Type 2 diabetes uk population statistics,jan 7 christmas,food diet chart for diabetes patients - PDF 2016


Diabetes affects 7 per cent of the population - over 35,000 in East and North Hertfordshire alone and we are finding that self-care is now becoming exceptionally important for wellbeing and avoiding complications in the condition. The groups are very relaxed and informal and cover different topics and provide support as, and when, needed. If you’re interested in volunteering or joining a group, please fill out the form which you can download here and return it to the Diabetes UK coordinator for this area.
In this post, we will take three important diseases of decreasing rarity, and take all the genetic variants that are known to influence them. You lie somewhere within this range, most likely towards the peak in the middle, the mass of people who are neither particularly susceptible not particularly resistant to Crohn’s disease.
Type I Diabetes, or insulin dependent diabetes, is a relatively common metabolic autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the pancreas and destroys its ability to produce insulin, meaning that the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar.
A lot of work has been done on the genetics of Type I Diabetes, and we know of a large number of variants that affect your disease risk. In this case, the long tail starts to hit relatively significant figures, going up towards 1 in 50. Type II Diabetes, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes is another metabolic disease, in which cells of the body lose the ability to respond fully to insulin, and causing misregulation of blood sugar. The most up-to-date study that I know if is Zeggini et al, who reported 11 Type II Diabetes-associated variants (there may well be newer, fancier studies out there).
While the information still isn’t hugely predictive, there is potentially useful information here. The probability that I will have one of the high or low-risk profiles that I have mentioned above for a particular disease is 10%.
One big thing that I have left out here is that people already have a good idea of what their genetic risk for disease is, by knowing their family history.
Finally, the probability changes that I have given above are larger than could have been achieved this time last year, and will continue to improve as our understanding of genetics increases. So my best guess is that for each of the 3 papers, you extracted for each SNP both its population frequency and it’s odd ratio for getting the disease.
Multiplying odds ratios together is valid only if the risks for each variant are independent; however, it seems that most common variants have relatively small interaction terms.
Two new studies show that the percentage of obese adults, adolescents and children in the U.S. That was an improvement for NC compared to 2010 when it had the 10th highest obesity rates for adults.  However, the childhood obesity rank held at 11th. The NC State Center for Health Statistics produced this graphic on overweight and obesity based on BRFSS (Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System of the CDC) data from 2009.  It provides and interesting geographical look at the percentages by county, the starkest difference being between the sides of the state. According to this map by Bloomberg, in 2012 approximately 12.5% of active-duty military personnel were stationed outside the United States, in places like Afghanistan, Turkey, Australia Canada, Greenland, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Egypt, Myanmar, South Korea, Greece and Western Europe.
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Consistent with trends nationwide, obesity rates in Virginia have generally been steadily rising for the last decade and more. Within Virginia, obesity rates also rose in most regions in 2014, although many had seen their rates decline at least once across 2011-2013.
Like many states, Virginia's efforts to embrace these updated standards and best practices for preventing obesity are still a work in progress. At particular risk are Baby Boomers (those born between 1945 and 1964), who not only represent a bulge in the overall population, but are as a generation reaching those years where obesity-related illnesses, such as Type 2 diabetes and heart disease, tend to manifest themselves.
However, this same study found that losing just a small amount of weight could significantly alter outcomes. NOTE: 2011-2014 BRFSS results cannot be compared to earlier years because of changes in the sampling methodology. See the Data Sources and Updates Calendar for a detailed list of the data resources used for indicator measures on Virginia Performs. HealthBites is an interactive website from VDH to help users learn more about providing the best nutritional care for their children, from infancy on up. The Virginia Department of Agriculture coordinates the state's Farm-to-School program, which promotes opportunities for schools, distributors and growers to work together to increase the volume of locally grown foods served in school cafeterias and dining halls at all levels of education.
Many companies, such as 23andMe and deCODE Genetics sell genetic tests that allow you to determine parts of your DNA sequence: one selling point is that it can tell you how susceptible you are to various diseases.
We will see exactly how much we expect this information to change someone’s likelihood of getting the disease. Firstly, the mean absolute probability difference, which measures how far the average prediction using the genetic information will be from the prediction based only on how common the disease is in the population; we will also use the mean relative risk, which measures how many times bigger or smaller the genetic prediction is on average.
However, you may lie within the long tail of people who have a higher-than normal chance of developing the disease. In the unrealistic worst case, these variants could cause a 28% chance of developing the disease, and in the best case, a 0.64% chance.
An individual with a high-risk profile has a relatively high chance of developing the disease, and if I find out I have such a profile, and I eat a diet rich in sugar, I know that doing so is riskier than I thought. It will be interesting to re-do this once we have started to do sequencing studies on human disease.
For thoughts on why even the best predictions may not be that exciting, even after we’ve discovered all the relatively common genes implicated in disease, have you seen this paper?
Now you can sample genotype vectors with these 30 loci, and for each such genotype you need to compute the disease risk – so what is your assumption when computing this?
The only step you missed out was that I converted the odds ratios from the papers, which are given as the ratio of odds for the minor allele and the major allele, and converted them to the ratio of odds for the minor allele and the mean population odds (which requires an estimate of the frequency of the disease). Although the state's obesity rate declined two percentage points from 2011-2013, it rose again by nearly that same amount in 2014, to 28.5 percent -- ranking the state 20th nationally.
In 2010, Congress passed the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, which reauthorized federal child nutrition programs such as National School Lunch and National School Breakfast, eased and expanded access, strengthened and updated nutritional standards, and initiated efforts to bring fresh, local produce into school-provided meals.


