Type 2 diabetes population in us,medication error prevention pharmacist ce immunization,what is the normal glucose level for type 2 diabetes,jan hus bethlehem chapel - New On 2016


Nearly one in ten people globally will have some form of diabetes by 2035, the International Diabetes Federation predicts in a new report.
Below, check out the IDF’s chart on the current number of diabetes sufferers by region, and where the rates are projected to increase.
The US currently spends 1 in 5 healthcare dollars on diabetes — or 36% of the world total of diabetes spending on adults, the IDF says. We welcome comments that advance the story through relevant opinion, anecdotes, links and data. Wonder if our sedentary life style, especially developing in youths, will increase the number of diabetics. Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease of the pancreas that afflicts about 1 person in 700. Type II diabetes is a disease created by a definition based on the number of standard deviations a person’s fasting blood sugar is above the mean. If it were a real disease, it would have done something demonstrably destructive to me by now, but it hasn’t. I would like to see more studies about the Women’s Health Initiative effect on the decline of HRT.
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) -- the umbrella organization for 200 diabetes associations in more than 160 countries -- just released its 2013 Diabetes Atlas.
If you've been following the trend in diabetes, it will not surprise you to know diabetes continues to rise, unabated, around the world. Type 2 diabetes, which many consider an epidemic currently, is increasing worldwide predominantly due to poor diet, sedentary lifestyle and the fact that we are living longer.
Leonor Guariguata, IDF biostatistician and coordinator for the Diabetes Atlas, told me via email something shocking. Already, diabetes extracts a high cost in health care dollars, economies' financial stability, lost productivity, and it destroys lives and families.
Sir Michael Hirst, IDF President, told me via email that research shows one in 10 of the world's population will have diabetes by 2035. Diabetes imposes unacceptably high human, social and economic costs on countries at all income levels (p. Why are we willing to further erode our nation's economic progress with a stunning "ignore now, pay overwhelmingly later" game?
The refrain in public health is that, "People will make the healthy choice when the healthy choice is the easy choice." Guariguata agrees. If diabetes is in your family, make sure everyone gets a fasting blood sugar test and see whether you have diabetes or Stage 1, pre-diabetes. Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to convert sugar into energy.
The economic burden of T2D among South Asians makes this an important global clinical and public health challenge. Once each year, this quarterly report presents health insurance coverage rates for selected states. In 2010, the percentage of children under age 18 years who were uninsured at the time of interview was 7.8%. In 2010, among adults aged 19a€“25 years, 10 million (33.9%) were uninsured at the time of interview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is releasing selected estimates of health insurance coverage for the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S.
Three measures of lack of health insurance coverage are provided: (a) uninsured at the time of interview, (b) uninsured at least part of the year prior to interview (which also includes persons uninsured for more than a year), and (c) uninsured for more than a year at the time of interview. This report includes estimates for two new age groupsa€”persons aged 0a€“18 years and adults aged 19a€“25a€”in addition to the age groups traditionally used. For individuals with private health insurance, estimates are presented for enrollment in high deductible health plans (HDHPs), enrollment in consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs), and being in a family with a flexible spending account (FSA) for medical expenses.
This report is updated quarterly and is part of the NHIS Early Release (ER) Program, which releases updated selected estimates that are available from the NHIS website. For more information about NHIS and the Early Release (ER) Program, please see the Technical Notes and Additional Early Release Program Products sections of this report.
In 2010, 22.0% of persons under age 65 years were covered by public plans at the time of interview (Table 3).
In 2010, 61.2% of persons under age 65 were covered by private health insurance plans at the time of interview (Table 3). Based on data from the 2010 NHIS, Hispanic persons were more likely than non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic Asian persons to be uninsured at the time of interview, to have been uninsured for at least part of the past 12 months, and to have been uninsured for more than a year (Table 7).
Lack of health insurance coverage was greatest in the South and West regions of the United States (Table 7).
