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The molecular model uses this idea that all materials are made up of atoms that behave rather like tiny spheres.The molecular theory shows how individual particles interact with one another. In the applet below, you can change the temperature and volume with the sliders on the left side. Inside a liquid, the distribution of kinetic energy of the particles is random and some has higher and some lower kinetic energies.
Factors affecting the rate of evaporationThe rate of evaporation increases if the temperature of the liquid is increased. Although there is an implicit assumption that the reader has a familiarity with coincidence experiments, this is not completely necessary to enjoy this page and the associated pages that accompany this home page.
The first way that they are used is as a 'noise' filter, where unwanted signals from events occurring at the interaction region are rejected by carefully timing the detected events so as to exclude those that cannot arise from the reaction.
The principle use of coincidence experiments however, is to investigate single event processes that occur when either electrons, ions, atoms or photons interact with the target atoms or molecules. In the case of electron photon coincidence experiments, the atomic system excited by electron impact reacts by emitting a photon, which is subsequently detected either in angular correlation with the scattered electron, or the polarisation of the correlated emitted photon is measured(Figure 1). An alternate type of experiment to those investigating EXCITATION of the target are those where the incident electron has sufficient energy to IONISE the target. The Manchester (e,2e) experiment has been designed primarily to study angular correlations arising between the scattered electron and an electron ejected from a valence state of the target.
The spectrometer has the advantage that all possible geometries are accessible from coplanar geometry to the perpendicular plane geometry (see figure 4). At the completion of these experiments hardware was installed for testing the computer controlled optimisation routines, allowing a feasibility study to be conducted.
Following these initial optimisation experiments, the apparatus was modified to allow coincidence experiments to be conducted using the computer control and optimisation hardware. Results verified that the computer control and optimisation significantly improved the experimental data when compared with data obtained with manual operation, both in statistical accuracy and angular symmetry.
These results, together with additional results closer to the ionisation threshold, have been parameterised in terms of a set of orthogonal angular functions defining the correlation between three vectors in space, in this case chosen to be the incident, scattered and ejected momenta of the electrons taking part on the reaction process.
The parameterisation allows the angular and energetic parts of the differential cross section to be separated, and allows a common basis to be defined for all ionisation processes. Experiments to obtain the differential cross section for ionisation of Argon ranging from the perpendicular plane to the coplanar geometry have also been conducted, although the results of these experiments have not as yet been published.
It is these ionisation coincidence experiments that are performed using the spectrometer in Manchester. An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
Like carbohydrates, lipids are organic compounds that are high in energy and are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but lipids have more energy than carbohydrates.
It is also increased if:the surface area of the liquid is increasedair is moving over the surface of the liquid. Boyle’s Law states that if the temperature of an ideal gas is held constant, the pressure and volume of a given amount (mass or number of molecules) of an ideal gas are inversely proportional, as pressure increases, the volume occupied by the gas decreases.


