Type 2 diabetes mellitus thesis kuleuven,teenage type 1 diabetes blog,type 2 diabetes and stress management 2014,how to cure muscle pain from working out quotes - You Shoud Know

Diabetes can be very difficult to tackle if the basic fact and figures are unknown to the patient.
For this reason it is important to be tested during pregnancy usually between 26 and 28 weeks. The gestational diabetes (gestational diabetes mellitus) is a form of diabetes which is diagnosed during pregnancy.
Like Keaton she also did safe foods for diabetes 2 not get another nomination for this film.
The following information is intended to Learn all preparation and usage instructions including how to diabetes jobs tucson inject this medication properly and how Before injecting each dose clean the injection site with rubbing alcohol. Community Based Interactive Approach-diabetes mellitus (CBIA-DM) is an active self-learning method.
CBIA-DM strategy is effective to improve diabetic patientsa€™ knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care. BackgroundCommunity Based Interactive Approach (CBIA) is a method used for public education which emphasized on the active role of participants in looking for information.
MethodsThis is a time series pre and post quasi-experimental with control groups design [12]. ResultsThe highest amount of participants in the study was female in the CBIA-DM group (57a€‰%, na€‰=a€‰30), with mean of age 55.3a€‰years (ranges 39 a€“ 68).
Practising on diabetes self-care is showed by the number of CBIA-DM participantsa€™ adherence to all variables of diabetes self-care. DiscussionThe majority of participants in all groups are females with the age is 39a€‰years and over and duration of illness in all groups are equal. ConclusionsCBIA-DM strategy is effective in improving type 2 diabetic patientsa€™ knowledge, attitude, and practice towards diabetes self-care.
AcknowledgementsThe authors would like to thank all study participants, all discussion facilitators and all consultants who have contributed in this study; and also the help of colleagues at the Centre for Clinical Pharmacology and Medicine Policy Studies, Gadjah Mada University Indonesia. Competing interestsThe authors declare, there is no conflict of interest in financial either directly or indirectly associated with this manuscript.Authorsa€™ contributionsAll authors contributed to design of the study.
Brumpton B, Langhammer A, Romundstad P, Chen Y and Mai X-M The associations of anxiety and depression symptoms with weight change and incident obesity: The HUNT Study. Tsigos C, Chrousos GP Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors and stress. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Participants in the Joint-PhD-programme Heidi Ali-Kippari, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Ouluin cooperation with Prof. PhD project: The role of the Ubiquitin-specific protease 28 (USP28) in adipose tissue homeostasis. Since insulin is a major regulator of lipid metabolism and adipose tissue homeostasis, it is the aim of this research project to identify the role of USP28 in adipose tissue homeostasis and metabolism. PhD-project: Analysis of the fundamental cellular and molecular control mechanisms of the nephrogenesis, supervised by Prof. On embryonic day (E) E10 of mouse development, mesenchymal cells at the posterior end of the intermediate mesoderm acquire the competence to form the metanephric kidney and differentiate into nephrons.
The main methodology of our group is based on the classical in vitro organ culture namely the nephrogenic induction model. Preliminary results of microarray profiling revealed candidate genes (including Osr1, Pax2, Six2, Pod1, Notch2, Pax8, Fgf8 and Wnt-4) responsible or at least involved in regulation of nephrogenic induction. We expect to obtain fundamental information of the genetic program that sets the nephrogenesis competence; to gain a better understanding of the Wnt induced program that builds the nephron.
During embryonic development organogenesis is driven by growth factors such as Wnt proteins (Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member).
The Fzd3 receptor is known to influence organogenesis via its direct target gene alcam (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule). In addition, I am stydying the role of Alcam during organogenesis in more detail by characterizing the function of identified Alcam interaction partners using antisense strategies in Xenopus laevis.Juliane Sachsenweger, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ulm UniversityIn cooperation with Prof. PhD-Project: Molecular mechanisms leading to DNA damage response defects in patient cells carrying heterozygous mutations in the PALB2 or ABRAXAS genes, supervised by Prof. The c.1592Tdel Finnish PALB2 founder mutation causes an approximately 6-fold increase of the breast cancer risk. Phd-project: Plasmon-resonant gold nanoparticles as drug carriers and optical labels for cytological investigations, supervised by Dr.
