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For patients with type 2 diabetes, managing the condition can involve multiple daily injections of insulin. Researchers claim that insulin pumps may be more effective than insulin injections for patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly if they have problems controlling their blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes is a condition whereby the body is unable to produce or use the hormone insulin effectively, resulting in high blood sugar levels. In some cases, the condition can be managed through diet or blood sugar-lowering medication, such as metformin. With this in mind, the team decided to compare the effectiveness of insulin injections against insulin pumps - small portable, computerized devices that deliver continuous doses of insulin through a catheter places under the skin.
For their study, the researchers enrolled 495 adults ages 30-75 years with type 2 diabetes who had poor control of their blood sugar levels. After 2 months, the team identified 331 participants whose glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels - an indicator of a patient's blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 months - were above the target range of 8% or less. After 6 months of treatment, the researchers found that the blood sugar levels of participants who used insulin pumps were on average 0.7% lower than those of participants who used multiple insulin injections. The researchers note that the time spent in hypoglycemia - extremely low blood sugar levels - was similar between each group, and at the end of the study, patients who used insulin pumps required a 20% lower daily insulin dose than those who used multiple injections. Medical News Today recently reported on a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine, which suggested that insulin therapy and blood sugar-lowering medications may "do more harm than good" for older patients with type 2 diabetes. Additional source: American Diabetes Association, insulin pumps, Fast Facts March 2013 PDF, accessed 3 July 2014. Visit our Diabetes category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Diabetes. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:MLAWhiteman, Honor. For any corrections of factual information, or to contact our editorial team, please see our contact page.
Please note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Learn all about diabetes, a lifelong metabolism disorder that causes high blood sugar levels. Learn all about type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the differences between the two conditions in our article about the diabetes mellitus metabolism disorder.
For those with type 1 diabetes, low blood sugar can translate to a lack of energy during the day. Researchers equipped 247 diabetic participants with sensors that constantly monitored their blood sugar levels. During the three-month trial, participants with smart pumps experienced a third fewer episodes of hypoglycemia than those with the regular pumps. The smart pump is already being produced by a Minneapolis-based company called Medtronic, and is available in European markets. The artificial pancreas is mainly aimed at treating type 1 diabetes, which is most often found in children and makes up about 5 percent of the 26 million cases of diabetes in the United States.
As a type-1 diabetic, I’m very excited for the prospects of insulin pumps automatically linked to BG monitors.
I wonder when the Mafia, I mean the FDA, will approve the pump that is already being used in European Markets? A late reply to your comment but I really don’t think you have all the information needed to make such an assumption! You can find better and less dumbed down information about these machines on the net if you want better answers! D-briefBriefing you on the must-know news and trending topics in science and technology today. Type 2 diabetes: What is it?Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to convert sugar into energy.
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The Diabetes Media Foundation is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt nonprofit media organization devoted to informing, educating, and generating community around living a healthy life with diabetes. Many patients experience significant weight gain from insulin administration, which may have adverse effects on blood pressure and cholesterol levels. A diet plan that compensates for insulin administration and supplies healthy foods is extremely important. The goal of intensive insulin therapy is to keep blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. Table 1:Glucose Goals for Patients with Diabetes Standard insulin therapy usually consists of one or two daily insulin injections, one daily blood sugar test, and visits to the health care team every 3 months. Insulin requirements vary depending on many non-nutritional situations during the day, including exercise and sleep. The patient must also maintain a good diet plan and should visit the health care team of doctors, nurses, and dietitians once a month. Because of the higher risk for hypoglycemia in children, doctors recommend that intensive treatment be used very cautiously in children under 13 and not at all in very young children. The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal fat of a person with diabetes. Learning to use the pump can be complicated, although over time most patients find the devices are fairly easy to use.
Insulin pumps are more expensive than insulin shots and occasionally have some complications, such as blockage in the device or skin irritation at the infusion site. Pramlintide (Symlin) is a new type of injectable drug that can help control postprandial hyperglycemia, the sudden increase in blood sugar after a meal.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. MiniMed insulin pump therapy helps you achieve better control by providing convenient insulin delivery that’s easy for you to manage.
You may be taking additional medications for your diabetes management, beyond just insulin. Your healthcare provider informed you that your A1C is elevated and your diabetes is not well controlled.
