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Cubs have righted the ship, but need their ace to climb on board - But the new edition that start was, indeed, amazing. Why this is harry potter’s most important birthday yet - Of course, some fans (myself included) will still venture for a hard copy, but people will be it seems that this july 31, he’ll simply start doing it again, reminding potter fans and critics alike why he’ll forever be the boy who lived..
How nissan is preparing for a future of self-driving cars - Or is this a joint venture with another we’ve brought in a new mobility concept — a tandem, two-by-two-seated four-wheel vehicle that’s larger than a moped, smaller than a car — and trying to understand that space. Why social ventures need systems thinking - When evan marwell decided to start educationsuperhighway (esh), a nonprofit vanessa kirsch is founder and ceo of new profit, a pioneering nonprofit venture philanthropy fund that supports collaborative work to transform the early childhood development.
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An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of glaucoma.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Retinopathy is a condition in which the retina becomes damaged. An in-depth report on how people with diabetes can eat healthy diets and manage their blood glucose.Read Article Now Book Mark Article The American Diabetes Association no longer advises a uniform ideal percentage of daily calories for carbohydrates, fats, or protein for all people with diabetes. Blog #8: Intermittent fasting as Diabetes management — voodoo medicine or magic bullet?
It’s a little like, no it’s actually a lot like a cross between Fantasyland and Sex And The City.
So when I recently discovered that both Halle Berry and Salma Hayek are Diabetics like me, it gave me a weird sense of connection. When I launched this site six weeks ago, the last thing that I wanted to become was a preachy, do-as-I-say, not-as-I-do blogger.
I’m a Type 2 Diabetic (diagnosed in August 2008) and still brand new to blogging about my disease.
An extremely interesting and promising  article was published some time ago in the Orlando Sentinel that examined the apparent connection between bariatric surgery and Diabetes. Word-smithing is my craft, which is to say that words and language are the tools of my trade much the same as a dentist uses a drill, a surgeon his scalpel and an accountant his calculator. For sure, it was a very happy time in my life — a time when the stars, both personally and professionally, seemed to be karmically aligning for me in a most satisfying way. The accident took place after Krishak Express jumped a signal that brought it on the same track as Barauni Express. Named as Gionee CTRL V5, this handset is priced at Rs 12,999 which makes it a direct competitor of the Moto G. Insulin is a hormone that is involved in regulating blood sugar (glucose) by controlling how much glucose you make between meals and how you store glucose that you absorb after a meal. However, for better control of blood glucose in type 1 diabetes, intensive management is usually required. So who hasn’t engaged in this seemingly harmless game of mental fantasy and arousal with their husband, wife, boyfriend or girlfriend at one time or another? But in the interest of full disclosure, I feel compelled to admit that I’ve been negligent in doing my daily finger pricks. I don’t advertise or promote anything on my blog and I don’t recommend anything or tell anyone what to do. When I launched this, my first ever blog a mere 29 days ago, it was my sincere hope that writing about my feelings and experiences with Diabetes might comfort, help, perhaps even inspire, others. This love of language was passed on, at first almost involuntarily as if by osmosis, by my now departed mother. Object with ID '336451453221902' does not exist, cannot be loaded due to missing permissions, or does not support this operation.
It goes like this: Your significant other asks you what famous person you would most like to hook up with for a one-time, guilt-free, consequence-free sexcapade. For I rather foolishly convinced myself that as long as my A1C results were good, taking my daily readings wasn’t a necessity. I examined the packaging and prices, compared and contrasted the meters and read all of the fine print and bold claims. I just share my own thoughts, feelings and experiences regarding my personal journey and the challenges of managing the disease. Bariatric surgery (there are several different kinds) was developed to help the morbidly obese shed large amounts of excess weight.
That’s because I’m still very much a neophyte when it comes to blogging, having started this, my very first blog, a mere 15 days ago. At the time, despite Diabetes growing to epidemic proportions, I knew little about the disease. Still, on that fateful day, August 6, 2008, when the news of my diagnosis was delivered, words escaped me. They need to match their insulin doses to carbohydrate intake. Healthy eating habits along with good control of blood glucose are the basic goals, and several good dietary methods are available to meet them.
The basal component of the treatment attempts to provide a steady amount of background insulin throughout the day. Oh yeah, and the hook-up comes with an iron-clad guarantee that no one would ever find out or get hurt.
