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Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
Diabetes patients often neglect the most important treatment for saving lives: lowering cholesterol. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. The most important way to treat and manage type 2 diabetes is with activity and healthy eating. Checking your blood sugar levels yourself and writing down the results tells you how well you are managing your diabetes. If your blood sugar level is under control, you may only need to check it a few times a week.
Work closely with your doctor, nurse, and dietitian to learn how much fat, protein, and carbohydrates you need in your diet.
Very obese patients whose diabetes is not well managed with diet and medicine may consider weight loss (bariatric) surgery. If diet and exercise do not help keep your blood sugar at normal or near-normal levels, your doctor may prescribe medication. You may need to take insulin if your blood sugar cannot be controlled with any of the above medicines.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
When I was medical student in 1959, we were taught that normal range of Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) is 80 to 120 mg%. In the past 50 years, recommended FBS level range has been revised downwards to 80 to 110 mg% by many Diabetes Associations and Diabetologists. Remember that BS levels in any individual are constantly fluctuating depending upon food, medicine, and activities. It is now generally agreed upon that Type 1 diabetes is because of inability in our body to produce insulin. However, it seems that tendency to suffer from type 2 diabetes is probably predestined with hereditary and other similar factors.
The medical practitioner should provide ongoing advice for patients to avoid frank type 2 diabetes. Test Blood sugar levels often enough for you to be aware what diet and exercises are good for you. Try and eat fresh locally grown fruits and vegetables only; most of your calorie requirement should come from such fresh plant based diet.
About MeI practiced orthopedic surgery for over 30 years and managed a private hospital of 200 beds for 15 years. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as sugar diabetes, is a growing problem globally largely associated with a more sedentary lifestyle and obesity.
Ask a Doctor Online Now!Diabetes mellitus can drastically reduce the quality of life if left untreated and eventually lead to life-threatening complications. Stimulating organs like the liver to convert glucose into its storage form known as glycogen.
It is therefore the responsibility of organs like the pancreas to maintain the balance of glucose available in the bloodstream.
Complications are the consequences of a disease that is either progressive, left untreated or poorly managed or has existed for a very long period of time. The complications of diabetes mellitus does not occur overnight – it develops gradually over years and decades. Diabetes mellitus can lead to nerve dysfunction and damage which is known as diabetic neuropathy.. Diabetes mellitus contributes to high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia (increased blood fats) which damages the walls of the blood vessels.
Kidney dysfunction arises as the tiny blood vessels which carries blood to be filtered is damaged and parts of the filtration membranes thicken. The impaired blood flow and nerve damage associated with diabetes mellitus, as discussed above, impacts the most on the lower limbs.
Most cases of gestational diabetes (pregnancy diabetes) are mild and medication is not necessary. The signs and symptoms of untreated diabetes mellitus or poorly managed diabetes mellitus depends on the conditions that arise. Some of the symptoms can be attributed to diabetic complications but cannot be easily differentiated from the clinical presentation of diabetes mellitus itself. Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis.
Lie down with your injured side facing up.Extend your other arm along the ground and rest your head against it.
Please note that we are unable to respond back directly to your questions or provide medical advice. As the fastest growing consumer health information site a€” with 65 million monthly visitors a€” Healthlinea€™s mission is to be your most trusted ally in your pursuit of health and well-being. The non-insulin dependent Diabetes or NIDDM causes legal blindness, vascular disease, lower limb amputation and renal failure. Non-insulin Diabetes is asymptomatic and may not be diagnosed for many years.
The diagnostic delay might result in delayed treatment for the Diabetes as well as for the risk factors associated with it. Primary prevention of Diabetes includes avoidance of diabetes while secondary prevention is preventing the complications resulted due to Diabetes. According to the research studies, the proliferative diabetic retinopathy can be reduced upto 65 percent when the Diabetes is prevented by the combination of primary and secondary preventive measures in the period of six years. The primary and secondary prevention can diminish the diabetic complications from progressing which will help the patient to go for treatment in the right time thereby decreasing the mortality. Just making changes in the lifestyle can prevent Diabetes in the case of primary prevention. The secondary preventive measures will show impact when the biochemical changes due to Diabetes have started rather than during the onset of clinical changes.
The reduction of microvascular complications due to Diabetes in people suffering from insulin dependent Diabetes was observed as nearly 50 to 60 percent through optimization of glycemic control. Hypertension in patients with NIDDM increases as age progresses and it is considered as the risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease. The insulin sensitivity can be attained by bringing some changes in lifestyle, which is brought up to reduce weight.