The MiniMed insulin pump is an external device about the size of smaller than a cell phone that you can easily carry on a belt, place inside a pocket or wear under your clothes. You can program your insulin pump to continuously deliver tiny and precise amounts of insulin 24 hours a day.
You can deliver additional insulin, called a bolus dose, to cover meals and to correct a high blood-glucose reading. With MiniMed insulin pump therapy, you can eat when you want and go on outings without worrying about injections. Accurate, seamless integration: CONTOUR® NEXT LINK meter from Bayer, MiniMed’s exclusive blood glucose monitoring partner.
Using the MiniMed insulin pump relieves you from many of the hassles of treating type 2 diabetes with a syringe or pen. The MiniMed insulin pump with CareLink™ software automatically records your blood sugar levels and all the insulin you’ve taken over the past month, so you don’t have to keep track with daily logs. 7 Do not use the Bolus Wizard to calculate a bolus for a period of time after giving a manual injection by syringe or pen.
But a new study published in The Lancet suggests that insulin pumps may be more effective for controlling blood sugar levels. Last year, Medical News Today reported on a study suggesting that insulin pumps are better than insulin injections for type 1 diabetes. Yves Reznik of the University of Caen Cote de Nacre Regional Hospital Center in France, claims theirs is the largest study to date that explores the effectiveness of insulin pumps for type 2 diabetes - the type that accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes cases. Over time, high blood sugar levels can cause nerve damage, stroke, and kidney, eye or heart diseases.
But in many cases, a patient may require multiple daily doses of insulin delivered by injection into the abdomen, upper arms, thighs or buttocks. Reznik and colleagues note that around a third of patients that manage their condition with insulin injections have problems achieving the optimal level of blood sugar.
Participants were monitored as they received increased multiple daily injections of insulin.

Of these, 168 were randomly assigned to receive treatment with insulin pumps, while 163 continued with multiple daily insulin injections.
Furthermore, 55% of participants who used insulin pumps reached the HbA1c target range of 8% or less, compared with only 28% of participants who used insulin injections. Pratik Choudhary of King's College London in the UK says that these findings provide "compelling evidence" for the effectiveness of insulin pumps to treat type 2 diabetes patients who are unable to control blood sugar with insulin injections. But if it occurs at night, when a person is sleeping, low blood sugar can lead to a coma, seizure, or even death. Half of the participants wore normal insulin pumps to supply a steady, low dose of insulin.
And the number of cases where blood-sugar levels dropped low enough to need medical attention were non-existent in the smart pump group. It is currently under review by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States, according to CBS. The results of the company-sponsored study were published in the New England Journal of Medicine over the weekend and presented Saturday at the American Diabetes Association conference in Chicago. Still, the device’s ability to regulate insulin levels could prove helpful for the millions of people with type 2 as well. I wrote an article on Diabetes for a local magazine here where I live and interviewed a specialist who was quite up to speed on the development of these smart pumps. This allows sugar levels to build up in the blood, which can lead to heart disease, blindness and other serious complications.
It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
TreatmentInsulin is essential for strict control of blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetes. It is important to manage heart disease risk factors that might develop as a result of insulin treatment. The basal component of the treatment attempts to provide a steady amount of background insulin throughout the day.
Meals require a boost (a bolus) of insulin to regulate the sudden rise in glucose levels after a meal. Injections of insulin under the skin ensure that it is absorbed slowly by the body for a long-lasting effect. Insulin is available in several forms, including: standard, intermediate, long-acting, and rapid-acting. Insulin lispro (Humalog) and insulin aspart (Novo Rapid, Novolog) lower blood sugar very quickly, usually within 5 minutes after injection. Regular insulin begins to act 30 minutes after injection, reaches its peak at 2 - 4 hours, and lasts about 6 hours.
Regimens generally include combinations of short and longer-acting insulins to help match the natural cycle. An insulin pump can improve blood glucose control and quality of life with fewer hypoglycemic episodes than multiple injections. Some are worn externally and are programmed to deliver insulin through a catheter in the skin or the abdomen. Studies indicate that even very young children (ages 2 - 7 years) can successfully use insulin pumps and that the pumps may help improve blood sugar control. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer, and the appropriate amount of insulin is then injected into the body in a calculated, controlled manner.
