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Take a look around the gym in any health club and you will see several different pieces of equipment that are all designed to work the same muscles.
Team Next Level explains that, in general, pushup stands are used to improve the results you get by providing a deeper pushup than you’d get from performing them in the traditional manner. There are no tricks to using pushup stands–just make sure you use proper form to get the most benefits from the exercise and avoid injury. The best pushup stands are lightweight and have a slip-resistant material on the bottom to keep them in place while you work out. Not practicing proper form when doing pushups can result in wrist pain and possible injury. When you do a traditional pushup, your wrists not only bear most of your bodyweight, but they also bend in an unnatural angle if you don’t practice flawless form.
Instead of flat-palm pushups, try doing them on your knuckles for an added challenge and to avoid wrist pain. Specialized pushup stands may alleviate wrist pain and enhance your workout, but they aren’t vital for performing pushups.
A full pyramid routine takes you to the point of maxing out with heavy weights and back down again, but that takes a lot of time. With the upside down or reverse pyramid, you’ll only use the top-to-bottom part of the full pyramid routine.
With your heaviest set first, you’ll be able to put all your energy into pushing through the set.
When you start out using the heaviest weights when training with a reverse pyramid, you aren’t fatigued from lifting lighter weights and performing many reps. The way the reverse pyramid functions, your muscles’ recovery will be more efficient. Stretching before a workout can be helpful in preventing injury and enhancing performance, depending on the type of stretches you do.
The lunging action in this movement will stretch most of your leg, affecting your quads, hamstrings, and calves.
You might need a stabilizing object, such as a pole or even a chair for performing this stretch for your adductors and abductors. The standing quad stretch is a useful one for runners and, as the name of the stretch suggests, works on your quadriceps. Allergy and asthma sufferers should check with their doctors to get recommendations on proceeding with exercise.
We’d like to think that exercise is a one-size-fits-all solution for everything that ails everyone, but there are always the exceptions to the rule.
In most circumstances, doctors will actually encourage patients to work out to combat symptoms of allergies and asthma.
Getting your circulation going during a workout will ease your allergy symptoms, including alleviating congestion so you can breathe better.
Getting your blood flowing is as close to a cure-all as you’ll get for any condition. Another benefit of exercise is that it strengthens the immune system and curbs stress-related hormones in your body.
Jump on the treadmill or elliptical for your warm-up and cool-down during allergy season to get your blood flowing and open up your airways. If you prefer an outdoor workout to hitting the gym, you may have to change your routine or at least become more vigilant during pollen seasons. Some people get bored easily with cardio exercise, but if it can help you break through a plateau, it’s worth doing. Everyone hits plateaus at some point, whether their goals are specific and aggressive or general and basic. You can only break through a plateau by entirely changing up your workout, doing the opposite of what your body is used to. Many trainers are touting treadmill workouts for maximizing the benefits of breaking plateaus with cardio, but you can do them on stationary bikes or elliptical trainers, too. Incorporate resistance exercises like triceps kickbacks with stints on the cardio machine to get double the benefits from your plateau-busting cardio workout. We like cardio equipment workouts that incorporate some resistance into the mix to satisfy the need to exercise muscles along with the cardiovascular system. Also keep in mind that High-Intensity Training can be accomplished even without cardio equipment, but you have to maintain a pace that keeps your hear rate up. The number of different exercise combinations you can use for circuit training routines are endless. Women can tailor their circuit training to focus on specific fitness goals, and they love that circuits accomplish cardio and resistance training at the same time.
The elements of numerous exercises and being able to quickly move from one to another makes the TargitFit Trainer perfect for women’s circuit training. If you belong to a health club, you’ve already got some quality circuit training equipment at your disposal. No one is arguing that it’s not a caring thing to do to be concerned about those close to you, but there is a better way to go about inspiring them to hop on the exercise train. If you want to inspire anyone to start working out, most verbal motivation should probably be banned. Motivate others with the simple act of consistently working out to take weight off and keep it off. A study published by the American Society for Clinical Nutrition showed that approximately 20 percent of people are able to keep from gaining back after weight loss. Try something different like a TargitFit class or hiking to bring some fun into working out.
We’ve discussed how exercise is an effective approach to anti-aging, but the focus in the past was mostly on looking and feeling young and retaining balance and overall health. Timothy Gower’s article in Prevention introduces readers to Olga Kotelko, who lived to the impressive age of 95, and details the research she inspired and helped to advance. Grow your brain while you grow your muscles–exercise has been shown to enhance growth factors that increase gray matter in the memory center of the brain. Lest you rush to the assumption that Olga was just lucky, or had good genes, researchers have studied thousands of seniors and found that Kotelko’s results in staying mentally sharp can be duplicated by anyone who is inclined to make the effort. In fact, based on specific studies, researchers believe that brains in addition to muscles benefit from exercise because it increases oxygen and blood flow to the brain and reduces stress through increased endorphins and levels of norepinephrine. Brain teasers are useful for improving cognitive function in your later years, but experts say that exercise is even more important.