In 2010, among persons under age 65 with private health insurance, 20.4% were in a family that had a FSA for medical expenses (Figure 5). Nationally, 18.2% of persons under age 65 years lacked health insurance coverage at the time of interview in 2010 (Table 8). Public coverage rates among both children and adults aged 18a€“64 years are higher now than in 1997. The percentage of poor children who were uninsured at the time of interview decreased from 1997 through 2010 (Figure 9). Among children, all poverty status groups experienced an increase in public coverage between 1997 and 2010 (Table 5). The rate of private coverage among near poor children was 24.5 percentage points lower in 2010 than in 1997 (Table 6). This report also includes estimates of three types of consumer-directed private health care. The 2010 health insurance estimates are being released prior to final data editing and final weighting, to provide access to the most recent information from NHIS.
NHIS is a comprehensive health survey that can be used to relate health insurance coverage to health outcomes and health care utilization.
The data for this report are derived from the Family Core component of the 1997a€“2010 NHIS, which collects information on all family members in each household. An error was made in the poststratification component of weights from January 2004 through 2008.
Point estimates, and estimates of their variances, were calculated using SUDAAN software to account for the complex sample design of NHIS. The average design effect for each health insurance measure and domain was estimated by averaging the design effect derived from SUDAAN-based estimates of standard errors for the 10 largest states.
Both of the September 2007 Early Release (ER) reports used final in-house design variables for estimating variance for the 2006 estimates. Unless otherwise noted, all estimates shown meet the NCHS standard of having less than or equal to 30% relative standard error. Two additional questions were added to the health insurance section of NHIS beginning with the third quarter of 2004. Respondents who were considered insured at the time of interview were asked about periods of noncoverage in the past year.
Of the 892 people (unweighted) who were eligible to receive the MCAREPRB question in the third and fourth quarters of 2004, 55.4% indicated they were covered by Medicare. For persons with private health insurance, a new question regarding the annual deductible of each private health insurance plan was added beginning in 2007. Data on health insurance status were edited using an automated system based on logic checks and keyword searches. High deductible health plan (HDHP) - A HDHP was defined in 2010 as a private health plan with an annual deductible of not less than $1,200 for self-only coverage or $2,400 for family coverage.
Consumer-directed health plan (CDHP) - A CDHP is defined as a HDHP with a special account to pay for medical expenses; unspent funds are carried over to subsequent years. Health savings account (HSA) - A HSA is a tax-advantaged account or fund that can be used to pay for medical expenses. The measures of HDHP enrollment, CDHP enrollment, and being in a family with a FSA for medical expenses are not mutually exclusive. Directly purchased coverage - Private insurance that was originally obtained through direct purchase or through other means not related to employment. Employment-based coverage - Private insurance that was originally obtained through a present or former employer or union or a professional association. Education - The categories of education are based on the years of school completed or highest degree obtained for persons aged 18 years and over.
Employment - Employment status is assessed at the time of interview and is obtained for persons aged 18 years and over.
Hispanic or Latino origin and race - Hispanic or Latino origin and race are two separate and distinct categories. Poverty status - Poverty categories are based on the ratio of the family's income in the previous calendar year to the appropriate poverty threshold (given the family's size and number of children) defined by the U.S.


See the NHIS Survey Description Documents for 1997-2009 (available from the NHIS website) for more information on the unknown income and unknown poverty status categories. Prior to 2007, the Income and Assets section in the Family Core component of the NHIS instrument allowed respondents to report their family income in several ways. In the 2007 NHIS, the family income section of the questionnaire was redesigned to improve the collection of income information and to reduce the amount of income nonresponse. Based on preliminary data from the first quarter of 2007, 56% of the respondents eligible for the modified income follow-up questions answered all the questions in the applicable path. Wireless Substitution: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey (22) is published in May and December and provides selected estimates of telephone coverage in the United States.
Announcements about Early Releases, other new data releases, publications, or corrections related to NHIS will be sent to members of the HISUSERS listserv. 1 A person was defined as uninsured if he or she did not have any private health insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, Childrena€™s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), state-sponsored or other government-sponsored health plan, or military plan.
3 Beginning in the third quarter of 2004, two additional questions were added to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) insurance section to reduce potential errors in reporting Medicare and Medicaid status.
There are some 382 million people living with the disease, but that could jump 55% by 2035, the IDF says.