After all, as one of the fastest growing chronic diseases in the history of mankind, the list of those afflicted with Diabetes is long and distinguished. To be sure, there are a myriad of miracle programs, potions and so-called cures being peddled and pitched in cyberspace.
By way of background, I’m 54-years-old and was born in Long Island, New York, but have now called Central Florida my home for about 35 years.
For the first few days after birthing it on January 3rd, I kept anxiously checking my blog multiple times, disappointed with each self-visit that no one had taken the time to post a comment. For anyone who’s been through this, you know what comes next: A second diagnostic test to confirm the results of the first one. If these processes affect the central portion of the retina, swelling may occur, causing reduced or blurred vision. If the capillaries become blocked and blood flow is cut off, soft, "woolly" areas may develop in the retina's nerve layer.
It was on the way to my last stop when I realized how late it had gotten and how hungry I had become.
But when it comes to Diabetes, I’m instantly leery of anyone who dares to use the c-word: Cure. I’m married, have two daughters and was diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes about 6? years ago, at the age of 48. What I didn’t know is that via electronic wizardry, several comments had magically flowed into my blogosphere and were in a pending status, waiting for me to read and then decide whether they were suitable for posting.
In retrospect and in the clarity of hindsight, I realize and freely acknowledge how completely absurd and nonsensical this sounds. For me, that came 10 days later……Then, the seemingly interminable 5-day wait to see my primary care physician and find out the results.
What is most important is to find a healthy eating plan that works best for you and your lifestyle and food preferences. The most effective way to do that is by understanding how different foods affect your blood sugar numbers.
After the train wreck that was my first marriage inevitably ended in divorce, I gained custody of my two beautiful daughters when they were 4 and 6 and have raised them ever since. And some actually involve the removal of part of the small intestine as a way to reduce caloric absorption.
However, the list of life-altering and potentially deadly complications is long and frightening — hypertension, heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, limb amputation.
Patients who are at risk for hypoglycemia should carry some sugar product, or an emergency glucagon injection kit, in case hypoglycemia occurs.
In this more severe condition, new abnormal blood vessels form and grow on the surface of the retina.
But other intermediate and long-acting forms may be beneficial when administered twice a day. You satisfy all of my needs, I don’t engage in sexual fantasies that involve other people and I would never do anything to disrespect you or jeopardize our marriage……Having said that, if I were still single, it would be an entirely different matter. But chalking up the disease to nothing more than weight control is to miss the bigger picture. With almost no conscious thought involved, I found myself in the nearest drive-thru spot ordering up a cheeseburger. Despite a great deal of emotional turmoil in their early lives, my daughters are now happy, healthy, well-adjusted, successful young women, one a Florida State University graduate working in public relations and engaged to be married this November and the other a junior at FSU studying mechanical engineering. At some point, though, it was discovered that the surgery was having a rather remarkable and startling effect on Diabetics: Their blood sugar returned to normal, non-Diabetic levels.
Because I didn’t immediately know or completely understand the implications of the disease, the full impact of the diagnosis didn’t hit me right away.
When it came, my reaction was oddly subdued, largely resulting from the fact that I still had no idea what any of this meant and how profoundly it would affect my life.
Short-acting insulin delivered continuously using a pump is proving to a very good way to provide basal rates of insulin. Meal-time insulin administration. If my circumstances were different and I didn’t have this amazingly wonderful wife to keep me happy, it’s no secret that Halle Berry and Salma Hayek would be at the top of my fantasy list. Major hemorrhage or retinal detachment can result, causing severe visual loss or blindness.
Meals require a boost (a bolus) of insulin to regulate the sudden rise in glucose levels after a meal. From actors and athletes to world leaders, comedians and musicians, Diabetes doesn’t spare the rich, powerful, well-connected or the beautiful.
But then I decided that in order to be completely open and trusted in the blogosphere, I needed to get back on the daily finger prick horse — not only for better Diabetes management, but also so that I could blog about my experiences, results and discoveries in an open and honest way that might actually help others.
But even if your blood sugar levels have returned to normal, you’re still a Diabetic in my book. We’re talking about the phenomenon occurring essentially as soon as the patient leaves the operating table.
