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Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Noted ? Bronchospasm is present with obstruction Outcome Partially Met:“Naglisod ko ug ginhawa, care, the patient will be adventitious breath sounds. Noted ? Bronchospasm is present with obstruction“Naglisod ko ug ginhawa, nursing care, the patient adventitious breath sounds. Changed positions every 2 pressure of diaphragm and enhancing 90%) and reduced ? Used of accessory muscle cyanosis, oxygen hours. Changed positions every 2 pressure of diaphragm and enhancing ? Used of accessory muscle hours.
Noted ? Bronchospasm is present with obstruction Outcome met.“Naglisod ko ug ginhawa, nursing care, the patient adventitious breath sounds.
Using warm liquids may decrease independent and ? Reduced tolerance to arrest, respiratory failure, bronchospasms. En este contexto, tanto la productividad como la competitividad se deben apoyar con conocimiento que facilite y promueva la capacidad de innovación organizacional.
Therefore, the evolution of computer science has allowed the appearance and evolution of systems that facilitate the elicitation, classification, codification, storage, maintenance and update of the necessary information for the organizations. It leans more on the knowledge acquired and developed by its personnel than in the classic production factors, in order to generate a major productivity. The generation of value by means of knowledge application and the personnel’s creativity allows generating strategies that affect the improvement of processes or products and, still more, in the establishment of innovation processes tending to support the establishment of competitive strategies. This facilitates simultaneity and participation between people located in different places, as well as security in the exchange of information in real- time. In the same way, process monitoring, quality estimation and fault diagnosis activities could be automated and supervised by embedding them into a real-time knowledge-based system (RTKBS). Likewise, knowledge-based systems utilize acquired human expert knowledge in a computer, with the purpose of obtaining, storing and sharing this expertise (as well as knowledge extracted from databases or got from external sources) in order to be on hand for non experts. Therefore expert systems that focus onto support organizational making decisions are equipped with components denominated knowledge-based management subsystems. Thus, taking advantage of the characteristics of these systems and the contribution that can be obtained from them in a knowledge management system, with the systemic perspective obtained by the authors and regarding aspects like knowledge, practices and resources needed in clinical and laboratory practices, the authors design and propose a systemic model that can support diabetes research and clinical process. If diabetes does not stay down under control, it can generate very serious complications to human health. With illustrative purpose and to obviate time, figure 1 shown the most known group of symptoms related with different aspects, such as age, genetics, cultural and individual habits, which involved a wide range of scientific and empiric knowledge. According to Mexican Institute for Social Security, this type of diabetes provokes that the body unknowns own tissues and tries to destroy them; it attacks its insulin-producer cells (beta cells). So the metabolism of proteins, fat or carbohydrates cannot be carry out in an appropriate way because of the lack of insulin.
Although Type-1 diabetes is not curable, it can be under control; nonetheless, if patient has not adequate care of it, he could go into a cetoacidotic mortal coma.
Besides an appropriate diet and exercising, it is necessary patients maintain control of both arterial pressure and cholesterol, trying to get glucose at non-diabetic levels. He mentioned, in subjects with Type-1 diabetes, exogenous insulin is necessary for regulation of glycaemia. So, optimal control would reduce hyperglycaemia, which may cause long-term microvascular damage, blindness, renal impairment and peripheral neuropathy; it would also reduce the risk of life-threatening hypoglycaemia.
A most frequent issue in overweight people, without forgetting risks produced by age, genetic propensity or personal habits, such as feeding and sedentary lifestyle.
Among cares patients must take of themselves, it is possible to mention some like get periodical checkups for kidneys, hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, feet or teeth. It should be noted that in world death causes, an outstanding issue is that provoked by Type-2 diabetes derived from cardiovascular complications, which could be diminished if there existed an adequate resource that allowed diagnosing, treating and educating patients with respect to their clinical controls and personal habits.
This condition was endorsed by Lincoln et al., (2008) they developed a mathematical model to determine the effect of a foot care education programme in the secondary prevention of foot ulcers. Thus, they concluded that although they could not document a benefit from their particular intervention chosen for study, they consideres that every effort should continue to be made to ensure that patients with healed ulcers reduce risk associated behaviour as much as possible. As mentioned before, diabetic patients should be conscious about lipids and arterial tension control as well as their exercising and nutritional habits. It is convenient to mention that the participants in the case study were generally overweight. In order to control the glucose levels during pregnancy and to ensure health for her fetus and avoid potential problems during childbirth, mothers with this diabetes type have an increased risk in undergoing arterial hypertension during pregnancy.