The evidence for exercise being just as good for the brain as it is for the body is so overwhelming that doctors from psychiatrists to neuroscientists are recommending working out as a very real way to not just stop aging in the brain but to reverse it and even avoid dementia. Whatever your basic exercise routine, add something new like kickboxing or intervals for an element of challenge that will maximize brain benefits from working out.
It seems that optimizing the benefits of exercise for improving brain function, restoring memory, and reversing the aging process is tied to challenge.
It can be nice to have someone to work out with, but your health and fitness shouldn’t be tied to anyone other than yourself.
There are loads of reasons for wanting a workout partner when you make the commitment to lose weight, get in shape, or even take on a significant goal like training for a competition. Having someone to talk to in the gym may be a nice little bonus a workout buddy can offer but, ultimately, it’s not a good idea to get hooked on working out with a partner. Look for a workout partner who has a similar schedule, goals, strength, and skill level so you can motivate and help each other equally.
First, look for a partner who has similar goals, experience, and strength, so that you can avoid the pitfalls mentioned above. You and your workout buddy should be able to count on each other to stay positive and motivated. Exercise is a stress reliever and helps to relax and recharge, according to the Mayo Clinic, so using your vacation time on a fit trip is ideal. Morning hikes and as many fitness classes as you can handle are one way to spend a fit-cation. For those who think that fit trips, like many spa vacations, are expensive, the Red Mountain Essential Retreat proves otherwise.
Yoga and meditation twice daily, Jacuzzis and saunas make for a fitness vacation that will leave you relaxed.
If relaxation is the top priority for your vacation, pack your bags and head for Island Falls, Maine. Spend a week learning how to surf or sharpening your surfing skills at Kalon Escuela de Surf in Costa Rica.
For those who prefer vacations with less structure, or who don’t feel the need to be overseen and instructed, a visit to a locale that offers little more than the perfect setting for running, biking, swimming, or all three, is the answer. If you’ve ever envied the rich and famous for their resources, spend your fit-cation training like a star with a celebrity trainer. Glaucoma is the name given to a group of eye conditions which cause optic nerve damage and can affect your vision. Mapquest official site Official mapquest website find driving directions maps live traffic updates and road conditions thank you for being a loyal mapquest user Mapquest official site. Did you know hiro x tadashi dejame estar mas cerca is most likely the hottest topics on this category? Did you know cortana can i call you something else is one of the hottest topics on this category? Did you know that 9 kindergarten math adding worksheetsgif is one of the most popular topics on this category? They give you a larger range of motion when you’re at the bottom of the exercise, enhancing the workout your pectorals get. The wedge-shaped ones are designed for comfort and to distribute your weight more evenly than if you were doing traditional pushups with your hands on the floor. Stands that don’t cause your wrists to bend as extremely as they do during normal pushups could allow you to do a more effective pushup while alleviating wrist pain.
The wrist discomfort problem can be resolved without any accessories at all if you focus on keeping your weight on the outsides of your hands when they’re on the floor, according to HitchFit. Reversing a typical weight training pyramid routine is one way of encouraging hypertrophy, which happens when you tear the muscle cell down by working it so that it can repair bigger and stronger. And because full pyramids take up so much time, the number of different exercises that can be performed in a single workout tend to be limited. This will have you starting out with the heaviest weight you can successfully lift for at least 5 reps, moving to slightly lighter weights for the next set and finally ending with a set of light weights with more reps. The recovery time for your muscle cells will still be the same as for any workout, about 48 hours. A study published in Sports Medicine found that dynamic stretching before a workout positively affected performance levels and the controlled movements even resulted in expanded range of motion. Standing straight and holding onto a chair with your right hand for support if you need it, lift your left leg up to the side. Sit on the floor with your right leg bent behind you and your left leg extended straight in front of you.
Standing up straight, bend your left knee and catch the heel of your left foot with your right hand. The grass greening-up, flowers blooming, trees budding…the sneezing, itchy noses, and watery eyes. With your eyes uncontrollably pouring fluid and your nose constantly stuffed up not to mention the sneezing, it’s tough to get in the mood for a workout, but that is exactly the thing that could get you feeling better. A very small percentage of people with allergies or asthma might have a negative reaction during exercise. That is because studies such as the one published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology have shown marked improvement for patients who exercise. Increasing circulation will draw blood to the parts of your body that are working hard and away from parts that aren’t a priority.