Advances in development of plasmon-resonant nanoparticles (PRNPs) provide wide possibilities to use PRNPs with variable morphology in practically all biophotonic and biomedical applications due to the unique physical and chemical properties, specifically, plasmon resonance depending on particle size, shape, and structure. The aim of the PhD research is design and synthesis of plasmon-resonant nanostructures for optical diagnostics and therapy of cancer (theranostics) at cell and tissue levels. In frames of first research question the main attention is paid to the estimation of the plasmon-resonant nanocomposites, containing drug-loaded mesoporous silica and gold nanostars as a core as anticancer drug carriers and optical labels.
In particular, the goals of current part of research lye on synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles with different morphology to assess their plasmon resonance and scattering properties important for applications in biophotonics and diagnostics. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons.
The major aim of my PhD project is to characterize the function of CHCHD10 in healthy persons as well as in ALS patients. Ponna Srinivas Kumar, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu In cooperation with Prof. Shank family proteins (Shank1, Shank2 and Shank3) are postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins present in the excitatory neurons. Throughout the project, the emphasis will be on Shank3, but when relevant, the other isoforms are also considered. Melanie Rothe, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ulm Universityin cooperation with Prof. During embryogenesis, it is known that the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis and triggers many processes.
The excessive accumulation of fat in obesity leads to local hypoxia and inflammation of adipose tissue and subsequently to severe co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
We hypothesize that local hypoxia and subsequent inflammation are causing enhanced TRAIL and TRAIL-R levels and propose that in the obese state TRAIL might prevent expansion of adipose tissue by keeping the pool of precursors in the undifferentiated state. Susanna Kaisto, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Ouluin cooperation with Prof. Phd-project: Wnt4, Alcam and the Hypoxia Signaling Pathways in the Control of Nephron Assembly, supervised by Prof. The first aim in my PhD thesis work is to apply both the lack of function and overexpression models to study what are the functions of Wnt5a in kidney development. My second research question will target Wnt4, ALCAM and the hypoxia signalling pathways in the control of nephron assembly. As a third line of research I will setup the embryonic chick as a model system to study kidney development. Metabolic disorders and tumors represent diseases where reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated to play a pathogenic role. We will approach this by loss and gain of function studies in cell cultures and in mice accompanied by transcriptome and proteome analyses to identify ROS-dependent target gene networks and metabolic pathways. Cruz ML, Weigensberg MJ, Huang TT, Ball G, Shaibi GQ, Goran MI: The metabolic syndrome in overweight Hispanic youth and the role of insulin sensitivity. Veldhuis JD, Roemmich JN, Richmond EJ, Rogol AD, Lovejoy JC, Sheffield-Moore M, Mauras N, and Bowers CY. Weiss R, Dziura J, Burgert TS, Tamborlane WV, Taksali SE, Yeckel CW, Allen K, Lopes M, Savoye M, Morrison J, Sherwin RS, Caprio S: Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents.
This year Team Hanselman led by myself and my wife Mo who had this whole idea will be walking to fight diabetes on May 6th 2006.
Do not take Lantus if you are allergic to insulin or any of the inactive ingredients in Lantus.
Unfortunately she did not take into account that I have GERD Barret’s Esophagus and IBS. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is the predominant ketone present in severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
This study is aimed at improving type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care by implementing the CBIA-DM strategy. The CBIA was first developed by Suryawati in 1993 as Mothers Active Learning Method to improve knowledge and skills in selecting OTC medicines using inserts package of OTC medicines as training material, impacted in reducing OTC medicines in household.
The population of the intervention group are the community member of the Sanata Dharma University who suffered from Type 2 diabetes (87 persons), whilst the control groups are member of charity hospital DM-club and diabetic patients of public hospital. Participantsa€™ education levels were equal in the three groups as the most appropriately state to compare the impact of strategy intervention among the three groups.
Results of the study showed the increasing number of CBIA-DM participants who adhere to all diabetes self-care variables. This indicates that this problem might be more prevalent among females than males [16a€“18]. Improving and repeating the program in 6a€‰months post intervention is needed to sustain the good level.
TSH carried out data collection, data analysis, data interpretation and drafted the manuscript.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of insomnia on eating behavior, anxiety, depression, metabolic and hormonal parameters in obese patients. Role of sleep duration in the regulation of glucose metabolism and appetite Clin Endocrinol Metab. Exposure to recurrent sleep restriction in the setting of high caloric intake and physical inactivity results in increased insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance.

