Type 2 diabetes rates by country europe,how to get rid of diabetes black neck choker,gc university faisalabad laptop list,the most common cause of a medical error is low - PDF Review


Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both.
Normally blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.
Insufficient production of insulin, production of defective insulin (which is uncommon), or the inability of cells to use insulin properly and efficiently leads to hyperglycemia and diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was also referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), or adult onset diabetes mellitus (AODM). While it is said that type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in individuals over 30 years old and the incidence increases with age, we are seeing an alarming number patients with type 2 diabetes who are barely in their teen years.
While there is a strong genetic component to developing this form of diabetes, there are other risk factors – the most significant of which is obesity.
These diabetes complications are related to blood vessel diseases and are generally classified into small vessel disease, such as those involving the eyes, kidneys and nerves ,and large vessel disease involving the heart and blood vessels .Diabetes accelerates hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) of the larger blood vessels, leading to coronary heart disease, angina or heart attack, strokes, and pain in the lower extremities because of lack of blood supply. To treat diabetic retinopathy a laser is used to destroy and prevent the recurrence of the development of these small aneurysms and brittle blood vessels. The progression of nephropathy in patients can be significantly slowed by controlling high blood pressure, and by aggressively treating high blood sugar levels. Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy and is also caused by disease of small blood vessels. Diabetic nerve damage can affect the nerves that are important for penile erection, causing erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence). Diabetic neuropathy can also affect nerves to the stomach and intestines, causing nausea, weight loss, diarrhea, and other symptoms of gastroparesis (delayed emptying of food contents from the stomach into the intestines, due to ineffective contraction of the stomach muscles).
The pain of diabetic nerve damage may respond to traditional treatments with gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin) or carbamazapine (Tegretol) with topically applied capsaicin (an extract of pepper).
Gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) are medications that are traditionally used in the treatment of seizure disorders. The pain of diabetic nerve damage may also improve with better blood sugar control, though unfortunately blood glucose control and the course of neuropathy do not always go hand in hand. The chart below gives you an idea of where your blood sugar level should be throughout the day.
This form of diabetes develops much more gradually and so symptoms may not be apparent for many years.
Individuals with diabetes rapidly become hyperglycaemic and their blood glucose level remains above normal. Healthy individuals will release insulin to store the excess glucose and return their blood glucose level to normal. Blood glucose in the diabetic rises and stays above normal.The healthy person regulates their glucose back to normal.
In the UK, there are significant variations in the frequency of type 2 diabetes between different population groups. The graph shows the incidence of diabetes in adults over the age of 16 from different population groups (type 1 plus type 2).
As families relocate from Asia to Europe, their lifestyle and diet may change to ones that increase the risk of developing diabetes.
Genetic screening of families where someone has diabetes could lead to the identification of family members who have genes that make them susceptible to diabetes. When glucose is high in the blood but unable to enter cells, the body starts using stores of fat for energy, which results in the production of acidic ketones as a by-product. In the Unites States, diabetes affects fourteen million people and is the fourth leading cause of death. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1993a), reported that in 1990, an estimated 78,000 individuals had diabetes in Hawaii, only half of whom had been diagnosed. Long term complications of diabetes include cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, blindness, end-stage renal disease, neuropathy, amputations and birth defects in babies born to women with diabetes (NIH, 1994). The purpose of this project was to identify trends in diabetes rates over the past eight years of BRFSS data collection (1986-1993).
Initiated in 1986 with the assistance of the CDC, the BRFSS was designed to collect heath risk behavior information from adult residents and monitor the prevalence of the behaviors over time. The sample population (1986-1993) included all state residents over age 18, except for institutionalized persons and on-base military personnel. Care must be taken when interpreting this self-reported diabetes data because there is no way to determine actual clinical cases of diabetes mellitus. The original intent of this project was to identify trends in diabetes rates over the past eight years of BRFSS data collection (1986-1993).
Self-reported diabetes is defined as any BRFSS respondent who answered 'yes' to the question about diabetes.
Table 6 and Figure 6 show the rates of self-reported diabetes (for those individuals 'at risk' for obesity) for each ethnicity and gender. Japanese residents had the highest prevalence of self-reported diabetes among all ethnic groups. Across all ethnic groups, females had a higher prevalence of self-reported diabetes than males if they were at risk for obesity. Risk of self-reported diabetes increases if respondents belong to the Japanese ethnicity group.