Everyday Health says that sets you up to withstand allergies better than others with weaker immune systems.
However, in the case of 24-hour medicines that are taken only once a day, try taking them at night. Some hate the monotony of walking or biking to nowhere on stationary cardio equipment, but the alternative of taking their aerobic workout outside to jog in the park or bike local trails doesn’t appeal to them, either. If your normal workout includes little or no cardio, tossing in some aerobic exercise will wake your body back up and get it building muscle and burning fat again.
WebMD recommends a routine that starts out on the treadmill for 5 minutes, moves to the floor for some resistance exercises, takes you back to the treadmill for 5 more minutes and finishes up on the floor with more resistance.
Just choose 10 to 12 resistance exercises and do as many reps of each as you can in 30 seconds, keeping proper form and taking a 15 second break between each exercise.
In a typical free-weight workout, you have a list of exercises you go through, doing about three sets of each one before moving to the next. You can group upper body exercises together and do a lower body circuit on a different day, or do a couple of full-body days, doing different exercises each day.
If toning and fat loss are the main goals, circuit training can handily accomplish them with small adjustments to the routine.
Part of it is because when a person loses a significant amount of weight and starts feeling better, they want the rest of the world to feel that great, too.
As Behavioral Psychology Expert Dean Anderson points out to SparkPeople readers, you can’t force someone to want to lose weight and get in shape.
Talk is cheap and actions and examples speak louder than words, especially when it comes to working out, and it’s even been scientifically proven.
What it does mean, though, is that you’re more likely to inspire someone by just being fit and healthy yourself.
Since the same study also found that after 2 to 5 years, it gets easier to maintain weight loss, consistency is obviously the key. While some may be of the opinion that they don’t care about mental decline as long as they look fabulous, a recent article in Prevention Magazine1outlined a surprise anti-aging benefit of working out to keep you forever young. The single thing that she did differently than the majority of nonagenarians was to be physically active.


When the aerobic activity, physical activity, and brain activity was measured in adults between the ages of 60 and 80, the ones who were most physically active showed patterns linked to improved cognitive function. One of the most significant responses in the brain to exercise, however, is an increase in growth factors that actually support the creation of new nerve cells and improve cognitive agility. That doesn’t mean you should dive right in to signing up for a triathlon or biking across the country. Ideally, a workout partner would make the experience more enjoyable, keep you accountable, push you to break through plateaus, and be there to spot you when you’re lifting to failure. Double-check your schedules to make sure that you can both consistently work out at the same time on the same days so no one gets stood up. What better way to do that than to holiday somewhere that purposely provides fun, action-filled activities, delicious meals that have been expertly prepared to also be healthy, and professional instruction and supervision to ensure you know what you’re doing? There, you’ll check in at the Sewall House Yoga Retreat where Yoga Journal says you can start relaxing with meditation and yoga sessions morning and evening. Shape1 thoughtfully breaks it down for you in the March 2016 issue, listing the ideal locations for triathletes (San Diego, CA), runners (Portland OR), and cyclists (Tucson, AZ and Boulder, CO). Fit Trips can hook you up with a wellness event, get you trained like a superstar with a celebrity trainer, jumpstart your weight loss program, and even book a fit-cation for the entire family. Glaucoma damages the optic nerve at the point where it leaves your eye.How the eye worksWhen you look at something, light passes through the front of your eye and is focused by the lens onto your retina. No files are cached or stored on the our servers, all data comes from various different sources on the internet.
To use pushup stands, place them just a little wider than shoulder-width apart on the floor in front of you.
That’s because they distribute your weight more evenly, taking the pressure off your wrists and recruiting your entire forearm to pitch in and help support your weight.
Alternatively, Men’s Health advises doing pushups on your knuckles instead of with your palms flat on the ground. The premise is this: you begin your workout with an exercise such as bench press, performing the first set with light weight and 10 to 12 reps. Then, as the workout progresses, the weight gets lighter, not just in your fatigued muscles’ perception, but literally. But because of the way your muscles are stressed with the upside down pyramid (using maximum weight at the start) the cells will rebuild bigger during the recovery. Static stretching, which is done simply by reaching to a point of tension then holding the stretch for a moment, will help with flexibility, but not much else.
Step out as far as is comfortably possible with your left foot, bending your left knee and keeping it just above the toes of your left foot. You’ll feel the stretch in your quadriceps with the exaggerated pull-back of the steps and the jogging in place will increase your heart-rate. Well, no one looks forward to those signs of spring, but they appear year after year, right along with the grass and flowers.