If the albumin excretion rate is between 20 ug to 200ug per minute, it is explained as microalbuminuria. This is achieved with improvement in glycemic control and treatment of high blood pressure.
The changes in the circulating levels of very low density lipoprotein and decrease in HDL-C levels are caused by the non-insulin dependent Diabetes. The research reveals that cigarette smoking is connected with the enhanced initiation of vascular disease in the NIDDM cases. However, few research studies showed that smoking has no effect on the cardiovascular disease in diabetics compared to the healthy individuals.
Keep learning about diabetes, its complications, and how to control and live well with the disease. Based on your numbers, you may need to make changes to your meals, activity, or medicines to keep your blood sugar level in the right range. Your meal plans should fit your lifestyle and habits and should include foods that you like.
People with type 2 diabetes may need to take special steps before, during, and after physical activity or exercise. Since these drugs help lower your blood sugar levels in different ways, your doctor may have you take more than one drug.
This is very important when you already have nerve or blood vessel damage or foot problems. You can get to a healthy weight by eating healthy foods, controlling your portion sizes, and leading an active lifestyle.
A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.
Presently though, the consensus seems to be that FBS at even 110 mg% is also high and that it should be below 100 and some even suggest that it should be below 90 mg%.
If we test a large number of non-diabetic persons for their FBS, it turns out to be 84 to 89 mg% on an average. He is a staunch believer of keeping the blood sugar as low as possible (all experts do not agree with him because of risks of low blood sugars). Bernstein was born, the longevity of type 1 diabetics was considered to be less than 50 years. However, the label of being frank diabetic may probably be avoided for a long period of time and hence the possibility of complication reduced substantially.
However, all day long many suggest that the blood sugar levels should be constantly kept below 100 mg% to prevent many complications by means of diet control, exercise and medications. It is a life long condition and the medical providers can advise and guide you but cannot be with you all the time. Despite it being one of the more common chronic conditions in most populations, there is still widespread ignorance about the serious nature of this disease and the consequences if the condition is left untreated. The presence of diabetes mellitus even when well managed increases the risk of many other serious diseases.
The body has several ways of regulating the different levels of various substances in the body. The bloodstream is being constantly monitored throughout the day and should the glucose levels rise too high, the pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream.
The body is in a constant need of energy to fuel all the different process that is constantly occurring including basic life processes like breathing and pumping of blood by the heart. Therefore the effects of untreated diabetes mellitus is actually the complications that arise, usually in the long term. However, severe hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) or hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels) has immediate effects known as diabetic emergencies. The onset of these conditions is largely individualistic meaning that one diabetic may experience certain complications sooner compared to another diabetic. This may be caused by the narrowing of blood vessels supplying the nerve cells with oxygen and nutrient rich blood. It leads to plaques forming in the blood vessel wall (atherosclerosis) and increases the risk of clots forming in the vessels. This causes a host of problems in the foot in particular and is therefore known as diabetic foot. Dietary changes and moderate exercise may be sufficient to manage the diabetes which often resolves after childbirth. Firstly the symptoms of diabetes mellitus itself worsens so it is important to be familiar with these signs and symptoms. Both of which will support, guide, and inspire you toward the best possible health outcomes for you and your family. The studies revealed that the time taken for the disease initiation in the human body to the onset of its symptoms is nearly seven years. The complications accompanying Diabetes might be observed when NIDDM is diagnosed initially.
Secondary prevention involves inhibiting the complications due to Diabetes by avoiding and treating the associated risk factors as well as optimizing the glycemic control.
The secondary prevention strategy includes the treatment of microalbuminuria, hypertension, cigarette smoking and dyslipidaemia, which can reduce the complications due to Diabetes. The research studies have found that there is a positive relationship between the glycaemia level and the retinopathy. The timely diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is necessary factor in the secondary prevention of Diabetes. The condition of persistent proteinuria is preceded by microalbuminuria in NIDDM and IDDM conditions. This might be due to the surrendering of NIDDM patients to vascular disease prior to the onset of end stage renal disease.
The action of certain angiotensin inhibitors on IDDM patients to reduce the albumin excretion is reported but not in the case of NIDDM. NIDDM leads to increased levels of VLDL, LDL, LDL-C and total triglyceride while the levels of HDL-C are lowered, which might result in peripheral vascular disease and coronary heart disease.
It was evaluated that about 65 percent of deaths due to cardiovascular disease was accredited to the diabetes and cigarette smoking.