These two two-way interaction terms were calculated from the above independent variables to identify any interaction between age group and gender on self-reported diabetes. All independent variables and interaction terms were entered into the analysis in one step. This analysis was performed to identify risk factors for self-reported diabetes regardless of ethnicity.
Age, Gender, Obesity Risk, and the interaction terms of Age by Gender were all significantly associated with self-reported diabetes as in Analysis Number 1 and Analysis Number 2.
Individuals 'at risk' for obesity had a higher risk of self-reported diabetes than individuals with no risk for obesity. Risk of self-reported diabetes increased if respondents belonged to the Japanese ethnicity group.
Based on pooled BRFSS survey responses (1988-1993), self-reported diabetes appeared in almost 6% of the surveyed population.
Because there was only one question asked about diabetes, the assumption of this project was that a 'yes' responses equaled Type II diabetes.
Hawaiians, part-Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders have a known risk for obesity (OHA, 1994 and Hawaii State Health Department, 1986-1993). We know that the prevalence of diabetes is unevenly distributed across ethnic groups in Hawaii, particularly the Japanese (Wood, et. Diabetes Updates – New Diagnostics, Increasing Rates, and Implications for Health Reform, CER, etc. Changes in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes is a great example for understanding how healthcare delivery constantly evolves based upon new discoveries.  And the history of these changes may help illuminate some thinking about health reform and the development and use of comparative effectiveness research (CER). And the prevalence of diabetes is increasing – and with it so are the costs of treating people with diabetes. While A1C testing has been used for years, there have been problems in standardizing the measurement. The challenges ahead are to make sure that we continue to utilize future discoveries in a timely and intelligent way. Research the correlation between diabetes rates and the introduction of the semi dwarf strain of wheat that we are being poisoned with. The UK is seeing an explosion of diabetes linked to growing obesity rates, experts are warning.
And by 2005, more than 4% of the population was classed as having diabetes - nearly double the rate of 10 years earlier. The bulk of cases are type 2 diabetes -which is linked to being overweight or obese - the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health reports.


The findings suggest that rates of diabetes are increasing at a faster rate in the UK than they are in the US, where prevalence of the disease is already one of the highest in the world. Of more than 42,642 people who were newly diagnosed with the disease between 1996 and 2005, just over 1,250 had the "insulin-dependent" type 1 diabetes, and more than 41,000 had later-onset type 2 disease, which is linked to lifestyle. While the numbers of new cases of type 1 diabetes remained fairly constant over the decade, the numbers of new cases of type 2 diabetes did not. The researchers from Spain and Sweden who analysed the data from almost five million medical records say the trends are not due to increased screening or the UK's ageing population, but from rising obesity rates. Over the course of the study, the proportion of patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who were obese increased by a fifth. Douglas Smallwood, chief executive of Diabetes UK, said: "This research is a sad indictment of the current state of the UK's health.
Professor Alan Maryon-Davis, president of the UK Faculty of Public Health, said: "Early detection and treatment are crucial. There are currently over 2.5 million people with diabetes in the UK and there are more than half a million people with diabetes who have the condition and don't know it. Type 2 diabetes usually appears in people over the age of 40, however, recently, more children are being diagnosed with the condition, some as young as seven.
According to Diabetes UK, statistics show that over 80% of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are overweight. The NHS is spending ?1m an hour - 10% of its yearly budget - treating diabetes and its complications, according to the charity. A Department of Health spokesperson said the rise in recorded diabetes cases was partly due to improvements in diagnosis, along with rising rates of obesity and an ageing population. As a result, more people were getting the support, advice and treatment required to prevent or delay complications.
Adolescent type 2 diabetes is  rare in the non-Hispanic white population but the incidence of type 1 diabetes among this group is one of the highest in the world.
Among the American Hispanic adolescent girls, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is higher than that of type 1 diabetes is higher than type 1 diabetes.
Adolescent type 2 diabetes among African Americans girls was about the same as white girls. Of all the demographics followed, the adolescent group with the highest incidence of type 2 diabetes were the Navajo. In addition to helping glucose enter the cells, insulin is also important in tightly regulating the level of glucose in the blood.