Within the first few days of my blog launch, the spammy comments ran the gamut, from porn, ear plugs and cheap Rolex watches for sale to false claims of so-called Diabetes cures and sales pitches guaranteeing to boost my cyberspace presence — for a price, of course. Patients should also wear a medical alert ID bracelet or necklace that states they have diabetes and take insulin. New Type 1 Diabetes Guidelines In 2014, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) released new guidelines specifically addressing patients with Type 1 diabetes. The list of famous people with Diabetes runs the gamut, from an Academy award-winning novelist (Mario Puzzo of the Godfather fame), one of the most talented, yet villainous figures in professional baseball history (Ty Cobb) and a Supreme Court Justice (Sonia Sotomayor) to a grammy-award winning musician (B.B.
Now in the months and first few years after getting diagnosed, I had the disease well under control with diet, exercise and medication. While there are some theories out there, why this phenomenon is occurring isn’t exactly known.
Then one of the first real comments came in, from a real person actually reacting to something I had written. Because along with the 21 million diagnosed Diabetics, there are an estimated 8.1 million others in this country who also are walking around with the disease.
That was the day that my doctor informed me that a routine test had detected elevated blood sugars in my body. King), one of the greatest actors of this generation (Tom Hanks), several former Soviet leaders and half of the singer-songwriter foursome, CSN&Y (David Crosby and Neil Young).
And not just any glucose meter, mind you, but a whiz-bang, high-tech, simple-to-use, codeless meter with all the bells and whistles available. And that’s what it’s all about, because the better your Diabetes management, the better your chances of avoiding some of the awful, life-threatening complications of the disease down the road.

People with diabetes face a higher risk for influenza and its complications, including pneumonia. Avoid unhealthy saturated fats (red meat, butter) and trans fats (hydrogenated fat found in snack foods, fried foods, commercially baked goods). Choose protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Snacks may be necessary, but can also mean that basal insulin rates are too high and may contribute to weight gain. Insulin requirements vary depending on many non-nutritional situations during the day, including exercise and sleep.
I figured getting the best glucose meter that money could buy would motivate me and make me want to take my daily readings again. However, somewhere along the way, I unfortunately became far less disciplined in my Diabetes management and went into a bit of a complacent back-slide. But the accidental discovery of a possible link between the surgery and Diabetes sure is intriguing!
He recently turned 60 and confided that he had been neglectful in the past few years about going to the doctor to get his annual physical exam. My doctor was somewhat cool and casual about the reading as he scheduled a follow-up test that would confirm the results of the first one. Everyone with diabetes should have annual influenza vaccinations and a vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia. Urinary Tract Infections. Now this is roughly the equivalent of convincing yourself that buying a mega-bucks home exercise machine will make you more committed and more likely to use it because of all the money that you spent.
With that in mind, while recently hanging out in an on-line Diabetes forum, someone acquainted me with Dr. I realize now that it’s time to get back on the horse and get back on track…..before it’s too late! Partly because of the non-alarmist manner in which my doctor explained all of this to me after the first test results, it didn’t occur to me at the time to worry and panic and stress.
Women with diabetes face a significantly higher risk for urinary tract infections, which are likely to be more complicated and difficult to treat than in the general population. Hepatitis. Try to eat fatty fish (salmon, tuna), which are high in omega-3 fatty acids, at least twice a week.
Some patients experience a sudden rise in blood glucose levels in the morning -- the so-called "dawn phenomenon." It is important to maintain a good diet plan and visit your health care team (doctor, nurse, and dietitian) once a month. The good news is that everyone on this list found a way to manage the disease and make great contributions to society, athletics and the arts. Jason Fung and his advocacy for intermittent fasting as an approach to Diabetes management. It was around the time that I took a good, hard look in the mirror that I decided blogging about my experiences would be a good outlet for me as well as something that might be helpful to others touched by Diabetes.
Now I must confess my naivete, having initially been totally unaware of the time and effort it took to launch a blog. And that means the disease was caught early on, with plenty of time to get it under control through medicine, diet, weight management and exercise. Patients with diabetes are at increased risk for contracting the hepatitis B virus, which is transmitted through blood and other bodily fluids.
Because of the higher risk for hypoglycemia in children, doctors recommend that intensive insulin treatment be used very cautiously in children under 13 and not at all in very young children. Types of InsulinInsulin cannot be taken orally because the body's digestive juices destroy it. I also figured that through my blog, the sharing and engagement and feedback of others might be just the sort of encouragement I needed. Exposure to the virus can occur through sharing finger-stick devices or blood glucose monitors. Injections of insulin under the skin ensure that it is absorbed slowly by the body for a long-lasting effect.
