Type 2 diabetes pathophysiology powerpoint,insulin medication for type 2 diabetes,diabetes and its herbal treatment guidelines - PDF Review


Today, type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects more than 23 million people in the United States1 and roughly 250 million people worldwide2. For patients with diabetes, existing drugs now allow them to manage glucose levels to some extent: not so for associated macrovascular complications including cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular complications. Research in T2D is moving away from the traditional view of diabetes as a disease involving decreased insulin secretion, reduced glucose uptake in the muscle and increased hepatic glucose production, to a much more complex condition involving numerous factors that give rise to hyperglycaemia, lipid modulation and subsequent complications. So how do we transfer our scientific knowledge into novel, differentiated drugs offering patients new and better treatment options? We provide an integrated network of science and technology to support pathway analysis, target assessment, biomarker discovery and validation. At Roche, we leverage external expertise, act as a preferred partner throughout the value chain and aim for the best-in-disease treatment programmes. In early development, we are working at the biological core of disease, with diabetes programmes in discovery using translational approaches, examining pathophysiology and working in experimental medicine. There is no question that diabetes will be one of the most challenging health problems of the 21st century. From pancreas, muscle and liver to a picture also encompassing brain, adipose tissue, kidneys and the digestive System. Some people who are diagnosed with diabetes haven’t experienced any diabetes symptoms — their diabetes was diagnosed from the results of a simple blood test. If you begin to notice any one of the above mentioned symptoms please contact your primary care physician. High blood-sugar levels from diabetes can damage blood vessels in your retina, the layer of nerve tissue at the back of your eye. Maintaining strict control of your blood sugar and following a strict diet are essential to preventing diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes. If you suddenly see a few specks or spots floating in your vision, this may indicate proliferative diabetic retinopathy, the growth of abnormal new blood vessels on your retina and optic nerve. You should have your eyes checked promptly if you experience changes in your vision that last more than a few days and are not associated with a change in blood sugar. Pregnant women with diabetes should schedule an appointment in the first trimester, because retinopathy can progress quickly during pregnancy. The etiology of type 2 diabetes is characterized by obesity, insulin and leptin resistance, and compensatory ? cell hyperplasia followed by islet degeneration, resulting in the eventual dysregulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. As the obesity pandemic grows, the incidence of this chronic disease continues to soar and experts project that during the next 25 years, the number of North Americans with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes will increase to 44.1 million2 and up to 380 million people globally3. Each year more than 3.8 million people die from diabetes-related causes, one death every 10 seconds.
However, in recent years, we have seen eight new classes of drugs approved for the management of T2D: metformin, glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, glinides, glucagon-like peptide analogues, amylin analogues, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors and bile-acid sequestrants. There is uncertainty about the place of improved glycaemic control in the prevention of macrovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. The pancreas, liver and muscle are involved but in the evolving view of T2D the brain, adipose tissue, kidneys and digestive system also play a part.