Type 1 diabetes was also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or juvenile onset diabetes mellitus. In type 2 diabetes, patients can still produce insulin, but do so relatively inadequately for their body’s needs.
In fact, for the first time in the history of humans, type 2 diabetes is now more common than type 1 diabetes in childhood. There is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and this holds true in children as well as adults. In patients with diabetes, the most common cause of low blood sugar is excessive use of insulin or other glucose-lowering medications, to lower the blood sugar level in diabetic patients in the presence of a delayed or absent meal. Approximately 50% of patients with diabetes will develop some degree of diabetic retinopathy after 10 years of diabetes, and 80% of diabetics have retinopathy after 15 years of the disease.
It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) used in treating high blood pressure may also benefit kidney disease in diabetic patients. In essence, the blood flow to the nerves is limited, leaving the nerves without blood flow, and they get damaged or die as a result (a term known as ischemia). Erectile dysfunction can also be caused by poor blood flow to the penis from diabetic blood vessel disease. Newer medications for nerve pain have recently come to market .Pregabalin (Lyrica) which has an indication for diabetic neuropathic pain and duloxetine (Cymbalta) are newer agents used in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.
Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — and how to control these day-to-day factors. After all, keeping your blood sugar level within your target range can help you live a long and healthy life with diabetes. Too little food in comparison to your diabetes medications — especially insulin — may result in dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
This is especially important if you’ve been inactive and plan to start exercising regularly. If you take insulin, you may need to adjust your insulin dose before exercising or wait a few hours to exercise after injecting insulin. Check your blood sugar level before, during and after exercise, especially if you take insulin or medications that can cause low blood sugar. If your diabetes medications cause your blood sugar level to drop too low, the dosage or timing may need to be adjusted. If you’re considering an over-the-counter medication or your doctor prescribes a new drug to treat another condition — such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol — ask your doctor or pharmacist if the medication may affect your blood sugar level.
Knowing your blood sugar levels allows you to alter your diabetes management strategy if your levels aren’t near your target blood sugar. The traditional method of testing your blood sugar involves pricking your finger with a lancet (a small, sharp needle), putting a drop of blood on a test strip and then placing the strip into a meter that displays your blood sugar level. Your ideal blood sugar range may be different from another person’s and will change throughout the day. Hemoglobin A1c provides an average of your blood sugar control over a six to 12 week period and is used in conjunction with home blood sugar monitoring to make adjustments in your diabetes medicines.
Your regular diabetes checkups aren’t meant to replace yearly physicals or routine eye exams.
Eating healthy foods and exercising regularly can go a long way toward controlling high blood pressure and cholesterol. Smoking increases your risk of various diabetes complications, including heart attack, stroke, nerve damage and kidney disease. Alcohol can cause either high or low blood sugar, depending on how much you drink and if you eat at the same time.
It is often diagnosed during healthy screening tests where the blood sugar level is found to be elevated despite there being no symptoms of diabetes.
This is quickly absorbed and their blood glucose level is measured over the next two hours. Black Caribbean, Pakistani, Indian and Bangladeshi groups all have high levels of diabetes.
18-44 years) and Gender was significantly associated with self-reported diabetes (p Table 8 provides the self-reported diabetes rates (per 1000 population) for Gender by Age Group with Figure 7 providing a graphical representation of this interaction. Many different types of non-insulin treatments for diabetes have also been developed – these act primarily by increasing insulin production from the pancreas or the action of the insulin in the body. This blog was created to foster discussion and analysis about how health policy and communications issues affect clinical and economic outcomes as part of HealthPolCom - the consulting business I started in 2000. Sadly, the statistics are not surprising as we know that the soaring rates of type 2 diabetes, are strongly linked to the country's expanding waistline.
But even so, researchers were surprised at the unexpected high rates of adolescent type 2 diabetes across nearly all racial and ethnic groups. SEARCH was funded by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in conjunction with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. And, as precious studies have shown, their rates of type 1 diabetes were higher than that of adolescents in Asia and the Western Pacific Region. This group, in common with a cross section group of adolescent with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes, had high-fat diets and sedentary lifestyles. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine.


When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level. Glucose is an essential nutrient that provides energy for the proper functioning of the body cells. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas undergoes an autoimmune attack by the body itself, and is rendered incapable of making insulin. In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin. Most of these cases are a direct result of poor eating habits, higher body weight, and lack of exercise.