In spite of early reports of a higher risk for ketoacidosis with pumps, more recent studies have found no higher risk. Pramlintide is injected before meals and can help lower blood sugar levels in the 3 hours after meals. Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, fatigue, and dizziness. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. You want to manage your sugar levels well, but with shots, you must deal with frequent challenges to keep your sugar levels under control. The pump contains insulin and delivers it in a continuous and precise flow through a thin, flexible tube called an infusion set. With MiniMed insulin pump therapy, you only have to insert your infusion set 10 to 12 times per month. It can also wirelessly transfer the information to a computer for you or your doctor to see online. A randomized, prospective trial comparing the efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with multiple daily injections using insulin glargine.
The Bolus Wizard does not account for manual injections, and could prompt you to deliver more insulin than needed. Those who used insulin pumps also spent 3 hours less a day experiencing hyperglycemia - high blood sugar levels. An artificial pancreas would not only eliminate the need for regular insulin shots during the day but also avoid dangerous episodes of nighttime hypoglycemia. If the monitor gets miscalibrated and incorrectly detects high BG (which is not uncommon with current BG monitors), it will keep pumping extra insulin, potentially causing hypoglycemia while you sleep. The goal is to be able to read glucose levels and respond with insulin dosed to reflect the natural behaviour of a non-diabetic organ.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. This expanded pediatric indication applies to the current t:slim Pump features, with no changes to the existing user interface. Tight blood glucose control is the best way to prevent major complications in type 1 diabetes, including those that affect the kidneys, eyes, nerve pathways, and blood vessels.
Insulin glargine matches parts of natural insulin and maintains stable activity for more than 24 hours.
For example, one approach in patients who are intensively controlling their glucose levels uses 3 injections of insulin, which includes a mixture of regular insulin and NPH at dinner.
The patient and doctor must determine the amount of insulin used -- it is not automatically calculated.
Pramlintide is used in addition to insulin for patients who take insulin regularly but still need better blood sugar control. Patients with type 1 diabetes have an increased risk of severe low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) that may occur within 3 hours following a pramlintide injection. You wish there was an easier way to manage insulin dosing without compromising your health. The end of this tube sits comfortably under the skin and is replaced every two to three days.
Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complication in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). The current solution of a separate pump and monitor requires a manual step to actually pump the bolus, which removes this risk at the cost of being a lot more inconvenient. Diabetes UK estimates that over 600,000 people with type 2 diabetes don't know they have it. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site.
Intensive insulin treatment in early diabetes may even help preserve any residual insulin secretion for at least 2 years.
Insulin glargine now offers the most consistent insulin activity level, but other intermediate and long-acting forms may be beneficial when administered twice a day. This rapid action reduces the risk for hypoglycemic events after eating (postprandial hypoglycemia).
Lente (insulin zinc) is another intermediate insulin that peaks 4 - 12 hours and lasts up to 18 hours. Another approach uses 4 injections, including a separate short-acting form at dinner and NPH at bedtime, which may pose a lower risk for nighttime hypoglycemia than the 3-injection regimen. Newer, prefilled pens (Humulin Pen, Humalog) are disposable and allow the patient to dial in the correct amount. They work by administering a small amount of insulin continuously (the basal rate) and a higher dose (a bolus dose) when food is eaten.
This requires an initial learning period, including understanding insulin needs over the course of the day and in different situations and knowledge of carbohydrate counting.

This drug should not be used if patients have trouble knowing when their blood sugar is low or have slow stomach emptying (gastroparesis).
Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites.
Your baseline insulin needs may fluctuate throughout the day and the pump can match that with different basal rates. One’s healthcare professional should be consulted for how long one needs to wait after a manual injection before relying on the active insulin calculation of the Bolus Wizard.
Short-acting insulin delivered continuously using a pump is proving to a very good way to provide basal rates of insulin. Optimal timing for administering this insulin is about 15 minutes before a meal, but it can also be taken immediately after a meal (but within 30 minutes). Diabetes may not have symptomsIn most cases type 2 diabetes doesn't cause any symptoms, or the symptoms are mild, which is why many people have it for years without knowing it, and why it's important to get tested. Ultralente insulin peaks at 10 hours and lasts up to 20 hours but varies greatly in activity from day to day.
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My own father has been type one from childhood but right now he has cancer and in his weakened state and loss of weight, his pancreas still functions at a level such that insulin injections are not even necessary to keep his blood sugar at normal levels.
Warning sign: ThirstOne of the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be an increase in thirst.
It has been quite a shift from the last 68 years where he had to monitor and inject multiple times daily!