If you see a comment that you believe is irrelevant or inappropriate, you can flag it to our editors by using the report abuse links. Type I diabetics’ immune systems usually go on to destroy other organs, typically the arteries and kidneys, which is why 65% of Type I diabetics die from heart attacks and strokes.
The single biggest cause of Type II diabetes is the lack of Type I diabetics sufficient to make money for Big Pharma. That despite being a non-communicable disease, where there are changes in risk factors and environments, diabetes will spread from one community to the other, essentially acting like a communicable disease.
14) of diabetes deaths are in people under 60 years old, handicapping Africa's ability for development. In every respect -- human, financial, societal -- the burden of diabetes is, and is becoming, crippling. Put pressure on your policy makers to vote for health, and create a healthier lifestyle for yourself and your family.
This allows sugar (glucose) levels to build up in the blood. Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, and a major contributor to development of coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Almost 50% of persons with a private plan obtained by means other than through employment were enrolled in a HDHP. These two age groups are of special interest because of provisions of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (P.L. Adults aged 18a€“64 were more than three times as likely as children to have been uninsured for more than a year (Figure 1).
Based on 2010 data, 38.8% of poor adults aged 18a€“64 were covered by a public plan (Table 5).
More than one-quarter of Hispanic persons were uninsured at the time of interview, and more than one-third had been uninsured for at least part of the past year. Starting at age 18, younger adults were more likely than older adults to lack health insurance coverage. However, approximately one in four persons under age 65 in Arizona, Florida, and Texas, and one in five persons under age 65 in California, Georgia, and North Carolina, lacked coverage at the time of interview. From 1999 through 2010, there has been a generally increasing trend in the percentage of adults aged 18a€“64 who were uninsured for more than a year.
During the same period, the percentage of poor adults who were uninsured remained relatively stable (Figure 10). However, the largest increase was seen among near poor children, for whom coverage by a public plan more than doubled during the same period.
As shown in Figure 11, among near poor children the percentage without health insurance and the percentage with private health insurance coverage declined since 1997, while public coverage increased. Impact of Medicare and Medicaid probe questions on health insurance estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 2004. Impact of income bracketing on poverty measures used in the National Health Interview Survey's Early Release Program: Preliminary data from the 2007 NHIS [PDF - 516 KB].
Early release of selected estimates based on data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey.
To reflect different policy-relevant perspectives, different time frames are used to measure lack of insurance coverage. Consumer-directed health care may enable individuals to have more control over when and how they access care, what types of care they use, and how much they spend on health care services. NHIS is a multistage probability sample survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. The Taylor series linearization method was chosen for estimation of standard errors for the 10 states with the largest sample sizes (California, Florida, Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas).
For this report, standard errors for 10 states were estimated by multiplying the SRS standard error by the average design effect for each health insurance measure and domain. ER reports other than the September 2007 update use ER interim design variables to estimate variance, with the exception of the state-level estimates, which use the final in-house design variables to estimate variance.
Differences between percentages or rates were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. One question, MCAREPRB, was asked of persons aged 65 years and over who had not indicated that they had Medicare. For persons who did not have health insurance at the time of interview, a question was asked concerning the length of time since the respondent had coverage. Method 2 estimates are based on responses to three questions (HIKIND, MCAREPRB, and MCAIDPRB). Of the 9,146 people (unweighted) who were eligible to receive the MCAIDPRB question in the third and fourth quarters of 2004, 3.0% indicated they were covered by Medicaid. For plans considered to be high deductible health plans (HDHPs), a follow-up question was asked regarding special accounts or funds used to pay for medical expenses: a health savings account (HSA) or a health reimbursement account (HRA). These accounts are offered by some employers to allow employees to set aside pre-tax dollars of their own money for their use throughout the year to reimburse themselves for their out-of-pocket expenses for health care. Only years completed in a school that advances a person toward an elementary or high school diploma, a General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma (GED), or a college, university, or professional degree are included. Respondents were first asked to provide their combined family income before taxes from all sources for the previous calendar year in a dollar amount (from $0 to $999,995). Questions used to collect income data from respondents who initially would not indicate the amount of their family's income in the last calendar year were changed from using a flash card approach to using a set of unfolding brackets. Initial evaluations of the distribution of poverty among selected demographic variables in the first quarter of 2007 suggest that poverty estimates are generally comparable with years 2006 and earlier (19).