That is why it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor about your workout plans before beginning.
In the case of allergies, that means redirecting blood from the vessels in your nose and causing them to constrict, resulting in clearing your airways, according to Fitness Magazine. Pollen counts tend to be higher when the day is warm and the breeze is light, but windy days can wreak havoc with allergies, too.
That will allow you to sleep off the drowsy feeling antihistamines can cause so you won’t feel groggy all day, especially when it comes time to work out. However, personal trainers and other experts say cardio can be an excellent way to eliminate boredom and break through a plateau when your workouts get stale. According to the Mayo Clinic, cardio activates the immune system, so you’re less likely to come down with common, communicable illnesses including the flu or a cold. High-Intensity Intervals are effective for motivating your body off of a plateau, and they can be done in as little as 10 to 20 minutes if you do them on an incline or use increased resistance. You can customize it to fit your preferences and goals by doing the cardio portions on an elliptical or bike if the treadmill isn’t your thing. Doing three sets of each exercise will give you an intense, plateau-breaking workout that will take less than 20 minutes. With circuit training, you can start with that same list of exercises but instead, you’ll do one set of one exercise and then immediately move to the next one and the next, resting no more than 15 seconds between each exercise.
You might try crunches, rows, machine chest press and dumbbell flys one day, then squats, lunges, leg curls and leg press the next day. Lighter weights and longer set times will burn more fat and tone muscle without building it up excessively. But if you prefer working out at home, your local sporting goods store will have a selection of equipment that can be used for circuit training at home.
Kinda like the person in love who wants to set every single friend they have up on a blind date. If their own health isn’t enough motivation, there is nothing you can say to get them to the gym and working out consistently. The American Council on Exercise outlines what researchers discovered when studying the effectiveness of workout partners. If you’ve lost a significant amount of weight or gained some impressive muscle mass, people will notice.
The thing is, you’re on the right track of trying to equate exercise with pleasure, you just might have to go about it in a different way if you want to motivate someone else to work out. Right up until she passed away, Kotelko’s cognition was far better than other adults in the 90 to 95 age range, based on speed and memory tests. Specifically, their brains were more oxygenated, and their patterns of brain activity were better. Further, a study published in Scientific Reports found that people who work out regularly have more gray matter in the memory centers of their brains, the hippocampal region.
Instead, suggestions from health and fitness professionals center around simply tweaking routines. The truth is that not just anyone will consistently meet those criteria, and you’ll have to be as discriminating when choosing a gym buddy as you would interviewing for a roommate.
Too many people bag it when their workout partners don’t show up or call at the last minute to beg off.
Also, take your time to make sure you end up with someone who will help you reach your goals rather than hinder you. Also, you should both be flexible and open enough to be able to make changes when needed, even if those changes mean moving on to working out alone or finding a different gym partner. It’s possible to relax and have an enjoyable time on an active vacation that is specifically designed to improve your fitness and possibly help you lose weight.
If you spend 40+ hours a week shackled to your desk, a fit trip may be just the thing you need. The cost of transport to and from San Jose is included, but travel costs to get San Jose are, of course, separate. The retina is a delicate tissue that is sensitive to light and it converts light into electrical signals. We got this image on the net that we consider would be probably the most representative images for hiro x tadashi dejame estar mas cerca. We got this picture on the internet that we think would be one of the most representative images for cortana can i call you something else.
We had taken this image on the net that we believe would be probably the most representative images for 9 kindergarten math adding worksheetsgif. A more recent version is wedge-shaped and padded for comfort, but they aren’t much more effective than their predecessors. Make a fist with each hand and position them on the floor, knuckles to the ground and palms facing in. Your second set is performed with slightly heavier weights and slightly fewer reps, such as 8 to 10 reps. For example, using a 10, 12, 14 range of reps is supposed to help you lose fat while a range of 4, 6, 8 is supposed to do more for increasing strength. Mentally you can push yourself to work through the heavy initial set because you know it will be getting lighter as you go. Static stretches are useful, though, when performed during your post-workout cool down because they’re an effective way to keep moving while bringing your heart rate down plus the improved flexibility will stay with you long-term to decrease chances of future injuries. This stretch can be performed a set number of times for the stretching benefits or for a per-determined amount of time to enhance the cardio aspect. Keep your upper body straight, concentrating on moving nothing but your leg during this stretch. Hold steady for a count of 10 before releasing your foot and moving to the other side to stretch your right leg. Plus, Fitness and Wellness News says that if your blood isn’t flowing well, allergens can accumulate in your body, but increased blood flow moves allergens out of your system. Also, it’s extremely helpful for people with allergies or asthma to warm up and cool down aerobically. Set up your TargitFit Trainer nearby so you can do more than just body-weight exercises when it comes time for the floor portion of the workout.