This is often accompanied by additional problems, including dry mouth, increased appetite, frequent urination – sometimes as often as every hour -- and unusual weight loss or gain.
Warning sign: Blurred visionAs blood sugar levels become more abnormal, additional symptoms may include headaches, blurred vision and fatigue. Warning sign: InfectionsIn most cases, type 2 diabetes is not discovered until it takes a noticeable toll on health. Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerve endings in the genitals, leading to a loss of feeling and making orgasm difficult. Risk factors you can controlYour habits and lifestyle can affect your odds of developing type 2 diabetes.
Risk factors for womenHaving gestational diabetes when you're pregnant puts you seven times at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on.
Having a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also cause insulin resistance that can lead to diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes in childrenAlthough older people have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes, the condition is affecting more young people.
Diabetes UK says around 35,000 children and young people in the UK have diabetes, with around 700 of these having type 2 diabetes. The leading risk factor for children is being overweight, often connected with an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Once children are overweight, their chances of developing type 2 diabetes more than doubles. Often a urine test is carried out first, and if it contains glucose, or a person is at risk of diabetes, one or more blood tests to check levels of glucose in the blood are performed. How does insulin work?In healthy people, after a meal, food is broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body. Cells use the hormone insulin, made in the pancreas, to help them process blood glucose into energy.
People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in the muscles, liver and fat cannot use insulin properly, called insulin resistance. Type 2 Diabetes: Metabolism mishapsIn type 2 diabetes, the cells cannot absorb glucose properly. If you've developed a condition called insulin resistance, the body makes insulin, but the muscle, liver and fat cells cannot use insulin, or do not respond to the insulin, properly. With long-standing, uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, the pancreas will reduce the amount of insulin it produces. Managing diabetes: DietFortunately, people with type 2 diabetes can significantly reduce the risk of damage to their bodies, including damage to the heart, kidneys, eyes and feet. People with type 2 diabetes should carefully monitor carbohydrate consumption, as well as total fat and protein intake and reduce calories. Managing diabetes: ExerciseModerate exercise, such as strength training or walking, improves the body's use of insulin and can lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Being active also helps reduce body fat, lower blood pressure and protect against heart disease.
Try to do at least 150 minutes of exercise a week, with some exercise on most days of the week. It can also increase glucose levels in your blood as part of your "fight or flight" response. Instead of letting stress take its toll, try relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation or just talking to a friend or relative. Managing diabetes: MedicationWhen people with type 2 diabetes are unable to control blood sugar sufficiently with diet and exercise, medication can help.
There are many types of diabetes medicines available and they are often used in combination. Some work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin, while others improve the effectiveness of insulin, or reduce the liver's production of glucose, or block the digestion of starches. Managing diabetes: InsulinMany people with type 2 diabetes eventually develop 'beta-cell failure'.
This means the cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin in response to high blood sugar levels.
In this case, insulin therapy – injections or an insulin pump – must become part of the daily routine.
Whereas insulin pulls glucose into the cells, these medications cause the body to release insulin to control blood sugar levels. Glucose testingTesting your blood glucose level will let you know how controlled your blood sugars are and if you need to take action to change your treatment plan. How often and when you test will be based on how controlled your diabetes is, the type of therapy used to control your diabetes and whether you are experiencing symptoms of fluctuating sugars. Your diabetes team will suggest how often you should use a glucose meter to check your blood sugar. Common testing times are first thing in the morning, before and after meals and exercise and before bedtime.
Long-term damage: ArteriesOver time, untreated type 2 diabetes can damage many of the body's systems. People with diabetes are likely to develop plaque in their arteries, which reduces blood flow and increases the risk of clots. People with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke. Long-term damage: KidneysThe longer you have untreated diabetes, the greater the risk of developing kidney disease or kidney failure. Long-term damage: EyesHigh blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of the eye.
This is known as diabetic retinopathy and it can cause progressive, irreversible vision loss. People with diabetes are up to 20 times more likely to go blind than those without diabetes.
Long-Term Damage: Nerve PainOver time, uncontrolled diabetes and elevated blood sugars create a very real risk of nerve damage. Symptoms can include tingling, numbness, pain and a pins and needles sensation -- often in the fingers, hands, toes or feet. Preventing type 2 diabetesOne of the most astonishing things about type 2 diabetes is that such a life-altering condition is often preventable.

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