Type 2 diabetes risk factors age muziek,common oral medication for type 2 diabetes quiz,link between gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes,is there a cure for type 1 diabetes yet - PDF 2016


This presentation was developed under tho guidance of Victor Lawrence Roberts, MD, MBA, FACP, FACE, Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL.
We also use a height-weight ratio called body-mass index (BMI) to determine if someone is overweight or obese. You can control your weight by eating a healthier diet and by incorporating physical activity into your normal routine. Please note that we are unable to respond back directly to your questions or provide medical advice. As the fastest growing consumer health information site a€” with 65 million monthly visitors a€” Healthlinea€™s mission is to be your most trusted ally in your pursuit of health and well-being.
When it comes to social and economic impact of the diabetes epidemic, there isn’t much to feel good about — as of 2012, 29.1 million Americans have type 2 diabetes, and it accounts for $245 billion in direct medical costs and lost productivity per year. On an individual level, diabetes can be painful, debilitating, and increasingly exhausting to manage due to an onslaught of treatment options.
And that’s just the tip of the iceberg: prediabetes, the preliminary stage of type 2 diabetes, has become an increasing threat. Without intervention, approximately 15-30% of people with prediabetes will progress to type 2 diabetes within 5 years, and up to 70% within their lifetime. Addressing prediabetes isn’t quite so easy, but thanks to the landmark Diabetes Prevention Program clinical trial, we now know that it’s possible. By sponsoring programs that combat prediabetes with the right mix of information, authoritative guidance, and social support, companies can have a direct, positive impact on employee health. Cervical arterial dysfunction (CAD) is an umbrella term used in manual therapy and physiotherapy to cover a range of vascular pathologies which may lead to cervico-cranial ischaemia. The IFOMPT document provides clinical reasoning and physical examination guidance for clinicians and highlights the need for manual therapy clinicians to be cognisant with the concept and details of CAD.
Note: The term should not be confused with cervical arterial dissection which is also referred to via the acronym CAD.
Later ischaemic manifestations of CAD, such as cranial nerve dysfunction and brain ischaemia, may be latent and develop hours, days or weeks after onset.
The contemporary approach to risk assessment of the cervical spine incorporates a ‘systems based approach’[2]. The two ICA’s carry around 80% of the blood flow to the brain compared to the 20% via the posterior system.
Historic obsession in manual therapy with the vertebral artery and dissection in particular, means that the only data available pertains to dissection of the vertebral artery following manipulation.
A third way of framing the epidemiology is in terms of the proportion of people visiting physiotherapists who may have or develop CAD.
Headache attributed to cranial or cervical vascular disorder is formally classed as a secondary headache by the latest International Headache Society criteria[6]. The epidemiology related to identifying those neuromusculoskeletal patients who may be more at risk of developing CAD is of course intergrated with the above data, but even more complex to specifically identify. Summary - the overall chance of a patient presenting with head and neck pain having a CAD-related pathology is very small.
The key thing for the clinician is to be able to risk assess adequately for CAD prior to physical examination or exercise intervention.
It is important to consider the above information in the context of the aforementioned risk factors. Some important points are made with regard to decision making for the physical examination are highlighted in the IFOMPT document. A patient presenting with bona fide neuromusculoskeletal condition, but with an identified risk of developing a CAD (nCAD2, e.g. Physiotherapy management of a patient with a suspicion of CAD-related pathology (nCAD 3-5) requires referral for appropriate medical assessment (usually with a vascular or neurological physician).
It is essential that clinicians make appropriate triage decisions, concomitant with the urgency of the presenting condition.
Kerry R 2002 Pre-manipulative procedures for the cervical spine – new guidelines and a time for dialectics: knowledge, risks, evidence and consent.
Taylor AJ and Kerry R 2005 Neck pain and headache as a result internal carotid artery dissection; Implications for clinicians.
Kerry R, Taylor AJ 2006 Masterclass: Cervical arterial dysfunction assessment and manual therapy.