However, women with gestational diabetes can evolve diabetes 5 or 10 years after child birthing which is a risk that could increase in obese women. In MedlinePlus, it is recommended that pregnant women who suffer gestational diabetes tend to got greater babies when being born.
Babies could be prone to got low sugar periods in blood (hypoglucaemia) during the first days of their lives.
Women with gestational diabetes must be monitor carefully after the childbirth, in regular medical appointments, looking for diabetes signs.
If women undergo to prenatal screening tests, between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy, this will support to detect gestational diabetes at just the right moment. Also, when being born, the baby can present a high insulin level; although he has not longer receives sugar derivative from the placenta, his sugar level (glucose) would decrease below the normal energy levels, generating neonatal hypoglucaemia.
So, it has been suggested that the relationship between decreased insulin sensitivity and excessive fetal growth in obese women and women with this type of diabetes may explain some of the increased incidence of obesity and glucose intolerance in their offspring.
As an outcome of their study, these authors concluded that high maternal weight is associated with a substantially higher risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, compared with normal-weight pregnant women. So, women with GDM are associated with a higher risk of developing Type-2 diabetes later in life in both the mother and child.
Though Metformin is more acceptable to women with gestational diabetes mellitus than is insulin, Metformin crosses the placenta and could affect fetal physiology directly. As an outcome of their study, they found out that women receiving combined treatment required less insulin and gained less weight than those taking insulin alone.

So, they concluded that in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, Metformin (alone or with supplemental insulin) is not associated with increased perinatal complications as compared with insulin. So, derivative of this affection it is possible to find the types listed next: Central Insipid, motivated by a small amount or lack of the anti-diuretic hormone known as vasopressin, which limits the urine amount produced by the organism, causing the individual to drink large amounts of water to compensate the loss of water in his or her body, Nephritic (nephrogenous) Insipid, caused when kidneys are not able to respond to the vasopressin action, triggering the kidneys to release excessive quantities of water in the urine and the individual tinkles very much. Although it can depend on congenital origins, this type of diabetes can be provoked by some drugs, urinary obstructions or low levels of calcium or potassium.
This was confirmed by Chernyak et al., (2009) they found out that depression and elevated depression symptoms are more prevalent in patients with Type-2 diabetes than in those without diabetes.
Hypertension and diabetes are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular and renal diseases, and could result in premature death. Correspondingly, to O´Connor (2010), potential for the 30-aged Electronic Health Records technology to improve chronic disease care remains unrealized (especially, care for adults with Type-2 diabetes).
Also, the search for less aggressive energy sources for the environment has led to the production of biofuels like ethanol, biodiesel and methane, from renewable sources such as agricultural debris. Falcon et al., (2009) have worked with Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC), elucidating the mechanisms of electron transfer between microorganisms and electrodes in order to get better rates of electricity production. They also analyzed how opportunities and constraints in agricultural biotechnology in developing countries are of significance in responding to poverty.
So, they give significant importance to clustering to gain access to new ideas and tacit knowledge, especially in young industries and governments commitment to project financing.
Thus, in the bio-security scope, it is no longer novel to hear about the use of cantilevers and the appearance of water and oil nanoemulsions to monitor and detect bacteria and virus in the environment, besides powerful tools for the manipulation of cellular behavior in the treatment of diseases and in the always new field of tissue engineering. In this sense, a work has been developed by Voronov et al., (2009), modeling the flow behavior inside the space pore within scaffolds, using Poly-L-Lactic Acid (PLLA) and leaching salt with various grain size salt combinations. Also, Redi (2008) mentioned that staminal cells from human fatty tissue acquired cardiomiocit after its transitory exposure to a rat cardiomiocitic, which indicates the possibility of an efficient reprogramming of somatic cells between different species. It is important to mention that the Helsinki Declaration, written in 1964 by Worldwide Medical Association, in Finland, displays justification and principles to realize clinical investigations in humans.