It is estimated that the chance to develop diabetes doubles for every 20% increase over desirable body weight. After the person has fasted overnight (at least 8 hours), a single sample of blood is drawn and sent to the laboratory for analysis. When low blood sugar levels occur because of too much insulin, it is called an insulin reaction. Diseased small blood vessels in the back of the eye cause the leakage of protein and blood in the retina.
Initially, diseased small blood vessels in the kidneys cause the leakage of protein in the urine.
Symptoms of diabetic nerve damage include numbness, burning, and aching of the feet and lower extremities. Eating about the same amount of carbohydrates at each meal or snack will help keep your blood sugar level steady throughout the day. And any medications you take for conditions other than diabetes can affect your blood sugar level, too. Meters vary in features, readability (with larger displays or spoken instructions for the visually impaired), portability, speed, size, and cost. Keep a glucagon kit nearby in case of a low blood sugar emergency — and make sure your friends and loved ones know how to use it. During the physical, your doctor will look for any diabetes-related complications, as well as screen for other medical problems.
In fact, smokers who have diabetes are three times more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than are nonsmokers who have diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association. The hormones your body may produce in response to prolonged stress may prevent insulin from working properly, which only makes matters worse. If different, look for differences in diet and lifestyle that could explain the change in incidence. Its charter mission is to study the diabetes symptoms in teenagers by looking at the children and adolescents in the U.S. The study did note, however, that almost half of African Americans in the study of age 15 and older had poorly controlled blood sugar.
In patients with diabetes, the absence or insufficient production of insulin causes hyperglycemia.
Carbohydrates are broken down in the small intestine and the glucose in digested food is then absorbed by the intestinal cells into the bloodstream, and is carried by the bloodstream to all the cells in the body where it is utilized.
In response to the increased glucose level, the pancreas normally releases more insulin into the bloodstream to help glucose enter the cells and lower blood glucose levels after a meal. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the cells of the body (particularly fat and muscle cells).
Sometimes, low blood sugar can be the result of an insufficient caloric intake or sudden excessive physical exertion. Disease in these blood vessels also causes the formation of small aneurysms , and new but brittle blood vessels. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled.
When the nerve disease causes a complete loss of sensation in the feet, patients may not be aware of injuries to the feet, and fail to properly protect them. Simply eating about the same amount of food at about the same time every day can help you control your blood sugar level. Stop exercising if you experience any warning signs, such as severe shortness of breath, dizziness or chest pain. Current devices provide results in less than 15 seconds and can store this information for future use.
Establish a relationship with a diabetes educator, and ask your diabetes treatment team for help when you need it. 120% or more above ideal body weight, were at greater risk of self-reported diabetes than those with no risk for obesity.
This is significant because it is a long term precursor for developing diabetes in later life. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.
However, glucose cannot enter the cells alone and needs insulin to aid in its transport into the cells.
When the blood glucose levels are lowered, the insulin released from the pancreas is turned down. Spontaneous bleeding from the new and brittle blood vessels can lead to retinal scarring and retinal detachment, thus impairing vision. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required. The study’s goals are to track the number of adolescents under 20 with type 2 and type 1 diabetes and chart their differences and similarities by race, ethnicity, types of medical care and treatment, and how their disease affects the lives of people around them.
Without insulin, the cells become starved of glucose energy despite the presence of abundant glucose in the bloodstream.
In normal individuals, such a regulatory system helps to keep blood glucose levels in a tightly controlled range. Therefore, low blood sugar can lead to central nervous symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, weakness and tremors.
Dialysis involves using a machine that serves the function of the kidney by filtering and cleaning the blood. But even light activities — such as housework, gardening or being on your feet for extended periods — can lower your blood sugar level. Some meters also feature software kits that retrieve information from the meter and display graphs and charts of your past test results. Consult your doctor if you have a sore or other foot problem that doesn’t start to heal within a few days.
In patients with diabetes, the insulin is either absent, relatively insufficient for the body’s needs, or not used properly by the body. In patients who do not want to undergo chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation can be considered. Sometimes, minor foot injuries can lead to serious infection, ulcers, and even gangrene, necessitating surgical amputation of toes, feet, and other infected parts. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience.
Your health care provider will tell you when and how often you should check your blood sugar. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.



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