The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behavior. Sleep deprivation effects on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and growth axes: potential clinical implications.
Chronic insomnia is associated with nyctohemeral activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: clinical implications.
Adverse effects of modest sleep restriction on sleepiness, performance, and inflammatory cytokines. Adiposity leads to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome and several other pathologies by changing adipose tissue function and signaling. Recent data from our group show a new, VHL independent, HIF-1? degradation pathway via the glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?). We aim to better understand the role of USP28 in mice and to investigate USP28-dependent target gene networks.
The mechanisms that establish this pool of progenitor cells, the metanephric blastema, and drive some of these cells into the nephron lineage are little understood. Further modification and optimization of this experimental system by high-throughput transcriptomic analysis and 4D (3D plus time) high resolution confocal microscopy allows to study the early steps of nephrogenesis in much more elaborate manner. I will take advantage of the method of “dissociation and reaggregation” of metanephric mesenchyme to further analyse the role of these genes by “gain of function” (using viral transduction methods) and “loss of function” (using siRNA knockdown) approaches.
Franziska Seigfried, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ulm Universityin cooperation with Prof. Wnt ligands bind to Fzd (Frizzled) receptors thereby activating different intracellular signaling pathways. Part of the 5’ untranslated region of alcam, that features two Pax2 (Paired box gene 2) and seven ATF2 (Activating transcription factor 2) binding sites, has been found to trigger the expression of Alcam protein (Cizelsky et al., Development, 2013).
Although the function of Palb2 in the regulation of homologous recombination is well understood, the effect of the PALB2 c.1592Tdel mutation on DSB repair has not been sufficiently studied yet. It is known for its rapidly spreading paralysis that finally leads to patient’s death from respiratory failure after an average of three to five years after diagnosis.
Since we hypothesize that CHCHD10 might play a role in the regulation of the cellular respiratory chain our intention is to analyze the mitochondrial function of the mutated protein and compare it to a wild-type control. They are multidomain proteins that interact directly or indirectly with PSD membrane receptors, including the NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors and the actin-based cytoskeleton.
Structural studies on complexes between Shank and its ligand proteins, as well as Shank constructs containing more than one domain.
Previous studies by others have indicated that the ?-subunit of the HIF-1 complex is required for cardiovascular development.
There is accumulating evidence that death receptor signaling might provide the link between adipose tissue hypoxia and subsequent events such development of insulin resistance. The SGBS cells derive from white adipose tissue of a patient with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) and are high capacity for adipose differentiation under chemically defined conditions in vitro (5). My theory is that loss of Wnt5a in vivo leads to defects in organization of the basement membrane likely due to down regulation of the specific ECM subunits that is critical in basement membrane formation. I will address if alcam expression operates downstream of Wnt4 signalling in murine kidney tubule induction. The goal is to assay if the chick embryo would provide a 3D platform to also culture the mouse embryonic kidney. However, the role of different cell types and cellular organelles involved in ROS formation and degradation is far from being understood. ROS changes will be monitored with a new established technique where we combine confocal laser microscopy with redox-sensitive fluorescent proteins targeted to different cellular compartments. Prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype in adolescents: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. He appears Diabetes Leg And Foot Cramps in every sugar free cake recipes splenda human being requires. In other words bacteria aren’t able to kick yacon diet ills it down or process it into lactic acid. There are several types of insulin available and their use is based on the type of insulin therapy and the onset of action required.
Basal insulin glargine (HOE 901) versus NPH insulin in patients with Type 1 diabetes on multiple daily insulin regimens. Our board-certified doctors diagnose and manage hypertension diabetes and other conditions that lead to kidney diseases including kidney failures. Time series, pre and post quasi-experimental design, Intervention group underwent CBIA-DM, DM-club and Normal-care group acted as control. The intention of CBIA is to empower participant to seek and critically assess information about their treatment [1]. Relative to duration of illness, CBIA-DM group (na€‰=a€‰30) was less than 5a€‰years (23a€‰%) equal with normal care group, while DM club was the highest among the three groups (43a€‰%). The youngest participant is 39a€‰years much younger than in European population [10] which the youngest of diabetic patient is 50a€‰years old (ranges 50a€“60a€‰years) and also younger than it is characterized according to Soegondo (2007) [19] which is 45a€‰years. In case of trademark issues please contact the domain owner directly (contact information can be found in whois).