They have no idea of the potentially acute and irreversible damage that’s being done to their organs.
Test #2 was aptly referred to as the confirmation test, because that’s exactly what it did: Confirmed the worst.
Adults newly diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes should get hepatitis B vaccinations. DepressionDiabetes doubles the risk for depression. The timing and frequency of insulin injections depend upon a number of factors: The duration of insulin action. She told me that after retiring from a stressful job, she was gradually able to get her Diabetes under control through exercise and diet modification and along the way had shed 40 pounds of excess weight. Reducing sodium can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of heart disease and heart failure.Healthy Weight ControlWeight gain is a potential side effect of intense diabetic control with insulin. Fung say: In his view, the customary way of treating Diabetes with drugs such as Metformin helps control blood sugars. In terms of sexual health, diabetes may cause decreased vaginal lubrication, which can lead to pain or discomfort during intercourse. Women with diabetes should be aware that certain types of medication can affect their blood glucose levels. But it does nothing to address the underlying cause of the Diabetes, which in Type 2s is their body’s insulin resistance. Then she left me with this: “You know Gary, those girls of yours will be giving you grandchildren before you know it. Within 20 minutes after a meal insulin rises to its peak level. Insulin enables glucose to enter cells in the body, particularly muscle, fat, and liver cells. On the other hand, studies suggest that more than one-third of women with diabetes omit or underuse insulin in order to lose weight. Long-term use (more than 2 years) of birth control pills may increase the risk of certain health problems. Diabetes and Pregnancy. Eating disorders are especially dangerous in patients with diabetes and can increase the risk for diabetic ketoacidosis. The blood glucose levels are then referred to as pre-prandial blood glucose concentrations. Ketoacidosis is a significant complication of insulin depletion and can be life threatening. Exercise and Physical ActivityAerobic activity has significant and particular benefits for people with type 1 diabetes. Insulin lispro (Humalog), insulin glulisine (Apidra) and insulin aspart (Novo Rapid, NovoLog) lower blood sugar very quickly, usually within 5 minutes after injection. The treatment actually makes things worse over time, exacerbating the body’s insulin resistance and resulting in the need for more and more medicine.
High blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) can affect the developing fetus during the critical first 6 weeks of organ development. It increases sensitivity to insulin, lowers blood pressure, improves cholesterol levels, and decreases body fat. Insulin peaks 30 to 60 minutes after injection and continues to have some effect for about 4 hours. And while the increased dosages help control blood sugar, the Diabetes is actually getting worse.
Women with diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) who are planning on becoming pregnant should strive to maintain good glucose control for 3 to 6 months before pregnancy. It is also important for women to closely monitor their blood sugar levels during pregnancy. This rapid action reduces the risk for hypoglycemic events after eating (postprandial hypoglycemia). Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disorder that involves: The gradual destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. Fung’s way of thinking, this is a classic case of treating the symptom instead of the disease. To illustrate, he uses the analogy of taking aspirin to treat a fever caused by an infection in the body.
Type 2 DiabetesType 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90 to 95% of cases. The changes in estrogen and other hormonal levels that occur during the transition to menopause (perimenopause) can cause major fluctuations in blood glucose levels. Regular insulin begins to act 30 minutes after injection, reaches its peak around 2 hours, and lasts about 6 to 8 hours.
In type 2 diabetes, the body does not make enough insulin or does not respond properly to insulin, a condition known as insulin resistance.
Women with diabetes also face an increased risk of premature menopause, which can lead to higher risk of heart disease. Specific Problems for Adolescents with Type 1 DiabetesLack of Blood Glucose Control. Because patients with diabetes may have silent heart disease, they should always check with their doctors before undertaking vigorous exercise. Warning on Dietary SupplementsVarious fraudulent products are often sold on the Internet as “cures” or treatments for diabetes. Regular insulin may be administered before a meal and may be better for high-fat meals. Intermediate Insulin.