According to various sources, the Commonwealth has a vigorous Farm-to-School program and has implemented several of the recommended policies to encourage healthy eating and physical activity.
The rate of obese Baby Boomers in Virginia is 34.2 percent, more than 5 percentage points higher than the overall adult obesity rate. An adult is considered obese if his or her body mass index (a measurement of fatty to lean tissue) is 30 or above. For instance, if average BMI is reduced by 5 percent by 2020 in the Commonwealth, over 345,000 cases of obesity-related disease could be avoided, for a potential cost savings of nearly $6.3 billion. The state also participates in programs, such as National School Lunch, National School Breakfast, and Farm-to-School, that set high standards for foods served in the public schools. The site offers fun, informative videos on nutrition and ideas for simple, healthy recipes; WIC participants can complete modules to receive nutrition education credit. Can we calculate exactly how much the average person’s predicted probability of getting a disease will change after they get their DNA scanned?
But even these numbers never really get large enough to be that useful; you may have a 1 in 500, rather than 1 in 2500 chance of getting the disease, but what does that really tell you? There is a significant chance that I have a significantly different risk to what I would otherwise expect.
Data from the most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) show more than one-third of U.S. The Northern region had the lowest rate of obesity at 21.2 percent and was the only region with a rate below the statewide average. A related initiative, Smart Snacks in School, was launched in 2013 to set nutritional standards in public school foods sold a la carte, for fundraisers, and in vending machines.
If Virginia could reduce the average body mass index (BMI) of its residents by just 5 percent, for example, the state could help prevent thousands of cases of Type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, hypertension, cancer, and arthritis.
Obviously, the numbers are still small (a change from 4% to 8% is hardly life-shattering), but they are non-trivial.
The genetic information can still tell you additional things, especially if your family is small, but it reduces the amount that the genetic data changes your predictions.
For a 6-foot-tall person weighing 200 pounds, a 5 percent reduction in BMI would be the equivalent of losing approximately 10 pounds. I guess without knowing the true genetic architecture and without further assumptions you cannot really know the distribution of disease risks.



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Comments

  1. Sayka

    Said Michelle Harvie, Ph.D., SRD, a analysis dietician at the Genesis.

    02.07.2014

  2. EmiLien

    Metabolism, carbs that potentially raise blood signs.

    02.07.2014