A useful feature of circuit training is that you can incorporate aerobic exercises in with free weight and machine exercises, jogging in place or climbing on the stair-stepper for a set (30 to 60 seconds) in between the resistance sets. Taking shorter rest times between sets, too, will keep your heart rate up for more effective fat burning. Items like resistance bands, dumbbells, and fitness balls are all basic items that can be purchased fairly inexpensively, or you can have access to over 115 gym-quality exercises with one piece of equipment with the TargitFit Trainer. Essentially, people were less inspired by partners who offered verbal encouragement and more inspired by working out with a partner who was fitter than they were by up to 40 percent and who did nothing more than workout with them. It means the longer you stay fit and healthy, the better testament you are to working out as a lifestyle choice. PopSugar suggests some fun alternatives to traditional aerobics or weightlifting workouts including signing up for a different type of fitness class like a TargitFit or jiu-jitsu class, going on a bike ride outdoors instead of hitting the stationary bike, or hiking somewhere that offers fabulous scenery. Additionally, an MRI scan showed that physically, though not perfect, her brain had fewer irregularities and aberrations than others her age.
She excelled in track and field, and it wasn’t just that she gave the events a good go. Considering that there was a time when it was believed that there was nothing that could be done once neurons died, that revelation is huge. Take a fitness class you’ve never participated in before to learn new routines and skills.
Muscle and Fitness came up with a list of rules of being an excellent workout partner including keeping your workout dates and showing up on time, knowing how to coach without over-coaching, and knowing when to your partner needs a spot so you can offer help when necessary, but don’t end up robbing him of a rep he could have pushed through. Optional outdoor add-ons include horseback riding, mountain biking, rock climbing, and kayaking.
Additionally, you’ll have more control over your meals, and can choose to pack food for breakfasts and lunches on the go, only eating out for dinner. A delicate network of nerves delivers these signals from the different parts of the retina to the optic nerve and then onto the brain.
For those just starting out, a traditional pushup will challenge you enough, but if you’ve plateaued and feel like you want to take your workout up a notch, any pushup stand will increase your range of motion for a more demanding workout. Then your third set is performed with weight as heavy as you can press for at least 5 but no more than 8 reps. It may be necessary to do this one with a chair or other stabilizing object if you need help with balancing on one foot. Both issues are very good reasons to get your doctor’s input and a green light before exercising to fight allergies. Also, pollen levels tend to peak midday, so work out in the morning or the evening if you can.
It gets the blood flowing before you start the actual exercising part of your workout so you can breathe through your nose as much as possible. Aerobic exercise is necessary for health and fitness and, if it can get you over a fitness hump, why not give it a try? Because aerobic exercise helps you lose weight and keep it off, you’ll have less risk of more serious diseases that are linked with obesity such as high blood pressure, some forms of cancer, stroke, and heart disease, to name a few.
The key is to keep your body guessing, so after a few weeks of cardio-focused workouts, feel free to go back to more resistance training.
You just do as many reps as you can with the allotted time–anywhere from 30 seconds up to 1 minute. The routines themselves can be tailored to concentrate on areas you want to work on most, like toning your abs, working on definition in your calf muscles, or tightening up the backs of your arms.
People who lose weight fast and rush to pressure their friends and family into trying their miracle diet or workout will look foolish if they gain back so much as a few pounds.
If you can limit yourself to one glass or less of wine or beer, an evening at a dance club is a fun way to burn calories, too. One neuroscientist quipped that if she were to guess Olga’s age based on her MRI, she would have thought her to be almost 30 years younger.
Olga Kotelko won 750 (!) gold medals and set almost 40 world records in long jump, javelin throw, sprinting, and other events–and it was all accomplished in the years after she turned 77 and before she passed away at 95, proving that it doesn’t matter how old you are when you start, just as long as you do start! Small confirms that puzzles and brain-teaser games are useful, he says that working out is more effective because of the physical effects it has on the brain. Walk or jog a different route every month, maybe one that is rocky, uneven, or uphill, or add in some intervals. You’ll be using different equipment or have too much downtime between sets because you have to keep changing out weights.
Keeping your back and legs straight and your gaze on the floor, bend your arms to lower your body down past the stands and to the floor. At this point, you’ve worked to the top of the pyramid and will work back down to the lightest weight and the most reps.