So the question remains: Is Diabetes a hopelessly progressive disease, or can the body’s insulin resistance be reversed? Adolescents with diabetes are at higher risk than adults for ketoacidosis resulting from noncompliance.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) warn patients with diabetes not to be duped by bogus and unproven remedies. According to the American Diabetes Association, there is no evidence to support herbal remedies or dietary supplements (including fish oil supplements) for the treatment of diabetes. Fung, is that the insulin resistance can be reversed through a program of intermittent fasting (every other day, not eating from dinner one night to dinner the next night).
Young people who do not control glucose are also at high risk for permanent damage in small vessels, such as those in the eyes. Eating Disorders. There is no evidence that vitamin or mineral supplements can help people with diabetes who do not have underlying nutritional deficiencies.
The intermittent fasting forces the body to burn stored fuel rather than relying on recently ingested fuel, thereby reducing weight and blood sugars.
Up to a third of young women with type 1 diabetes have eating disorders and under-use insulin to lose weight. Long-acting basal insulins, such as insulin glargine (Lantus), and insulin detemir (Levemir) are released slowly.
Fung, not having food to process every other day improves the body’s insulin resistance and actually reverses the cause, and course, of the disease.
It starts working in 2 to 4 hours and lasts as long as 24 hours (glargine) or 18 hours (detemir). And he claims to have numerous patients who have used the technique successfully and managed to get off their medication while maintaining normal, non-Diabetic glucose levels.
The IDDM1 region contains the HLA genes that encode proteins called major histocompatibility complex. Researchers are studying new types of long-acting insulins including one called degludec that requires injections only three times a week. Combinations.
Regimens generally include both rapid-acting and basal insulins to help match the natural insulin secretion. Other chromosomes and genes that affect the risk of developing diabetes continue to be identified. Most people who develop type 1 diabetes do not have a family history of the disease. Rapid-acting analog insulin is taken before every meal and sometimes with larger snacks. Insulin Pens. Even in identical twins, one twin has only a 33% chance of having type 1 diabetes if the other twin has it. Widespread screening of patients to identify those at higher risk for diabetes type 1 is not recommended. Oral Glucose Tolerance TestThe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is more complex than the FPG and may over-diagnose diabetes in people who do not have it. Insulin pens, which contain cartridges of insulin, have been available for some time, although they are still more expensive than vials of insulin.
Children are more likely to inherit the disease from a father with type 1 diabetes than from a mother with the disorder. Genetic factors cannot fully explain the development of diabetes.
These prefilled disposable pens, are more portable, do not carry the stigma of a syringe, and are easier and more convenient for patients. Inhaled Insulin.
I’m still doing additional reading and research on Diabetes management and intermittent fasting before making up my mind. For the past several decades, the number of new cases of type 1 diabetes has been increasing each year worldwide.
Afrezza is taken before meals and is designed for adult patients who need mealtime insulin to help control hyperglycemia in between meals.

If I decide to give it a try, you’ll be reading about my experience and results in future blog postings. Epidemics of Coxsackie virus, as well as mumps and congenital rubella, have been associated with type 1 diabetes. Risk FactorsType 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes, consisting of only 5 to 10% of all cases of diabetes. Nevertheless, like type 2 diabetes, new cases of type 1 diabetes have been rising over the past few decades.
Afrezza should not be used by patients who smoke or those with chronic lung diseases such as asthma or COPD. While type 2 diabetes has been increasing among African-American and Hispanic adolescents, the highest rates of type 1 diabetes are found among Caucasian youth. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age but usually appears between infancy and the late 30s, most typically in childhood or adolescence.
The results are given in percentages and indicate a person's average blood glucose levels over the past 2 to 3 months. A previous inhaled insulin was withdrawn from the market because of changes in lung function and modest patient interest. However, at the point when insulin production bottoms out, type 1 diabetes usually appears suddenly and progresses quickly. The pumps correct for the "dawn phenomenon" (sudden rise of blood glucose in the morning) and allow quick reductions for specific situations, such as exercise. Many different brands are available. The typical pump is about the size of a pager and has a digital display. In severe cases, diabetic coma may be the first sign of type 1 diabetes. ComplicationsDiabetes increases the risk for many serious health complications. Some are worn externally and are programmed to deliver insulin through a catheter under the skin.
A1c tests are also used to help patients with diabetes monitor how well they are keeping their blood glucose levels under control.