Although therapies with antibodies represent one of the most promising sectors in the pharmaceutical industry, whose annual sales realize thousands of million dollars, commercialization of genetically-modified products causes great preoccupation.
People think that transgenic species would have more competitive advantages and, therefore, major possibilities of dominating natural communities, causing structural changes in natural ecosystems, injuring fauna or affect the health of humans which is unacceptable in the field of social ethics. In this context, Bioethics is meant in a special way where globalized ethics which involve great amounts of information (generated by international standards), brings about knowledge networks and the innovation clusters emergence, where computer science and knowledge-based systems play, again, an important role. Also, cellular cloning technology allows producing embryos in a way that, Felmer (2004) establishes cattle farmers would increase their herd performance in only one generation, since cellular cloning allows producing embryos from an ovum, without spermatozoa. With such embryos staminal cells can be obtained (pluripotentials) from an individual, to develop human tissues able to cure diseases like diabetes, Parkinson and Alzheimer syndromes or certain medullar injuries, diminishing rejections that could be produced in transplants. Nanosensors and nanoparticles could help in disease diagnosis and treatment, such as cancer, diabetes or viral disease. On one hand, Ozaydin-Ince et al., (2011) have created particles, called microworms, with cylindrical shape coated with a biocompatible porous membrane to create fluorescent sodium sensors for use as in vivo sodium concentration detectors after subcutaneous injection.
However, these hollow nanoparticles could be implanted under human skin and remain anchored at its original location to monitor levels of glucose.
So people with diabetes could check their blood sugar by glancing at an area of their skin.
On the other hand, Mann et al., (2010) state that, genic therapy can be bear in mind to envisage a new approach or promising tool in the search of a treatment for diabetes, because advances in the genic therapy field allow to dispose of safer and effective vectors to transfer genes of interest to different cells or tissues of the organism. Recently, the evolution of biotechnology and its interactions with nanotechnology has proved that medicine production by biotechnological methods (replacing traditional procedures) is a reality, as well as being safer and more economical. Multiple fuse sensors for detecting a wide rank of pathogens and indicating guests will be able to offer the highest detection capacity. Therefore, it is not strange that today people talk about biochips to determine correlation between gene expressions and different congenital diseases, at the moment without cure.
Protein handling and control, in response to the necessity to obtain great amounts of deficit proteins for hospitals have channeled investigations towards the transgenic animal use as bio-reactors (live reactors). Animals produce in their cells the necessary proteins for humans, as it is the case of cows, sheep and goats in which human gene cells are introduced, into their milk producer cells to codify proteins of therapeutic interest. Thus, important amount of the desired protein are developed which can be very useful for both new born babies, old or sick people.
Moreover, as coal nanotubes are much more resistant than steel, it is possible to design and build a prosthesis as seen in the research developed by Colombo and Vergani (2009), who experiment with a prosthesis to improve an athlete’s performances.
Nonetheless, these systems provide useful applications when needed to solve very complex problems. Likewise, knowledge-based systems may maintain operative interactions with other systems in a way that, eventually, they need information imported from other systems or, on the contrary, knowledge-based systems’ results could be exported to other systems, in order to be treated.
Since it is not possible to know what goes on inside an expert's head, there is no way to accurately capture thought process and reason.
So, using browsing tools to explore the knowledge of different views, the what-if analysis for case values and the display of rules and traces in a number of alternative formats give users control, linked to greater satisfaction and acceptance.