Beginning with survey year 2007, the imputation procedure was modified to take into account the changes made to the income section. Early Release of Selected Estimates Based on Data From the National Health Interview Survey (21) is published quarterly and provides estimates of 15 selected measures of health, including insurance coverage.
Health insurance coverage: Early release of estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population.
A person was also defined as uninsured if he or she had only Indian Health Service coverage or had only a private plan that paid for one type of service, such as accidents or dental care. Persons aged 65 and over not reporting Medicare coverage were asked explicitly about Medicare coverage, and persons under age 65 with no reported coverage were asked explicitly about Medicaid coverage. The number of Chinese with the disease is skyrocketing as well, up to 114 million in 2010 from just 22 million in 2007. Like the child and his brother in Africa who walk four hours in no shoes once a week to get insulin from the one clinic. An estimated 20.4% of persons with private health insurance were in a family with a flexible spending account (FSA) for medical expenses.
Among adults in age groups 18a€“24, 25a€“34, 35a€“44, and 45a€“64 years, men were more likely than women to lack health insurance coverage at the time of interview (Figure 2). These rates are two to more than three times as high as those for persons with more than a high school education. There was a significant increase in enrollment in HDHPs without HSAs, and in CDHPs, between 2007 (when NHIS started collecting this information) and 2010. By contrast, rates of noncoverage at the time of interview in Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Wisconsin were lower than the national average. Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Wisconsin had rates above the national average. There has been a generally increasing trend in the percentage of adults aged 18a€“64 who lacked coverage at the time of interview.
Consumer-directed health plans: Early enrollee experiences with health savings accounts and eligible health plans.


The measure of uninsured at the time of interview provides an estimate of persons who at any given time may have experienced barriers to obtaining needed health care.
National attention to consumer-directed health care increased following enactment of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (P.L. Occasionally, due to decisions made for the final data editing and weighting, estimates based on preliminary editing procedures may differ by more than 0.3 percentage points from estimates based on final files. The survey is conducted continuously throughout the year for NCHS by interviewers of the U.S. Because NHIS is conducted throughout the year, yielding a nationally representative sample each week, data can be analyzed weekly or quarterly to monitor health insurance coverage trends.
The fundamental structure of the new 2006 NHIS sample design is very similar to the previous 1995a€“2005 NHIS sample design. Because of the small sample sizes and limitations in the NHIS design, similarly estimated standard errors for other states could be unstable or negatively biased.
Trends in coverage were assessed by using Joinpoint regression (2), which characterizes trends as joined linear segments. A small number of persons were covered by both public and private plans and were included in both categories. INCLUDE those that pay for only one type of service (nursing home care, accidents, or dental care).
Lastly, a new question was added about family enrollment in a flexible spending account (FSA) for medical expenses. For 2009, the annual deductible for self-only coverage was $1,150 and for family coverage was $2,300. The funds contributed to the account are not subject to federal income tax at the time of deposit. Education in other schools, or home schooling, is counted only if the credits are accepted in a regular school system.
Hispanic or Latino origin includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, or Spanish origins.
The 2004 estimates of coverage by poverty status were recalculated using the final microdata.
Respondents who did not know or refused to state an amount were then asked if their combined family income in the previous calendar year was $20,000 or more, or less than $20,000. As a result of the changes in the questions, the 2007 through 2010 poverty ratio variable has fewer missing values compared with prior years. The imputed income files are released a few months after the annual release of NHIS microdata and are not available for the ER updates. Other measures of health include estimates of having a usual place to go for medical care, obtaining needed medical care, influenza vaccination, pneumococcal vaccination, obesity, leisure-time physical activity, current smoking, alcohol consumption, HIV testing, general health status, personal care needs, serious psychological distress, diagnosed diabetes, and asthma episodes and current asthma. Estimates of uninsurance for 2004 were calculated both without the additional information from these questions (noted as Method 1) and with the responses to these questions (noted as Method 2). Or the young wife in India who has sold all the family possessions to buy her husband medicine and nurse him. For persons under age 65, approximately 8% of private health plans were directly purchased (estimates not shown). Conversely, private health care coverage rates among both children and adults aged 18a€“64 are lower now than in 1997.