This approach can help prevent complications due to vascular (blood vessel) abnormalities and nerve damage (neuropathy) that can cause major damage to organs, including the eyes, kidneys, and heart and can result in foot ulcers, infection of bones in the feet, and toe or foot amputation. Managing risk factors for heart disease. For patients with diabetes, A1c is measured periodically every 2 to 3 months, or at least twice a year. They work by administering a small amount of insulin continuously (the basal rate) and a higher dose (a bolus dose) when food is eaten. Although learning to use the pump can be complicated at first, most patients find over time that the devices are fairly easy to use. While finger prick self-testing provides information on blood glucose for that day, the A1c test shows how well blood sugar has been controlled over the past several months. In general, most adult patients with diabetes should aim for A1c levels below or around 7%. Adults, adolescents, and school children use insulin pumps and even very young children (ages 2 to 7 years) are able to successfully use them. But it is also very important that people with diabetes control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and other factors associated with heart disease, including stopping use of all tobacco products. Diabetic KetoacidosisDiabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication caused by a complete (or almost complete) lack of insulin.
Ketones are byproducts of fat breakdown that build up in the blood and appear in the urine.
They are produced when the body starts burning much larger amounts of fat than the body needs for energy. Extreme stages of diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to coma and death. For some people, DKA may be the first sign that someone has diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, it usually occurs when a patient is not taking insulin as prescribed, runs out of insulin, or cannot afford to buy medication. In reality, individual patients with identical A1c tests may have very different average glucose levels.
Other serious complications from DKA include aspiration pneumonia, acute kidney injury, and adult respiratory distress syndrome. These antibodies are referred to as autoantibodies because they recognize the body's own cells, rather than a foreign invader.
Blood tests for these autoantibodies can help differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, many patients with type 2 diabetes also have low levels of one or more autoantibodies and so autoantibodies may simply be the sign of damaged pancreatic islets beta cells. Screening Tests for ComplicationsScreening Tests for Heart Disease.
It is often triggered by a serious infection or another severe illness, or by medications that lower glucose tolerance or increase fluid loss (especially in people who are not drinking enough fluids). Symptoms of HHS include high blood sugar levels, dry mouth, extreme thirst, dry skin, and high fever.
All patients with diabetes should be tested for high blood pressure (hypertension) and unhealthy cholesterol and lipid levels and given an electrocardiogram.
HHS can lead to loss of consciousness, seizures, coma, and death. HypoglycemiaTight blood sugar (glucose) control increases the risk of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). The earliest manifestation of kidney disease is microalbuminuria, in which tiny amounts of a protein called microalbumin are found in the urine. Microalbuminuria is also a marker for other complications involving blood vessel abnormalities, including heart attack and stroke. The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes receive an annual urine test for albumin. Hypoglycemia can sometimes be severe or even life threatening, particularly if the patient fails to recognize the symptoms, especially while continuing to take insulin or other hypoglycemic drugs. Beta-blocking medications, which are often prescribed for high blood pressure and heart disease, can mask symptoms of hypoglycemia. Risk Factors for Severe Hypoglycemia. A doctor uses the results from a creatinine blood test to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
Hypoglycemia unawareness is a condition in which people become accustomed to hypoglycemic symptoms.
The American Diabetes Association recommends that patients with type 1 diabetes have an annual comprehensive eye exam, with dilation, to check for signs of retina disease (retinopathy). It affects about 25% of patients who use insulin, nearly always people with type 1 diabetes. In addition to a comprehensive eye exam, digital retinal photography may be used as a screening tool.
In such cases, hypoglycemia appears suddenly, without warning, and can escalate to a severe level. Retinal photography uses a special type of camera to take images of the back of the eye. Screening for Neuropathy. All patients should be screened for nerve damage (neuropathy), including an annual comprehensive foot exam. Even a single recent episode of hypoglycemia may make it more difficult to detect the next episode.
Patients who lose sensation in their feet should have a foot exam every 3 to 6 months to check for ulcers or infections.
With vigilant monitoring and by rigorously avoiding low blood glucose levels, patients can often regain the ability to sense hypoglycemia symptoms.
Patients should also be screened for intermittent claudication and peripheral artery disease (PAD) using the ankle-brachial index for diagnosis. However, sometimes continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is necessary to identify time periods when patients are hypoglycemic. CGM studies have shown that many people with type 1 diabetes are sometimes unaware that their blood sugars are very low. Symptoms.