As an example, such experiments may be used to exclude the cascade contributions to lifetime measurements of atomic fluorescence when states lying higher than the state under investigation are excited. This is usually achieved by detecting the momentum of the scattered particle (in future here described as an electron) and observing the correlated reaction of the atomic system.
The electron-Photon coincidence experiment.An incident electron excites the target to an intermediate excited state,losing energy in the process. For these so-called (e,2e) experiments the energy lost by the incident electron upon scattering from the target atom is sufficient to promote ionisation of the target, which ejects either a valence electron or an inner shell electron(should the incident energy be sufficiently large).
The original experiments by Hawley-Jones et al, J Phys B 25 2398 (1992) measured ionisation close to threshold to study the so-called Wannier effect.
The computer controlled hardware and associated software was tested by optimising signal from resonance states in helium.
This required considerable modification to the apparatus and the software controlling the experiment. This data accumulated in less time than could be obtained manually, since the experiment ran 24 hours a day. Here an electron excites a target atom (molecule) and the fluorescence emanating from the excited state is detected, usually as single photons.
This is basically a variant on the above experiment, except that the electron excited state is coupled to the fluorescence state via high resolution single modeLaser radiation. These experiments are used to determine properties of the ionisation process due to electron collision with a target atom or molecule, rather than to look at excitation of the target as in the previous two examples. There are many different kinds of organic compounds including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. In fact, the proteins make up most of the membrane and many of the organisms inside the cell. This finding gave rise to Charles’s Law which states that at a constant pressure the volume of a given amount (mass or number of molecules) of an ideal gas increases or decreases in direct proportion with its absolute (thermodynamic) temperature.
This electron scatters through an angle theta with respect to its incident direction, and is subsequently detected using an energy and angle selecting analyser. An incident electron excites the target to an intermediate excited state, losing energy in the process. An incident electron of sufficient energy collides with a target at the interaction region. These experiments were carried out in the perpendicular plane using a hemispherical energy selected electron gun. The spectrometer allows full access to the coplanar geometry, where the incident, scattered and ejected electrons are all in the same plane, through to the perpendicular plane geometry, where the scattered and ejected electrons emerge perpendicular to the incident electron direction.
In addition,the efficiency of the experiment was reviewed and significant improvements were made to increase both the analyser efficiency and the timing resolution. The angular distribution of the photon flux may be measured, or the polarisation of the photons may be measured in coincidence with the detected electrons. This permits the same information to be deduced, with the additional advantage that electron excited metastable states that do not directly decay by single photon emission can be probed using the laser radiation, the information about the electron excited state being coherently transferred to a higher lying state which subsequently decays.


The most common variation of these experiments is to ionise a target which is in the ground state. Since evaporation is a change of phase from liquid to gas, latent heat of vaporization is involved. The excited target relaxes either back to the ground state or to a lower intermediate state, releasing energy as a photon during this process. The target is subsequently ionised, the incident electron losing energy in the process and scattering into an angle theta.The target is split into an ion and an ejected electron. In these experiments it is convenient to define the detection plane as the plane of spanned by the ejected and scattered electrons, in contrast to the scattering plane defined in figure 1.
Implementation of these improvements occupied most of 1990, and coincidence data collection re-commenced in November 1990, once more in the perpendicular plane. Measurement of the polarisation or angular distribution of the upper state fluorescence then yields information about the lower electron excited state, together with information about the laser excitation process. The incident electron then ionises the target, thereby producing a second ionised electron. Detection of this photon either as a function of angle with respect to the incoming electron, or by measuring the polarisation of the photon in coincidence with the scattered electron yields detailed information about the excitation process. The excited target is further excited using single mode CW laser radiation whose power, polarisation and radiation direction is accurately controlled. This ejected electron leaves the interaction region at some angle, as does the scattered incident electron. Further, the very high spectral resolution of the laser allows single isotopic species to be selected for the measurement, eliminating the uncertainties accompanying the direct electron-photon coincidence studies that have to sum over these individual contributions. The scattered (incident) electron and the ionised electron from the target are then detected in coincidence.
The upper laser excited state relaxes either back to a lower intermediate state, releasing energy as a photon during this process. Usually the momenta of these electrons are selected with only a narrow uncertainty, thereby constraining the experiment to obey both Energy and Momentum conservation rules within these uncertainties. Detection of the polarisation of this photon in coincidence with the scattered electron yields detailed information about the electron excitation process.
Selection of the electron energies therefore allows the ionised target state to be selected (ground state or perhaps excited state), whereas selection of the scattered and ionised electron angles allows the dynamics of the ionisation process to be studied.
The angular correlation between these electrons measured as the detectors roam over various angles then reveals detailed information about the ionisation process. A vast array of experiments is therefore possible, since the electrons can be scattered or ionised into any direction throughout space, and they can emerge from the reaction zone with any energy from threshold (0eV of Kinetic Energy),through equal energy sharing to a maximum Kinetic Energy given by the energy difference between the incident electron energy and the ionisation energy of the target. The spectrometer described in these pages can access virtually any geometry throughout space over a wide range of energies, and is therefore incredibly versatile for carrying out these measurements.



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