A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system of sleep stages in human subjects.
In the absence of insulin HIF-1? is phosphorylated by GSK-3, targeting it to proteasomal degradation by Fbw7-mediated ubiquitination. In order to achieve this, we will study the accumulation of fat, the transcriptome and USP28 affected gene networks in knockout mice. In my studies I focus on mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes PALB2 and ABRAXAS. Since these mutations represent a risk factor for breast cancer, it is particularly important to understand how they affect the genome integrity. So far only about 50% of both familiar and sporadic gene mutations causing ALS are clarified.
TNF-a is overexpressed in obese adipose tissue and involved in the development of insulin resistance (1). The role of alcam in kidney development will be studied on mouse models and the novel embryonic kidney dissociation reaggregation model. This would offer several different novel approaches to address kidney development by taking full use of the mouse genetic technologies. The impact of the identified proteins on cell growth, metabolism and angiogenesis will then be studied in-vitro and in-vivo. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia.
Defines diabetes and discusses the causes of type 1 type 2 and diabetes at end of pregnancy gestational diabetes Antibodies to insulin and other proteins produced by beta cells are found in people with type 1 diabetes. About 5% of pregnant zwangerschapsdiabetes nhg women develop a form of type 2 diabetes usually temporary in their third trimester called gestational diabetes. We provide a wide variety of Retreats Youth diabetes symptoms treatment causes Rallies and Conferences. Data were collected in pre-intervention, immediately, one, three and six months post intervention. The CBIA has been proven effective to improve knowledge and skills of pharmacy assistant in hypertension drug information service in Yogyakarta by Astuti (1998) [2]. The highest usage of medicines in the three groups was metformin which reached up to 63a€‰% in normal care group, 60a€‰% in the CBIA-DM group and 59a€‰% in DM club.
Participantsa€™ education levels are equal in the three groups as the most appropriate statement to compare the impact of the intervention strategy among the three groups [14, 20].
This degradation can be antagonized by the ubiquitin-specific protease 28 (USP28), indicating that USP28 links hypoxia signaling with insulin-dependent metabolism. Zenglai Tan, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Ouluin cooperation with Prof. My aim is to further characterize the promoter region of alcam in order to elucidate the mechanism of alcam expression. The objective of my project is therefore to elucidate the DSB repair activity of cells from patients displaying a hereditary breast cancer predisposition from the Northern Finnish population. To improve this number a large approach of exome sequencing of patient material retrieved from the Ulm ALS biobank cohort was carried out. In a biochemical approach we will use HEK293T cells, H4 (Human Neuronal Glioma cell line) and patient lymphoblasts as model systems to analyze interaction partners of CHCHD10.
Mutations in Shank are mainly related to many neurobiological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder.
Therefore, the aim of my PhD thesis is to clarify the function and the molecular mechanism of HIF-1? during early cardiac development.
Adipocyte-specific deletion of CD95 results in improved glucose homeostasis and decreased systemic inflammation in mice challenged with a high-fat diet (2).
To see whether hypoxia has a role in alcam regulation I will test several small molecules that regulate the hypoxia response pathway, in the frog.
Our main objectives are to investigate the mechanisms which ROS and ROS scavengers may act as modulators of adipocyte and mitochondrial function.
I believe the best thing to notice is that more often than not a good bit of the future you (and me and us) is probably there too. I think this may be illegal but in the meantime folks should be warned that at any time phone calls you think are free may at some point have to be paid extra.
I love books and usually find something useful but this is one book I should have flipped through first. Evaluating the Effect of U-500 Insulin Therapy on Glycemic Control in Because of the higher concentration of U-500 insulin its dosing requires conversions that De la Pena A et al.

Insulin is absorbed at different speeds depending on where you inject, so it's best to consistently use the same part of the body for each of your daily injections. The CBIA has also succeeded to increase a€?the level of knowledge and improving skills in early detection of breast cancer by Sunarsih (2002)a€?, and then improving patientsa€™ adherence to treatment program in Tuberculosis [3].
Among 87 persons of the population, there are only 30 persons that fulfill the inclusion criteria as intervention group.
Patients were divided into 2 groups: the first group consisted of patients with complaints of insomnia (n=45), the second (control) group (n=59) were patients without sleep disorders.