Private coverage among not poor adults aged 18a€“64 generally decreased from 1997 through 2010. The estimate of persons who were uninsured at any time in the year prior to interview provides an annual caseload of persons who may experience these barriers. Oversampling of the black and Hispanic populations has been retained, and the new sample design also oversamples the Asian population. The estimated standard error of the difference between state and national estimates accounted for the nonindependence of these estimates by incorporating their covariance. A person was defined as uninsured if he or she did not have any private health insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, CHIP, state-sponsored or other government-sponsored health plan, or military plan, at the time of interview. Estimates for 2004 are presented using Method 2 in the figures and both Method 1 and Method 2 in the tables. For 2007 and 2008, the annual deductible for self-only coverage was $1,100 and for family coverage was $2,200.
Unlike with flexible spending accounts (FSAs), HSA funds roll over and accumulate year to year if not spent.
Race is based on the family respondent's description of his or her own race background, as well as the race background of other family members. The revised estimates were released in the March 2006 ER update and continue to be used in subsequent ER updates.
If they again refused to answer or said they did not know, they were not asked any more questions about their family income. These questions utilize a series of income intervals, and respondents answering the complete path of questions would answer either two or three questions.
Respondents who were reclassified as a€?covereda€? by the additional questions received the appropriate follow-up questions concerning periods of noncoverage for insured respondents.
Or my neighbor's Type 2 diabetes that has caused her health to fail dramatically so for days she doesn't leave the apartment. HDHPs constitute a growing share of both employment-based and directly purchased health plans. There has been a generally increasing trend in the percentage of adults aged 19a€“25 who lacked coverage at the time of interview. This measure includes persons who have insurance at the time of interview but who had a period of noncoverage in the year prior to interview, as well as those who are currently uninsured and who may have been uninsured for a long period of time. In 2007, three additional questions were added to the health insurance section of NHIS to monitor enrollment in consumer-directed health care among persons with private health insurance. In addition, persons aged 65 years and over have a higher probability of being selected as a sample adult. The weights for the 1997a€“1999 NHIS data were derived from 1990-census-based population estimates. For this report, the design effect is the ratio of the true standard error of an estimated percentage (taking into account the complex sample design) to the standard error of the estimated percentage from a simple random sample (SRS) based on the same number of persons. Joinpoint software uses statistical criteria to determine the fewest number of segments necessary to characterize a trend and the year(s) when segments begin and end. For conciseness, the text, tables, and figures in this report use shorter versions of the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and Hispanic or Latino origin terms. The first follow-up income question asks a respondent if the family's income is less than $50,000. These reclassified respondents were excluded in the tabulation of a€?uninsured for more than a yeara€? using Method 1 in 2004. Married or widowed adults aged 18 and over were more likely to have coverage than those who were divorced, separated, living with a partner, or never married.
Finally, the measure of lack of coverage for more than a year provides an estimate of those with a persistent lack of coverage who may be at high risk of not obtaining preventive services or care for illness and injury. Estimates for 2010 are provided for enrollment in high deductible health plans (HDHPs), plans with high deductibles coupled with health savings accounts (CDHPs), and being in a family with a flexible spending account (FSA) for medical expenses not otherwise covered. Weights for the 2000a€“2010 NHIS data were derived from 2000- census-based population estimates. The analyses excluded persons with unknown health insurance status (about 1% of respondents each year). As a result, these respondents did not receive the follow-up question concerning how long it had been since they had coverage. Funds may be used to pay for qualified medical expenses at any time without federal tax liability.
These three measures of lack of coverage are not mutually exclusive, and a given individual may be counted in more than one of the measures. However, they were asked the questions concerning noncoverage in the past 12 months for insured persons.
However, the flash card approach had a very low item response rate (15%a€“18%), and this led to income variables such as poverty ratio having relatively high levels of missing data (approximately 30% item nonresponse rate). Lack of comment regarding the difference between any two estimates does not necessarily mean that the difference was tested and found to be not significant.



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