Many systems that manage knowledge use several Artificial Intelligence methods and tools, such as neural networks, intelligent agents or fuzzy logic, in order to carry out activities related with knowledge identification, knowledge engineering, tacit-to-explicit knowledge transfer, and so on. Also, among different applications of knowledge-based systems, it is possible to find applications such as diagnosis, planning, design, monitoring and process control, training and consultation services as is shown next. Thus, in an expository but non limitative way, some applications are mentioned that are possible to find in the globalized world. Management In order to improve strategic, tactic or operative processes, these systems are advocated in retrieving, managing and sharing information stored in databases needed for: Minimizing or reducing operation costs, offering improvement in planning, coordination and control of complex activities, Homogenizing and clarifying specialized information, including that needed for training, Evaluating or explaining decision making. Consultancy This knowledge-based systems activity includes disciplines such as medicine, jurisprudence, engineering, and so on, supporting organizations to use and control growing information volumes. They allow organizational workers to: Access information from experts, consultants or external sources, Modeling or simulating situations, problems or systems, Interpreting or explaining legal dispositions, Report elaboration, as well as updating operative information. So, they propose contextual graphs for uniform reasoning elements representation and contextual elements 356 at the level of links between contextualized reasoning elements that are organized in graphs like a nest of dolls, with no hierarchy. Thus, they infer that a contextual element may itself be a contextual knowledge piece (where more-basic contextual elements intervene) and consider that contextual graphs could facilitate representing good or bad practices, as a tool to identify and propose rational ways to improve human behaviors.
So that, concepts can be captured and queried, as well as connections among knowledge elements could be discovered.

Thus, Wang et al., (2008), present a self-associated concept mapping (SACM) in which they extend the use of mapping concept by proposing the idea of self-construction and automatic problem solving to traditional concept maps, in order to give the idea of concept maps with self-construction ability and automatic problem-solving ability. They conclude that using the knowledge-based system in conjunction with the simulator, factory engineers were able to produce results that increased production considerably and decreased feeder slot usage. Meanwhile, physiological states characterization was based on the correlation product between biochemical signals and, according to the results confirmed by microbiology experts.
The authors deduce that their method could help to automatically control and optimize the analyzed bioprocess.
Financial Management Perhaps one of the most demanding applications is involved in the financial world, because of the importance and complexity of this process, related to bank loans, financial accounting or auditing, stock exchange, and so on. In this context, it is necessary to hold intelligent tools that allow organization planning, controlling and evaluating different and complex existent systems, as well as the operational and financial effects derived from this process.
However, with the development of information technology, machine learning, and artificial intelligence, data mining appears and grows, in order to support detailed researchers to depend on reliable methods for financial distress prediction, because data mining dynamically mine out valuable hidden knowledge, which could be applied to predict listed companies’ financial distress.
In this context, the authors conclude that the decision tree can overcome lack of dynamic learning ability and understanding, in order to effectively predict listed companies’ financial distress.
Likewise, organizations could evaluate and control their programs related with assistance or customer services and control and evaluate their virtual environments or user’s behavior when they are connected.
The architecture of which consists of three functional components such as a log file filter, an access sequence miner, and a prediction-based buffer manager. Finally, the authors report that, through simulation, they found that their approach had a better performance than others in quantitative measures, such as hit ratios and byte hit ratios of accessed documents. Health Care Taking into account that the number of available Web-services increases and there is a growing demand to realize complex business processes by combining and reusing available Web-services, Argüello and Des (2007) concentrate one study about a services-based application for diagnosis and clinical management of Diabetic Retinopathy, where the end-users are health professionals who are not familiarized with Semantic Web technologies. Thus, they used the Ontology Web Language to encode domain ontology fragments and SWRL rule fragments as the inputs and outputs of Web services; focusing on Clinical Practice Guidelines (GL) related to the biomedical field.
Next is mentioned some works related with 449 the use of knowledge-based systems in biotechnological processes. Guthke et al., (1998) considered knowledge acquisition as a major bottleneck with respect to efficient computer control design of knowledge-based systems in bioprocess engineering and presented their work related with the automatic generation of fuzzy rules applied to data of an industrial antibiotic fermentation.
Likewise, due to the growing importance of the bioprocess monitoring capabilities both in bioprocess development and physiological studies, Olsson et al., (1998) focusing on on-line analytical systems, analyzed advantages and drawbacks of various of the most frequently used analytical techniques and components.
They concluded that it was possible to obtain a more accurate process description when all available sources of knowledge were incorporated in the process model. Also, Schügerl (2001) made a review about the development of bioprocess engineering in the past 20 years. He took into account advanced control, and used structured and hybrid models, expert systems and pattern recognition for process optimization, in order to give a report relating to the existing state of the art of metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering. He concluded that Artificial Intelligence and knowledge-based systems were tools that made possible an organized use of schematic information and logical descriptions.