According to these studies, stopping to smoke may not show much positive impact on NIDDM patients compared to the healthy subjects.

The affected limb may need to be amputated if these skin ulcers do not heal or become larger, deeper, or infected. Yet another observation is that those with FBS nearer to 84 are less likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those their FBS nearer to 89 mg%.
With better understanding of diabetes, availability of different kinds of insulin, easy availability of BS meters and many other factors like lower Infant Mortality Rate, antibiotics and better nutrition, the longevity of type 1 diabetes has increased to almost 60 to 70 years.
Even after that one can remain a “Diet controlled diabetic” and hence not needing any medications except keeping a strict diet and exercise regimen with weight control and exercises.
Since diabetes is largely asymptomatic in the early stages and eventually presents with several mild symptoms, there is a misconception that it is not a dangerous condition.
The most severe complications in diabetes is seen in long term cases that are poorly controlled but there are several diabetic emergencies that can suddenly arise which can be equally as dangerous even in a person who has been diabetic for just a short period of time. This is largely controlled by the endocrine system – hormones that are secreted from different glands.
This means that pancreas is either not producing enough insulin (insulin deficiency) or that all the cells in the body are not responding as it normally should to insulin (insulin resistance). Even a person who has well managed diabetes mellitus is at risk of developing these complications.
The main organs and structures that are affected are the eyes, nerves, kidneys, blood vessels and heart.
High quantities of glucose within the nerve cells affects the normal processes responsible for nerve function.
This can progress to a stroke or heart attack (myocardial infarction) as the blood supply to the brain and heart is compromised respectively. Injury to the foot is often the trigger event that then progresses to more severe complications as a result of poor wound healing and weakened immune activity. The research has found that 20 percent of NIDDM patients were suffering from retinopathy and nearly 18 percent from electrocardiographic changes. Theoretically, it is estimated that primary prevention of NIDDM can be accomplished by the management of genetic and environmental factors. High blood pressure in NIDDM patients is associated with obesity and reduced insulin sensitivity. The drug therapy in this matter involves the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and alpha blockers which may not have negative impact on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance and serum lipid concentration. The secondary prevention involves reducing the excretion rate of albumin and reducing the progression of renal disease in IDDM patients with microalbuminuria.
The secondary prevention is done by identifying presence of lipid abnormalities in NIDDM patients. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. This indicates that the individual can delay development of frank type 2 diabetes by taking appropriate measures.
He was lucky to have been born just after bovine insulin was found, which he was treated with.
He is obviously doing something right to keep himself active and healthy and reaching almost 80 years of age.
It damages cells in the body in various ways and by doing so it leads to several other diseases in the long term or increases the risk of developing certain diseases.
Eventually the blood glucose levels are at a higher level than is the norm (hyperglycemia) and damages different parts of the body over months and years. Should medication not be commenced in diabetes mellitus or used as prescribed, and if a person does not undertake dietary changes and start exercising, the blood glucose levels are out of control.
However, these emergencies are more likely to arise in a person with poorly managed diabetes mellitus or with incorrect use of diabetes medication. The narrowed arteries and weakened veins especially to the legs leads to sluggish circulation with a host of problems that subsequently develops in the legs and feet. While the pancreas produces and secretes digestive enzymes into the gut, it also has a crucial role to play in producing and secreting the hormones that control the blood sugar levels. It tends to remain high most of the time with episodes of very low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. When the complications of diabetes are delayed, overall incidence of morbidity will also be decreased.
Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have serious consequences and can lead to life-threatening complications in the short and long term.
He is now coming to 80 years old and though has retired from teaching he is still practicing and presents a webinar on this subject on last Wednesday of every month. If you're overweight, losing about 7% of your total body weight can help lower your risk for heart disease. All carbohydrates raise blood sugar, so you should keep track of how many you eat every day. Eating at least two servings of fish a week may improve triglycerides and may also help lower the risks for heart problems.
Checking your blood sugar levels at home will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes.
If your blood sugar levels are under control, you may only to check them a few times a week.Which food contains the healthiest fats?The correct answer is A and B.
Avocados, nuts, and olive, canola, and peanut oils contain monounsaturated fat, which is good for your heart. Even small sores or blisters can become big problems if infection develops or they don't heal.Which type of footwear should a person with diabetes avoid?The correct answer is A, B, and C. Sneakers or any close-toed, comfortable shoes that fit well are the best choice to protect your feet.Which will treat low blood sugar?The correct answer is all of the above. If you don't feel better in 15 minutes, and your blood sugar stays low, take another 15 grams.

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