That means you’ll be able to put more intensity into your workout and spend less time doing it.
Rise up, bringing your right leg forward to take the lead in a long stride and bending it in the same way you did your left leg, this time lowering your left knee to just a few inches above the ground.


Hold the position steady without bouncing for 10 seconds, then relax the pressure on your legs.
In fact, cardio exercise helps you manage conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes if you already have them. Once you’ve cycled through the complete circuit once, you start over, with the goal of going through the entire circuit 2 to 3 times.
It’s only after a person has started associating physical activity with pleasure that they can successfully move on to more traditional exercise and stick with it.
Plus, the stronger out of the two of you won’t be able to max-out on lifts because the other one may not be able to provide a safe and proper spot. The point at which the nerves leave your eye is called the optic disc.Causes of glaucomaGlaucoma damage may be caused by raised eye pressure or a weakness in your optic nerve. Straighten your arms out, pushing up to lift your body off the floor, and come back to the starting position.
Often people only train using the first part of the full pyramid, starting out with light weights, high reps and ending with heavy weights, fewer reps.
Aerobic activity can sharpen your mind, chase away depression, and help you live longer, too. Freshen your routine with new exercises and shake it up even more by avoiding working the same muscles on the same days each week. Any physical activity that also requires you to learn something new increases communication in different parts of the brain, which just adds to the benefits your brain is already reaping from exercise.
Or you may have an eye pressure within normal limits but the damage occurs because there is a weakness in your optic nerve. After completing both parts of this stretch, switch legs and repeat the stretching process on the other side, performing 2 to 3 times on each side.
Beginners might start out with as few as 4 or 5 different exercises, but there can be as many as 12 or more exercises in a circuit. Mark McDaniel say that you’ll get the best results from engaging in both resistance training and cardio exercise. In most cases, high pressure and weakness in the optic nerve are both involved to a varying extent.
The amount of damage depends on how high the pressure is and how long it lasts, and whether there is a poor blood supply or other weakness of the optic nerve. A lower level of pressure can cause damage more slowly, and would cause you to gradually lose your sight if it is not treated.How eye pressure can riseA layer of cells behind your iris (the coloured part of the eye) produce a watery fluid called aqueous.
The aqueous fluid passes through the hole in the centre of your iris (called the pupil) into the space in front of the iris (called the anterior chamber), and leaves the eye through tiny drainage channels called the trabecular meshwork. These drainage channels are in the space between the front of your eye (the cornea) and the iris, and they return the fluid to your blood stream.
Normally, the amount of fluid produced is balanced by the fluid draining out, but if it cannot drain properly, or if too much is produced, then your eye pressure will rise. In POAG, the drainage of the aqueous fluid from your eye does not happen as well as it should and this causes the pressure to rise. Your eye may seem perfectly normal and your eyesight will seem to be unchanged – because when the pressure starts to build up it does not cause you any pain – but your vision is still being damaged.If you have POAG your peripheral vision, which is the vision you have around the edge of what you are looking directly at, gradually gets worse.
As your side vision is not as sensitive as your central vision you may not notice any changes in your sight.
This blank area, if the glaucoma is untreated, spreads both outwards and inwards.The centre of your visual field is affected last so that eventually it is like looking through a long tube – this is often called "tunnel vision".
It is uncommon below the age of 40 but this type of glaucoma affects one per cent of people aged over 40. It is even more important to have a regular eye test if you are in one of the groups at greater risk. Also, if you know a member of your family has POAG it is a good idea for everyone in your family to have a full eye test.
Usually POAG is detected in an eye test carried out by an optometrist (optician) in the high street. If you are over 40 and one of your parents, children, brother or sister has been diagnosed with glaucoma then you are entitled to a free sight test every year under the NHS. This is done by shining a bright light into your eye from either a slit lamp, into which you place your chin, or a hand-held ophthalmoscopemeasure the pressure in your eye, using a special instrument called a tonometer.
Eye pressure can also be tested using eye drops and another instrument which touches the front of the eye. However, treatment cannot repair or improve damage that may have already been caused by high pressure before it was found.The main treatment for POAG aims to reduce the pressure in your eye. You need to see an ophthalmologist to start any treatment and you will have regular check-ups to make sure the treatment is working.Treatment to lower your eye pressure usually starts with eye drops.
These act by reducing the amount of fluid produced in your eye or by opening up the drainage channels so that excess liquid can drain away. In the majority of cases, the drops lower your eye pressure and keep the pressure stable which protects your eye against further damage preventing sight loss. In some cases, the first drops you use may not work or might cause side effects but if this happens your ophthalmologist would explore alternative drops with you.Using your eye drops as your ophthalmologist recommends is very important in stopping you losing sight to your glaucoma.
