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Healthy People 2010 identified overweight and obesity as 1 of 10 leading health indicators and called for a reduction in the proportion of children and adolescents who are overweight or obese, but the United States has made little progress toward the target goal.
Results from the 2007-2008 NHANES, using measured heights and weights, indicate that an estimated 16.9% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years are obese.
NHANES used stratified, multistage, probability samples of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S.
2 Data for 1963-1965 are for children aged 6-11; data for 1966-1970 are for adolescents aged 12-17, not 12-19 years. NOTE: Obesity defined as body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to sex- and age-specific 95th percentile from the 2000 CDC Growth Charts. Women and Belly Fat Traditionally women store more lower body fat than men because of estrogen. This entry was posted in Misc, Nutrition, Supplements and tagged abdominal fat, belly fat, cortisol, inflammation, Woman and Belly Fat.
Diabetes is an incurable condition in which the body cannot control blood sugar levels, because of problems with the hormone insulin.
Under normal circumstances, the hormone insulin, which is made by your pancreas, carefully regulates how much glucose is in the blood.
After a meal, the amount of glucose in your blood rises, which triggers the release of insulin. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, and the immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas. The exact mechanisms that lead to Type 2 diabetes are not fully understood, but an underlying genetic susceptibility is usually present.
Gestational Diabetes - During pregnancy, some women experience heightened blood sugar levels and can't produce enough insulin to absorb it all. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) - Caused by a mutation in a single gene and is also very rare.
If people living with Type 1 diabetes don't receive treatment they can develop very high blood sugar levels - hyperglycaemia - within days. At the same time, the body starts breaking down fat for fuel to counter the low levels of sugar available to the cells. Those with Type 1 can also suffer a dangerous complication of treatment known as hypoglycaemia, which can cause a coma. If treatment doesn't effectively control high blood sugar levels, it leaves a person with diabetes more vulnerable to infections. Type 2 diabetes tends to develop more gradually, which is one of the reasons why medical professionals think that so many cases go undiagnosed. In the long-term, diabetes raises the risk of many conditions, including peripheral vascular disease (when the arteries to the extremities are damaged by atherosclerosis) and peripheral nerve damage. Deregulation of epigenetic profiles has been described in several human pathologies, including complex diseases (such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases), metabolic pathologies (type 2 diabetes and obesity) and imprinting disorders. However, in recent years we have accumulated some evidence about the role of germline mutations of epigenetic modifiers and their contribution to the development of human diseases.


Evidence is mounting of the involvement of genetic mutations of genes related to DNA methylation, such as Rett syndrome (due to mutations in the methyl-binding domain protein MeCP2) and Immunodeficiency Centromeric instability Facial syndrome 1 (ICF1) (due to mutations in the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3).
Until now, we had identified genetic mutations that could change the epigenetic patterns; but we still do not understand which are the altered putative downstream genes (epigenetically regulated) that result in specific clinical phenotypes.
Progress toward reducing the national prevalence of overweight and obesity is monitored using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In NHANES III (1988-1994) there was no significant difference in prevalence between Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white adolescent boys. Insulin stimulates cells all over your body to absorb enough glucose from the blood to provide the energy, or fuel, that they need.
It tends to affect people before the age of 40, and often follows a trigger such as a viral infection. In most cases it develops between the 14th and 26th week of pregnancy, known as the second trimester, and disappears after the baby is born.
Because there is no insulin to drive the sugar from the blood into the cells, the kidneys try to remove the excess glucose. This leads to toxic levels of acids building up in the blood - a life-threatening condition known as ketoacidosis. This occurs when blood sugar levels fall dangerously low as a result of taking too much insulin, or sometimes by skipping a meal.
Over time it can also damage the small blood vessels and nerves throughout the body, including the smaller vessels at the back of the eye, which can result in blindness, and the kidneys, leading to kidney failure.
Deleterious epigenetic profiles could be a consequence of mutations in the “writers” “erasers” and  “readers”, that is to say, dysfunctional enzymes that are responsible for putting in and out the epigenetic marks and for their cellular interpretation. Most of these disorders are included under the term “rare diseases” – any disease that affects a small percentage of the population (although there is no general consensus about what “small percentage” exactly means).
In contrast to the limited number of mutations affecting DNA methylation, the huge number of rare disorders that could be associated with mutations in histone modifiers and chromatin-remodelling proteins must be highlighted. Most importantly, we are still in the infancy of the understanding of how such epigenetic defects (potentially reversible) could provide a target for therapeutic intervention.
Between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, there was no significant trend in obesity prevalence for any age group. Based on current recommendations of expert committees, children with BMI values at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific BMI growth charts are categorized as obese.
A household interview and a physical examination were conducted for each survey participant. It can also be produced by carbohydrates such as potatoes, pasta or bread when they are digested and broken down.
In Type 2 diabetes, either the pancreas cells do not make enough insulin, or the body's cells do not react properly to it. The condition is then triggered by lifestyle factors - such as obesity - and it usually appears in people over the age of 40.
The brain requires a constant supply of glucose from the blood otherwise it can't function properly.


As the most studied example, more than 40 de novo recurrent disruptions of several genes encoding components of the epigenetic machineries are typically observed in many tumors [1].
Homozygous mutations affecting epigenetic enzymes are lethal reflecting the vital role of epigenetics in normal development and differentiation. Why this frequency?  There is not clear explanation; however, it could be associated with the overlapping function of histone modifiers in specific residues.
The possibilities have only just begun to be explored in human patients, but the basis of this therapy has been confirmed in animal models. This is different from previous years where children above this cutoff were labeled overweight.
During the physical examination, conducted in a mobile examination center, height and weight were measured as part of a more comprehensive set of body measurements. However, an increasing number of heterozygous mutations during early development have been identified, especially in diseases affecting intellectual disability [2].
This change in terminology reflects the labels used by organizations such as the Institute of Medicine and the American Academy of Pediatrics. These measurements were taken by trained health technicians, using standardized measuring procedures and equipment.
The nervous system represents an immensely complex structure in which the orchestrated control of gene expression (partially due to epigenetic control) faces its major challenge. As new members of the epigenetic machinery are described, the number of human syndromes associated with epigenetic alterations increases [6]. The understanding of the contribution of epigenetic change to rare disorders and common neurological disorders will hopefully provide us with better molecular tools for an improved diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of these patients in the future. Observations for persons missing a valid height or weight measurement or for pregnant females were not included in the data analysis. Some interesting data: 3 of 4 genes are expressed in the brain [3], and it expresses more alternatively spliced transcripts [4] and miRNAs [5] than any other tissue. As recent examples, mutations of histone demethylases and members of the non-coding RNA machinery have recently been associated with Kabuki syndrome (mutations in JMJD3), Claes-Jensen X-linked mental retardation syndrome (JARID1C mutations) or Goiter syndrome (DICER mutations).
The complexity of the nervous system makes it especially sensitive to epigenetic disturbances, and consequently, many mental disorders are caused by mutations in the epigenetic machinery. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. Although this cutpoint is not diagnostic, elevated BMI among children indicates increased risk for future adverse health outcomes or development of disease.



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