Kerry R, Taylor AJ 2009 Cervical arterial dysfunction: knowledge and reasoning for manual physical therapists. Taylor AJ, Kerry R 2010 A systems based approach to risk assessement of the cervical spine prior to manual therapy. Metso TM, Tatlisumak T, Debette S, Dallongeville J, Engelter ST, Lyrer PA, Thijs V, Bersano A, Abboud S, Leys D, Grond-Ginsbach C, Kloss M, Touze E, Pezzini A, Metso AJ; CADISP group. Debette S, Metso TM, Pezzini A, Engelter ST, Leys D, Lyrer P, Metso AJ, Brandt T, Kloss M, Lichy C, Hausser I, Touze E, Markus HS, Abboud S, Caso V, Bersano A, Grau A, Altintas A, Amouyel P, Tatlisumak T, Dallongeville J, Grond-Ginsbach C; CADISP-group. Metso TM, Debette S, Grond-Ginsbach C, Engelter ST, Leys D, Brandt T, Pezzini A, Bersano A, Kloss M, Thijs V, Lyrer PA, Tatlisumak T, Metso AJ. Engelter ST, Grond-Ginsbach C, Metso TM, Metso AJ, Kloss M, Debette S, Leys D, Grau A, Dallongeville J, Bodenant M, Samson Y, Caso V, Pezzini A, Bonati LH, Thijs V, Gensicke H, Martin JJ, Bersano A, Touze E, Tatlisumak T, Lyrer PA, Brandt T; Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients Study Group. Learn about the shoulder in this month's Physiopedia Plus learn topic with 5 chapters from textbooks such as Magee's Orthopedic Physical Assessment, 2014 & Donatelli's Physical therapy of the shoulder 2012. Because Asians tend to store more fat around their waists and have more body fat for the same BMI,4 Asians have lower BMI cutoffs than for people of European ancestry. Ethnic comparisons of the cross-sectional relationships between measures of body size with diabetes and hypertension.
Elevated body fat percentage and cardiovascular risks at low body mass index levels among Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition and the National University of Singapore, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health to provide up-to-date, best practice information to the public, health and public health practitioners, business and community leaders, media, and policymakers.
During a heart attack, the blood supply that normally nourishes the heart with oxygen is cut off and the heart muscle begins to die.
Both of which will support, guide, and inspire you toward the best possible health outcomes for you and your family. Not only can it eventually lead to kidney, nerve, and liver damage, but the American Heart Association considers diabetes to be one of the major controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 37% of adult Americans (86 million) over the age of 20 have prediabetes. But, despite these looming numbers, prediabetes is as much of an opportunity as it is a problem, because once an employee knows they have it, they can do something about it. A short risk screening quiz from the CDC identifies risk factors including weight, age, and family history.
Interventions that enable healthy behavior changes that lead to moderate weight loss and increased activity have a 58% success rate in helping people with prediabetes avoid advancing to type 2 diabetes. They’ll also positively impact their bottom line — an employee with type 2 diabetes burdens a company with approximately twice the medical costs as one without. Research shows that individuals who maintain a significant weight loss experience higher energy levels, more physical mobility, improved mood, and greater self-confidence. Cameron Sepah is assistant clinical professor at UCSF Medical School and medical director at Omada Health, a health technology company. CAD is inclusive of all known vascular pathologies and anatomical structures that may be compromised by movement or manual therapy. Thus, there is a variation in clinical presentation which is dependent on the structure involved, the pathological mechanism and the stage at which the dysfunction presents. This differs from previous paradigms by considering the complete intra and extra cranial arterial supply of the cervico-cranial region, and the wide range of associated pathologies. The internal carotid artery (ICA) provides the most significant proportion of blood to the brain.2.
It is primarily increased flow through the ICA and the presence of an intact circle of Willis, which helps maintain brain perfusion in the presence of vascular compromise in other parts of the system (i.e. It arises from the common carotid artery at a bifurcation point around the C3 level (upper thyroid cartilage).
Considering the anatomy of the upper cervical spine it is easy to appreciate how, during rotation, the contralateral vessel may be stretched, therefore potentially affecting flow (Fig. CAD is an umbrella term, and as such it is necessary to consider the epidemiology of each pathology. Further, there are no known systems for collecting and collating such adverse events, so the actual rates are unknown. The prevalence of this, and this as a proportion of all headaches, is unknown, but very likely to be epidemiologically small.


CAD-model reasoning would involve an understanding of the above data, together with an understanding of the societal level of vascular disease – atherosclerosis is the biggest single cause of death and morbidity in the western world - integrated with assessment of features of presentation and an individuals risk factors (see below).
Presence of specific signs and symptoms, together with collation of known risk factors will influence this a priori probability judgment. These range from pre-existing underlying anatomical anomalies, vasospasm, atherosclerosis, through to giant cell arteritis (i.e. As pain may be the only initial complaint and a decision must be made as to whether this is simply a benign neuro-musculoskeletal (NMS) complaint or the pathogenesis of a neuro-vascular problem.
Rather, the CAD model facilitates the clinician in making a probability judgements on either the presence or not of any CAD-related pathology, or the likelihood of impending risk related to planned neuromusculoskeltal assessment or intervention.
This is an opportunity to observe and recognise possible red flag indicators such as gait disturbances, subtle signs of disequilibrium, upper motor neuron signs, cranial nerve dysfunction, and behaviour suggestive of upper cervical instability (e.g.
However, the following two items, frankly should be normal practice also, but are explicit in the document. 2008 Arterial pathology and cervicocranial pain – differential diagnosis for manual therapists and medical practitioners.
CADISP-genetics: an International project searching for genetic risk factors of cervical artery dissections. Pathophysiology and risk factors of cervical artery dissection: what have we learnt from large hospital-based cohorts? Physiopedia is not a substitute for professional advice or expert medical services from a qualified healthcare provider. Characterized by high blood glucose levels, prediabetes is largely asymptomatic, which is a major reason why nearly 90% of individuals who have it are unaware. Further, the clinical model of CAD incorporates the notion of assessing for patients presenting to physiotherapists with neuromusculoskeletal neck and head pain who may have an increased risk of developing an associated pathology. CAD is of relevance to clinicians due to the fact the pain is often an early presentation of many types of arterial dysfunction, Fig 1.
It eventually forms the occipital artery and terminates in the maxillary artery and superficial temporal artery which may be implicated in cases of headache linked to temporal arteritis. No consideration has previously been given to the other potential structures and pathologies that may result in delayed diagnosis or adverse events. Unlike haemorrhagic events where a headache is most often overshadowed by focal signs, ischaemic and atherosclerotic pathologies very often present with neck pain and headache as their first and most overt symptom.
Furthermore, it should be remembered that migraineous headache itself is a known risk factor for CAD. Cervical arterial dysfunction and manual therapy: A critical literature review to inform professional practice. You can measure waist circumference by putting a tape measure around your body halfway between your hip bone and your lowest rib, usually at the level of your belly button.
You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Simply emailing your employees a link to this quiz can go a long way toward battling diabetes. Once inside the skull, the two vertebral arteries join each other to form the basilar artery, which in turn feeds into the circle of Willis.
All of these may lead to potential cranio-cerebral ischaemia which may originate and manifest in a variety of ways.
Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.
When there is a reduction of blood supply to specific parts of the hind-brain, certain signs and symptoms are displayed. Presentations range from pain, through to cranial nerve dysfunctions, sympathetic nerve dysfunction (e.g.
A spectrum of potential patho-mechanisms of ischaemia and related symptoms are covered in table 1.




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