Although you will not notice any difference in your vision when you use the drops, they will prevent you losing your sight.
Like all medications, some drops do have side effects but usually only a small number of people experience these and the risk of these side effects is small compared to the risk of losing vision if you do not use the drops as prescribed.If you experience any difficulties using the drops then you should let your ophthalmologist know as soon as possible as alternative drops may be available to you. Some people may find using the drops difficult because of problems with movement of their hands, such as arthritis. If you think that you will have serious problems using the drops then you should let your GP know, as they may be able to arrange help for you.Very occasionally, the drops do not lower eye pressure quickly enough or do not work as well as your ophthalmologist would like. Laser trabeculoplasty helps to improve the drainage of aqueous fluid by stimulating the trabecular meshwork to work more efficiently. Laser trabeculoplasty is the more common laser treatment for people with POAG.The alternative is laser iridotomy which creates a new drainage channel at the front of your eye. This new channel is usually made through the top of your iris, to allow aqueous fluid to drain through this channel as well. Laser iridotomy can sometimes be used for POAG but is more commonly used to prevent someone having closed angle glaucoma.Both types of laser treatment reduce pressure and will usually only need to be done once but sometimes they may need to be repeated.
Normally they are performed under local anaesthetic at an out patient clinic (meaning you would not stay in hospital). You would normally use glaucoma drops in the long-term after laser treatment to continue to keep eye pressure stable.Trabeculectomy surgeryIf eye drops and laser treatment cannot lower your eye pressure and keep it stable then trabeculectomy surgery may be considered.
The new channel is made on the white part of your eye (the sclera), underneath your upper eye lid.
Continued use of glaucoma drops is not normally needed following this surgery but your ophthalmologist will let you know what would be best for you. Acute angle closure glaucoma happens when there is a sudden and more complete blockage to the flow of aqueous fluid from your eye.
This is nearly always very painful and causes permanent damage to your sight if not treated promptly.In acute angle closure glaucoma, the pressure in your eye rises rapidly. This is because the outer edge of the iris and the front of the eye (cornea) come into contact, which stops the aqueous fluid from draining away through the trabecular meshwork as normal. This can happen in one or both eyes but it is rare for both eyes to have an attack at the same time.Symptoms of acute glaucomaIn the early stages you may see misty rainbow-coloured rings around white lights.
Acute glaucoma is an emergency and needs to be treated quickly if sight is to be saved.Some people can experience a series of mild attacks, often in the evening. Vision may seem "misty" with coloured rings seen around white lights and there may be some discomfort in the eye.
If you think you are having mild attacks you should have your eyes tested as soon as possible and let the optometrist know that you are having these symptoms.In some people the angle between the cornea and the iris is narrow, meaning there could be more risk of developing closed angle glaucoma.
Your optometrist may notice this during your eye test and may refer you to the hospital for further tests and treatment even if you have no symptoms of acute glaucoma.Treating acute glaucomaIf you are diagnosed and treated promptly, there may be almost complete and permanent recovery of vision. If you have an acute attack you need to go into hospital immediately so that the pain and the pressure in the eye can be relieved. You will be given medication, which makes your eye produce less aqueous fluid and also improves its drainage to help relieve the pain.An acute attack, if treated early, can usually be brought under control in a few hours. Your surgeon will probably suggest a procedure to make a small hole in the outer border of your iris to allow the fluid to drain away. This is usually done by laser iridotomy (mentioned previously in the laser treatment section) or by a small operation.Usually the surgeon also advises you to have the laser iridotomy on your other eye because there is a high risk that it will develop the same problem. Depending on circumstances and the response to treatment, it is unlikely you will need to stay in hospital.Occasionally, the eye pressure remains a little raised and treatment is required as for chronic glaucoma (there is more information in the earlier section on POAG). Even though treatment brings the pressure down to near normal you may also need to continue using eye drops to keep the glaucoma under control.Can acute glaucoma be prevented?Some people may have very mild or no symptoms of acute glaucoma but when their eyes are examined their angles may be very narrow. If you have had an acute glaucoma attack in one eye, usually surgery will also be performed on the other eye to avoid problems in the future.Ocular hypertensionOcular hypertension means high eye pressure. We all have eye pressure as it keeps the eye healthy and helps to maintain the shape of the eye. Sometimes eye pressure can be a bit below or above this range, which may be completely normal for your eye and not need any treatment. Eye pressure can go up and down slightly quite naturally but it does not go up with your blood pressure. Therefore, stress does not cause high eye pressure or glaucoma.If your eye pressure is above 22mmHg, you will generally be told that you have ocular hypertension.