In this regard we and others found a novel ALS candidate gene called coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 10 (CHCHD10). These diseases are classified as ‘synaptopathies’ (dysfunction of synapse), because the genes mutated in these disorders lead to abnormal synaptic development or function. Interestingly, obesity is associated with elevated serum concentrations of TRAIL (3).We claim that TRAIL is regulating adipose tissue homeostasis as local levels of TRAIL and TRAIL-R are elevated in adipose tissue in the obese state (4). In particular, we aim to investigate the exact role of ROS generation and ROS scavenging in relation to transcriptional changes. Practicing in diabetes self-care was assessed using 12 questionnaires, and categorized as adhere and not adhere to DM self-care. CBIA was not only targeted to the patient but also to the patientsa€™ family and care giver.
Therefore, the total amount of the control groups were corresponded with the intervention group, i.e. Therefore, among the three groups, the highest amount of participants who have good level of knowledge at baseline is DM club, while CBIA-DM group and normal care group are equal due to both groups are not receive any patient education about diabetes except from the physician when they visit for medical check up.
All members of the SHANK gene family, which encode for core scaffolding proteins organizing macromolecular complexes at the PSD, have been linked to human synaptopathies.
In preliminary experiments TRAIL stimulated preadipocyte proliferation and inhibited adipogenic differentiation in vitro.
Screening is especially important for people at high risk of developing diabetes pre diabetic diet plan nz such as those with a family history of diabetes those who are overweight diabetes and kidney disease treatment and 4.
The Taliban definitely made punishments for women stricter but those women they enforced their rules upon hadn’t had it that much better before.
Evidence suggests that early intensive insulin therapy may slow the progression of diabetes and reduce the While the addition of a thiazolidinedione to combination therapy with metformin and a sulfonylurea has Accelerating ROI on your EHR purchase. The book does have multiple examples of this kind of logic, making it a great book for beginners as well as seasoned health readers. Effectiveness of CBIA-DM was evaluated based on the increasing number of participants in good knowledge and attitude levels, and adherence in practicing diabetes self-care.
Targeted patientsa€™ family and care giver could be expected to motivate not only the patient but also their friends or colleague to improve patientsa€™ adherence to treatment program through sharing knowledge and experiences.Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases which is characterized by the high levels of blood glucose resulted from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both [4]. However, during the study period, numbers of participants who have a good level of knowledge in normal care are decreasing. Therefore, in this PhD, we would like to understand the structural and functional properties of Shank proteins in combination with different molecular approaches, which will give a detailed insight into molecular mechanisms involved in these neurobiological disorders.
The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide [5] and in a global scale, DM is one of the top five diseases which cause death [6]. On the other hand, CBIA-DM group and DM club increase, even though CBIA-DM slightly decreases at Ma€‰+a€‰6. The results of research showed a statistically significant association emotional eating and insomnia. I love how the only people who bitch about Welfare have no idea what they're talking about.
Diabetes mellitus affected almost 150 million people worldwide, and in the year of 2025, the number of diabetic people is estimated to increase until 300 million [7]. The control groups are: One group as DM club group, they do Sundays meeting for physical activity together and 2 monthly regularly seminars, and one group received normal care.
Comparing the trend of increasing knowledge in CBIA-DM group and DM club, CBIA-DM is better than DM club, because CBIA-DM group only receives once diabetes education resulted in increasing participantsa€™ knowledge attitude and skill in diabetes self-care, which steadily remains during the 6a€‰months study period.
Patients with chronic insomnia without obstructive sleep apnea had low levels of free cortisol in 24-hour urinary compared with patients without sleep disorders (169 [145, 194] vs. Meanwhile, other researchers in other studies estimated that in the year 2030 the number of diabetics will rise up to 366 million people from 171 million people in 2000 [8] and it is predicted that the developing countries have their contribution which those 70a€‰% of diabetic people are living there [9, 10]. Based on ethics of study and the activities program that patients have to follow, patients who are pregnant, walking are contraindicated (e.g. On the other hand, DM club receives diabetes education regularly, and more often than CBIA-DM group results in fluctuated trend. 324 [244, 330], respectively, p=0.001), positive correlation with total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and negative with wake time during sleep period time. Indonesia is one of developing countries, where the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is also increasing rapidly.
The intervention is conducted in a form of small-group problem-based intensive discussions followed by individual self-assessment. These results indicated that CBIA-DM is effective in improving knowledge of participants which is supported by the previous study that knowledge can be improved through training and education, and educational model with involving an active role of the participants result in improving knowledge significantly and steadily as based for behaviour changing [21, 22].