Patients should meet with a professional dietitian to plan an individualized diet within the general guidelines that takes into consideration their own health needs. Mild symptoms usually occur at moderately low and easily correctable levels of blood glucose.
Many people with diabetes come to recognize their hypoglycemia symptom pattern over time and it is usually consistent.
Diabetes affects the heart in many ways: Both type 1 and 2 diabetes accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). This can lead to coronary artery disease, heart attack, or stroke. In type 1 diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension) usually develops if the kidneys become damaged. Children with diabetes are also at risk for hypertension. Impaired nerve function (neuropathy) associated with diabetes also causes heart abnormalities.
With this condition, the tiny filters in the kidney (called glomeruli) become damaged and leak protein into the urine. Urine tests showing microalbuminuria (small amounts of protein in the urine) are important markers for kidney damage. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with ESRD have 13 times the risk of death compared to other patients with type 1 diabetes.
Symptoms of kidney failure may include swelling in the feet and ankles, itching, fatigue, and pale skin color. The outlook of end-stage renal disease has greatly improved during the last four decades for patients with type 1 diabetes, and fewer people with type 1 diabetes are developing ESRD. NeuropathyDiabetes reduces or distorts nerve function, causing a condition called neuropathy.
The two main types of neuropathy are: Sensory (affects nerves in the toes, feet, legs, hand, and arms) Autonomic (affects nerves that help regulate digestive, bowel, bladder, heart, and sexual function) Sensory neuropathy particularly affects the feet and legs. The most serious consequences of neuropathy occur in the legs and feet and pose a risk for skin ulcers and infections in the bone and, in severe cases, amputation. Peripheral neuropathy usually starts in the toes and moves up the legs, and can also affect the fingers, hands and arms (called a stocking-glove distribution).
Patients with diabetes should be aware of other warning signs of a heart attack, including sudden fatigue, sweating, shortness of breath, nausea, and vomiting. Rapid heart rates Lightheadedness when standing up (orthostatic hypotension) Diabetic gastroparesis is a type of neuropathy that affects the digestive track. The result of this damage is that the digestive system takes too long at time to move and empty food.
Undigested food and the delay in stomach emptying can cause blood glucose levels to rise, and make diabetes more difficult to control. Symptoms of gastroparesis include heartburn, nausea, abdominal bloating, feeling full after eating only a small amount of food, and vomiting of undigested food several hours after a meal. Gastroparesis generally only occurs in people who already have severe peripheral neuropathy. Studies show that tight control of blood glucose levels delays the onset and slows progression of neuropathy.
Lowering triglycerides, losing weight, reducing blood pressure, and quitting smoking may help prevent the onset of neuropathy. Foot Ulcers and AmputationsAbout 15% of patients with diabetes have serious foot problems. The consequences of both poor circulation and peripheral neuropathy make this a common and serious problem for all patients with diabetes. Diabetes is responsible for more than half of all lower limb amputations performed in the U.S. Most amputations start with foot ulcers. People with diabetes who are overweight, smokers, and have a long history of diabetes tend to be at most risk. People who have the disease for more than 20 years and are insulin-dependent are at the highest risk. Related conditions that put people at risk include peripheral neuropathy, peripheral artery disease, foot deformities, and a history of ulcers. Patients with diabetes and neuropathy should check their feet every night before going to bed to look for redness, blisters, or ulcers. Charcot Foot. Charcot foot or Charcot joint (medically referred to as neuropathic arthropathy) is a degenerative condition that affects the bones and joints in the feet. Early changes appear similar to an infection, with the foot becoming swollen, red, and warm and can be caused by twisting the foot or ankle while walking or stepping off a stair. The bones may crack, splinter, and erode, and the joints may shift, change shape, and become unstable. Instead of resting an injured foot or seeking medical help, the patient often continues normal activity, causing further damage. Retinopathy and Eye ComplicationsDiabetes accounts for thousands of new cases of blindness annually and is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in adults ages 20 to 74. People with diabetes are also at higher risk for developing cataracts and certain types of glaucoma.

Can type 2 diabetics eat mashed potatoes 07


  1. Elvira

    Various incentives to start a low carb eating.


  2. Gunewlinec_CeKa

    That it’s a healthy choice for some spinning hasn't stopped, and Mackay lives these worms.