A diagnosis of glaucoma means that the pressure in your eye has caused some damage to the optic nerve but a diagnosis of ocular hypertension may mean your pressure is high but there is no damage to your optic nerve.Due to a change in NHS referral guidelines used by optometrists, more people are being seen at hospital with suspected ocular hypertension.
Not everyone with ocular hypertension will develop glaucoma or need treatment but some will. Ocular hypertension is treated with drops in the same way as chronic glaucoma (POAG) and your eye health should be monitored regularly at a hospital.Low tension glaucomaLow tension, or normal tension glaucoma, means that your optic nerve is damaged like it is in other types of glaucoma but your eye pressure is well within normal ranges. If you have low tension glaucoma your eye pressure will need to be reduced to keep your sight safe. Your specialist will determine what level of eye pressure is right for you.Secondary glaucomaAn increase in ocular pressure can also occur as a secondary effect of other eye conditions, operations, injuries or medications.
This can lead to damage to the vision and when this happens it is called secondary glaucoma. The treatment in each case is always aimed at reducing the pressure as well as treating the cause. If this is the type of glaucoma you have your specialist will talk to you about the planned treatment.Developmental glaucomaDevelopmental or congenital glaucoma is a very rare condition which affects young babies. It is usually identified in the early years and managed by specialist clinics.Monitoring glaucoma and hospital visitsIf you are diagnosed with glaucoma you may need to visit the hospital frequently to start with.
This is because your ophthalmologist will want to make sure you are responding to treatment and that your eye pressure is in the right range for you and it is stable.If your eye pressure continues to be stable and you are not having any problems with treatment then you will be able to go for check-ups less often. However, it is very important that you attend these appointments to make sure your eye pressure continues to be stable as you will not be aware of any changes to the pressure, and you could permanently lose more sight if your current treatment becomes ineffective.On each visit, you will have the pressure measured in your eye, your visual field tested and the back of your eye examined using drops to dilate your pupil.
The effects of the dilating drops usually wear off in about six hours, although sometimes it will happen overnight. It is not safe to drive until the effects of these drops have worn off.The visual field test used in monitoring glaucoma is much more detailed than the screening tests used by your optometrist. It is important to be prepared for this as accurate testing allows the specialist to make the right decisions about your treatment.Changes in your glaucomaMost people with glaucoma use drops for many years or for life. Using your drops regularly can help to keep your eye pressure under control and minimise the damage to your sight.
Not using your drops could, in the long term, make your glaucoma unstable and lead to permanent sight loss, as sight loss in glaucoma is not reversible.When you have been on drops for a long time they may not be as effective as they were before, or you might develop sensitivity to them.
The hospital will monitor you at your regular appointments and suggest different eye drops, or other treatment, if needed.CopingBeing diagnosed with an eye condition can be very upsetting. You may find that you are worried about the future and how you will manage with a change in your vision.
All these feelings are natural.Some people may want to talk over some of these feelings with someone outside their circle of friends or family. Your GP or social worker may also be able to help you find a counsellor if you think this would help you.Help to see things betterEarly detection and treatment of glaucoma usually prevents or slows down any further damage. People with glaucoma can carry on with everyday activities such as reading, watching television and using the computer, with out this affecting their glaucoma.If you do experience some sight loss there are a lot of things you can do to make the most of your remaining vision. This may mean making things bigger, using brighter lighting or using colour to make things easier to see.You should ask your ophthalmologist, optometrist or GP about low vision aids and whether you are eligible to register as sight impaired (partially sighted) or severely sight impaired (blind). Registration can act as your "passport" to expert help and sometimes to financial concessions. Even if you are not registered a lot of this support is still available to you.Local social services should also be able to offer you information on staying safe in your home and getting out and about safely. They should also be able to offer you some practical mobility training to give you more confidence when you are out.Our Helpline on 0303 123 9999 can also give you information about low vision clinics and the help available from social services. Our Information for Everyday Living webpages also offers lots of practical information about adapting to changes in your vision and products that make everyday tasks easier.DrivingMost people with glaucoma carry on driving in the long term if the loss of visual field is not advanced, but you are required by law to report a condition which might affect sight. You only need to inform the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) if you are diagnosed with glaucoma in both eyes.
To assess possible damage to your peripheral vision, you will need a special test to see whether your sight meets the standards of the DVLA. Ask your specialist about this.You may like to obtain a leaflet about driving published by the International Glaucoma Association (IGA).
The IGA supports patients by providing information, so they can cooperate fully in their treatment and prevent sight loss.



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