Sleep disorders in obese patients are one of the factors contributing to the increase in food intake in response to changes in emotional state on the background of "hidden" anxiety and depressive disorders. It can be understood that it would not be enough health professionals which are available in Indonesia to manage this problem. However, due to the slightly decrease at Ma€‰+a€‰6, repeating education before Ma€‰+a€‰6 follow up intervention and improving the program might be worthy to sustain the high knowledge level.Related to the attitude and practice level, the study shows the increasing numbers of participants who have good level of attitude and practice towards diabetes and diabetes self-care in all groups, with CBIA-DM group achieved the highest number of participants. It is possible that the data eating disorders and psychological status may have a negative impact on the dynamics of weight during the treatment of obesity.
This study was aimed at improving diabetic patientsa€™ knowledge, attitude and practice in diabetes self-care by implementing CBIA-DM strategy.
Attitudes and practice are influenced by cultural and religious teachings, as well as school, the peer group, parents, and life experience [23]. Before carrying out the CBIA-DM, facilitators underwent a short training by the investigator to familiarize them with diabetes problem. Internists and nutritionist are responsible for responding to scientific problems found during the discussion. Cognitive component is the representation of what they believed, while affective component is the emotional aspect in feeling and co-native component is the tendency to have certain behaviour based on the attitude [24].
Intervention using CBIA-DM is conducted through interactive small group discussion that led the participants to involve each other through sharing their experience and information. The booklets contained information about diabetes management and healthy life style for people with diabetes. In addition, considering the intention of CBIA strategy is to empowering participants seeking and critically assessing information about their treatment that will lead to motivate participants in changing behaviour which is resulted by learning [1].
The booklets are developed based on diabetic patientsa€™ problems, using focus group discussion (FGD) among the target community [13]. Moreover, the most important which supported the success of education is the educational material (CBIA-DM package) in conducting CBIA-DM which was developed based on the real of participantsa€™ needs explored using Focus Group Discussion among the aspirants. CBIA-DM package is tested by lay people for the language whether it is easy to understand and do not create misconception. Thereby, even though only once intervention, CBIA-DM is proven increases attitude level towards diabetes self-care. Lay outing contents of the CBIA-DM package is reviewed by internist, nutritionist and head of diabetic club as well as its layout. Unlike in DM club group, which diabetes educations are given through 2 monthly regular seminars and Sundaysa€™ meeting, more often than CBIA-DM, however the increasing attitude is not as sharp as CBIA-DM. In addition, number of CBIA-DM participants who are in a good level both of knowledge, attitude and practice level, which sustain until 6a€‰months after conducting the intervention indicates the effectiveness of CBIA-DM in improving diabetic patients in managing healthy lifestyle for people with DM. CBIA-DM group are only receive once education during 6a€‰months study period, while DM club group has Sundays meeting which led more frequently and intensively in sharing experiences among the members beside receive more educations.
Group leaders (elected from each group) and facilitators conduct the CBIA program using CBIA-DM packages and worksheets.Pre and post test KAP questionnaires are used as study instruments.
However, when the results are compared to DM club group, some results of CBIA-DM group are better.Difficulties in motivating the participants to follow and to complete all activities required during the study even though they have signed the informed consent forms lead to low sample size of study participants, which restricted the analysis for many variables.
Participantsa€™ answers in the knowledge questionnaires are scored, correct answer is 2, incorrect answer is 0 and doubtful answer is 1.
Moreover, with the small sample size the authors are not certain whether generalization can be made and extrapolation of the results to the general population is questionable. Attitude questions for favourable questions are scored as follows: 5 for strongly agree, 4 for agree, 3 for doubtful, 2 for disagree, and 1for strongly disagrees. In unfavourable questions, the scores are 5 for strongly disagree, 4 for disagree, 3 for doubtful, 2 for agree, and 1for strongly agree.
Practicing in diabetes self-care is assessed using 12 questions, and then categorized as adhere and not adhere on diabetes self-care. The knowledge test of the participants are out of the total number of specific groups participants (CBIA-DM group, DM club group, Normal care group). Effectiveness of CBIA-DM is evaluated based on the increasing number of participants in good knowledge and attitude levels, and adhere to practice diabetes self-care. The summary results are presented in percentage of participants who are in a good, fair or poor level [15].

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