Likewise, to provide efficiency and productivity to the powder industry, Alarkan, EsSaheb and Kamal (2009) presented a work in the 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting, ACEX-2009, related to the building of an expert system prototype which, using forward and backward searching techniques, acquired knowledge for the user to give, subsequently, recommendations on powder production method, satisfying the powder requirements for a specific application, taking advantage of a rule-based representation model. Thus, they found that osteomyelitis has different characteristics and prognosis if combined with a soft tissue infection. So, they consider that the endpoint in diabetic foot ulcers complicated by osteomyelitis must to be complete healing of the ulcer or surgical wound performed to treat the bone infection. If expertise is shared with others, it can provide knowledge which, integrated in an adapted process of qualification and development, supported with suitable technologies of information, will promote an effective forecast culture and an effective capacity response to environment changes. In this context, Artificial Intelligence has facilitated the appearance of systems for managing, catching, storing, distributing and sharing information, taking advantage of the specialization reached by their workers, as well as in the solution of either emergent or extraordinary events.
This avoids distracting the attention of specialists to routine tasks so that they can take care of major relevance tasks, thus improving expert personnel productivity. This proposal regards aspects like knowledge and practices, as well as resources that clinical and laboratory practices must utilize, taking into account that they can define and document the specific and necessary knowledge for their key activities.
Such as use, maintenance or improvement of methodologies, data repositories and information technologies that are generated in the daily work, in order to support the organizational productivity and competitiveness. Thus, the generated information could be used to support the organizational strategies related with its human or structural capital.
Because it is not the purpose of this work analyzing or treating about organizational development, the authors avoid go into this topic in any depth). Remembering that such interactions are fundamental for the organizational performance and, in consequence, these interactions must be considered in the organizational strategic planning. As it can be observed, besides integrating relational capital in the processes and results (taking advantage of the integration of computational, technical, and administrative systems), the proposed model would adapt properly with the organizational intentions, achieving a suitable leverage for the organizational performance. Hence, Thus, it is convenient, and necessary, to develop a knowledge management system that takes advantage of information systems owned by the organization, in order to effectively support the decision making for Diabetes’ research and clinical processes related with both internal and external knowledge, as well as acquired experiences from either experts or external sources related with the organization. Also, conditions are needed to encourage creation of new knowledge through knowledge-bodies and knowledge-networks, developing constructive collaborations within knowledge limits, in order to optimize results and focus the efforts of scientific researchers in the development of systems and products adapted to the culture and necessities of their communities. In spite of this, Globalization puts in reach of regional scientific communities great volumes of information, which should be used and disseminated in an effective way to facilitate the suitable use of this specific knowledge and to manage the accumulated organizational experience.
Nowadays, it is possible to get methodologies, techniques, models and robust tools that facilitate integration of information and knowledge into data repositories which could support strategic decision making, offering more advanced research fields corresponding to superior levels, such as fuzzy logic, data mining, neural and Bayesian networks, computational vision, and so on, as well as continuing the research and development in disciplines such as bioengineering, medicine, nanotechnology, accounting, and so on.
Thanks to the social, economic and environmental benefits obtained by means of Biotechnology, new possibilities emerge to direct worldwide economy to a more sustainable development and a better life quality. Soon, artificial organs will be used (since genetic engineering involves a significant advance in the Science objectives and life-sciences).
The systemic persistence of gaps between what is known and what practices impact on the quality of services is one of the iniquity causes in health. In this context, knowledge-based systems provide users with a set of robust tools for getting and describing metadata contents and their applications, besides to make easier the formal integration and retrieval of that data, for an adequate use of expertise or specific knowledge. In spite of political or cultural rejections, thanks to Artificial Intelligence techniques and tools that knowledge-based systems exploit, and the evolution of nanotechnical materials, Biotechnology can view the future with optimism. Thus, scientific communities from developing countries should only have to worry about getting economical conditions to develop their activities and projects, such as is suggested by Slingerland (2006) in her study about monogenic diabetes in children and young adults.

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  1. Lady_Neftchi

    Aged 20 years or older in 2007 and other sweetened beverages, water, coffee instance, a food regimen with high.


  2. NicaTin

    Applicable to everybody, not simply nursing moms ??is solely the fact only lose.