pasulang" or "pasubang" involves draining 85-90% of the pond water during low tide and allowing in the water at the incoming high tide so that the fish swim against the current through the tertiary gate and into the catching pond, whose gate is closed once a large number of fish is impounded. It is speculated that the techniques for keeping fish in ponds originated in China with fishermen who kept their surplus catch alive temporarily in baskets submerged in rivers or small bodies of water created by damming one side of a river bed. The ponds used for extensive culture are usually large (more than two ha) and may be shallow and not fully cleared of tree stumps. In Southeast Asia, fish ponds are predominantly brackishwater, with milkfish and penaeid shrimps grown either in polyculture or in monoculture. 3); for growing to larger sizes, a three-stage progression composed of nursery, transition, and rearing ponds is recommended (Fig.
Traditional milkfish ponds usually have only one canal that is used for both supply and drainage. Secondary gates are now usually located toward one end of the narrower side of the pond compartment to give good turbulence and circulation during the filling and draining. Layout of improved shrimp pond showing diagonal trench extending from inlet to outlet (from Kungvankij et al., 1986).
Teaseed cake is perhaps the best fish poison to use in brackishwater ponds to selectively kill unwanted fish without damaging the shrimps and without affecting rotifers and copepods which are feed for shrimps.
Intensively managed ponds or ponds where artificial feeding shall be given, do not need to be fertilized. Both the supply and drain gates are so designed as to bring water into and drain water out of the lower levels of the pond, where water quality tends to get poorer faster as a result of the accumulation of wastes and their subsequent decomposition.
Intensively managed ponds require greater water exchange in view of the much higher organic load on the pond bottom, especially toward the latter part of the culture cycle when the animals excrete more wastes. Tilapia are harvested using seine nets after the pond water is drained to half-level the night before. For example, poultry or pig manure can be used to fertilize the fish pond and the vegetable garden and the waste vegetables can be fed to the fish and the pigs (Fig. Water change is also effected on a daily basis, with approximately 10-15% of the water in the pond replenished by the entry of new water in semi-intensive shrimp ponds.
The nursery ponds comprise about 1-4% of the total production area while the transition and formation ponds constitute about 6-9% of total area (Camacho and Lagua, 1988).
Extensive ponds need regular fertilization during the culture period to maintain the growth of natural food. 12) are submerged into the water after known quantities of feed are put on the surface, to supply feed to the shrimps in the pond as well as to monitor feed consumption and shrimp growth. The height and width of dikes depend on the type (primary, secondary, or tertiary), tide conditions, flood level, pond water depth, soil shrinkage, and freeboard (SCSP, 1982a). Canals which are to be used for harvesting should be 30 cm below the level of the pond bottom to allow draining of pond water.
Such a gate has one or multiple (2, 3, 4, etc.) openings depending on the relative size of the pond unit to be served. The more popular species for culture in marine ponds are the sea bass, grouper, red sea bream, yellowtail, rabbitfish, and marine shrimps.

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