Through our collaborations, we gain first-hand access to academic information on new preclinical and clinical data on potential targets, pathways and new drug candidates as well as new technologies, biomarkers, diagnostic tools and applications.
At Roche, we believe our approaches will help us to find the best treatments to fit the individual patient so that, in the future, T2D and its associated complications become more manageable.
Since your kidneys must remove the excess glucose from your blood, it ends up in your urine, which can cause more frequent urination with more volume. When you lose an increased amount of fluid through frequent urination, you may become dehydrated and thirsty. Since your body is unable to use your blood glucose effectively, it begins to break down your energy stores such as fat, which can result in weight loss or a failure to gain weight in growing children.
Feeling tired is a common diabetes symptom because your body cannot convert the glucose in your blood into usable energy. Along with hunger and fatigue, it is not uncommon to feel irritable when you have diabetes.
Hope is an innovative and federally-qualified community health center offering comprehensive medical, dental, pharmacy and clinical research. If you have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you should see an ophthalmologist yearly beginning five years after the time of diabetes diagnosis. The American Academy of Ophthalmology now recommends that adults with no signs or risk factors for eye disease get a baseline eye disease screening at age 40—the time when early signs of disease and changes in vision may start to occur. Rapid changes in blood sugar can cause temporary blurring of vision in both eyes even if retinopathy is not present.
The recent identification of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) as a central player in the pathophysiology of many of these processes suggests a potentially unifying molecular link underlying the initiation and progression of type 2 diabetes. Insulin binds to its receptor in target cells, leading to the activation of an intrinsic tyrosine kinase located in the β subunit.
The development of such complications is an important concern considering that most deaths in diabetes are related to cardiovascular disease5.
By nurturing a culture that has science at its core, we aim to keep our Vascular and Metabolic Disease Discovery and Translational Medicine teams in Basel, Switzerland, and Nutley, New Jersey, USA, energised and engaged.
Taspoglutide, aleglitazar and dalcetrapib are potential first- or best-in-class compounds being developed to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and reduce complications in high-risk patients.
Your body is unable to use the glucose you have and is trying to tell you it needs more fuel.
Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent vision loss, and it’s important to maintain control of your blood sugar if you have diabetes. Your doctor may also order a special test called fluorescein angiography to find out if you need treatment.
The resulting autophosphorylation (P) of the insulin receptor on tyrosine (Tyr) residues increases the association of various signaling molecules, including IRS2.
Patients with T2D are two to three times more likely to develop a serious cardiovascular outcome compared to those without diabetes6,7. We strive to generate a deep knowledge and understanding of biological pathways and pathophysiology of disease.


In this test, a dye is injected into your arm and photos of your eye are taken to detect where fluid is leaking. Insulin receptor directly phosphorylates IRS2 on multiple tyrosine residues, which, in turn, initiates a variety of second messenger cascades. Despite risk-reduction strategies that include lowering of cholesterol and blood pressure, and smoking cessation, the majority of those with diabetes continue to die from cardiovascular causes8. Identifying the best targets and informative biomarkers allows us to stratify patients so they can best benefit from our potential treatments.
However, the body needs insulin to absorb glucose from the bloodstream and circulate it to the various cells of the body.
Recent work has demonstrated a critical role for IRS2 in the maintenance of peripheral insulin sensitivity, central leptin sensitivity, and proper β cell development in the islets of Langerhans (11, 12). The high level of glucose in the blood can cause damage to the vascular system in the heart, liver, kidneys, eyes and nervous system. This disease can occur at any age, but more often its development began in childhood.Diabetes type 1 is a disorder of the immune system. Antibodies were supposed to fortify the body from bacteria and viruses even attacking pancreatic and destroys insulin-producing cells (beta cells).
As a result, the pancreas can no longer produce insulin for the body.Treatment of diabetes type 1 in the form of regular insulin injections, because the sufferer is no longer able to produce insulin.
However, the amount produced can not meet the body’s need or because body cells do not respond to insulin properly (insulin resistance). Insulin resistance is the most common cause of diabetes type 2.People who are overweight have a greater risk of developing diabetes type 2, as obesity can cause insulin-resistant conditions.
Insulin resistance causes blood sugar (glucose) increases, because although the pancreas work harder to produce the hormone insulin still not be able to keep blood sugar within normal levels.Although diabetes can not be cured, people with diabetes can still live a healthy and normal if handled appropriately. This type of diabetes is often difficult to detect because of the hormonal activity is high in pregnant women.
The high level of glucose in pregnancy will affect the baby because glucose also becomes circulated through the placenta and the baby in the womb.
Regular consultation with a doctor is needed to diabetes can be detected early.Gestational diabetes usually resolves after giving birth. But having gestational diabetes during pregnancy makes the woman has a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. Most people think that diabetes is just one disease that occurs due to high sugar levels in the blood.
In the meantime, have not found a medicine that can cure diabetes with certainty, so it can only be prevented and controlled.
However, sometimes we do not realize how important the function of the eye until there is a problem or health problems in the eye.



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