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Please note that we are unable to respond back directly to your questions or provide medical advice. As the fastest growing consumer health information site a€” with 65 million monthly visitors a€” Healthlinea€™s mission is to be your most trusted ally in your pursuit of health and well-being. Genital herpes is an infection of the genitals (penis in men, vulva and vagina in women) and surrounding area of skin.
There’s no cure for genital herpes, but medications can ease symptoms and reduce the risk of infecting others. Disorders of pigmentation present as skin that is discolored, blotchy, or darker or lighter than normal. Congenital hypopigmentary diseases, which result from a defect in the production of melanin, include oculocutaneous albinism (types 1 to -4), ocular albinism, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.
Type 2 oculocutaneous albinism manifests as minimal-to-moderate pigmentation of the skin, but patients may still develop pigmented freckles, lentigines, and melanocytic nevi.
Hypomelanosis of Ito is a rare genetic syndrome that manifests as hypopigmentated whorls of skin along the Blaschko lines. Dermal melanocytosis, commonly known as Mongolian spot, is a congenital hyperpigmentation disorder that occurs when melanocytes are trapped in the dermis during their migration from the neural crest into the epidermis. Abnormal pigmentation of the skin can also be the result of adverse reactions to medications due to drug deposition in the skin, increased melanin production, or drug-induced postinflammatory changes.
Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is a common condition that follows from various cutaneous disorders and therapeutic interventions. Argyria is a grayish black staining of the skin and mucous membranes produced by silver deposition. Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin and mucous membranes that occurs when melanocytes die or fail to function. This past Monday marked National Oatmeal day, and whata€™s a better way to celebrate than a warm bowl of oats in the morning? Pregnancy is a wonderful experience, but it doesna€™t come without its challenges, especially if ita€™s your first.
Both of which will support, guide, and inspire you toward the best possible health outcomes for you and your family. After the initial infection, the virus lies dormant in your body and can reactivate several times a year. They occur when the body produces too little (hypopigmentation) or too much (hyperpigmentation) melanin. The infant shown has type 1 oculocutaneous albinism caused by an autosomal recessive mutation in the tyrosinase gene. The cause is a mutation in the LYST gene, which is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. It is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that results from the abnormal formation of intracellular vesicles and is linked to defects in 8 different genes. Chromosomal mosaicism is thought to be responsible, leading to a very broad range of phenotypic presentations. It presents as a macular blue-gray pigmentation in the sacral area of otherwise-healthy neonates and may disappear in the first 4 years.
Androgens may play a role owing to the peripubertal development and increased number of androgen receptors in the lesional skin.
Although the disorder has quality-of-life implications, it is not associated with morbidity or mortality.
This image shows flagellate pigmentation caused by bleomycin, a chemotherapeutic antibiotic used to treat malignant neoplasms. This is particularly true of the drug minocycline, an anti-inflammatory antibiotic used to treat acne.
The traditional manifestations of symmetric hyperpigmented macules that affect the cheeks, upper lip, chin, and forehead are shown in both images. However, because most deaths from skin cancer are attributable to melanoma, biopsy or removal of pigmented lesions is important to consider. They may appear suddenly or develop slowly over several years and are characterized by hyperplasia of the epidermis and increased pigmentation of the basal layer.
The patient in the image has xeroderma pigmentosum, an autosomal recessive condition resulting from the inability of cells to repair damage to DNA caused by exposure to ultraviolet light and specific chemicals.
The preceding disease processes that affect the skin include infections, allergic reactions, mechanical injuries, reactions to medications, phototoxic eruptions, trauma, and inflammatory diseases. Carotene normally adds yellow color to the skin, but the skin becomes progressively yellowed with increased blood levels. It may be viewed as a chronic autoimmune disorder and affects 0.5% to 2% of people worldwide.
It first causes erythematous scaly patches that resolve and leave areas of hypopigmentation. It was a time to catch up on our days and discuss anything that was going on at school or in after school activities. Melanin is a pigment that creates hair, skin, and eye color and protects the skin by absorbing ultraviolet light.


Note the hypomelanotic skin, white hair, and pink pupils caused ultimately by the lack of melanin synthesis.
Type 3 oculocutaneous albinism manifests with minimal pigment reduction in the skin, hair, and eyes, as shown. Its manifestations include a form of albinism that often presents as freckles or lentigines. Patients usually have alternating stripes of affected and unaffected skin, as shown on the image on the left. The incidence is greatest among Native American, Asian, and Latino persons, but the disorder is not associated with mortality or morbidity and occurs equally in men and women.
It affects men and women of all ages equally but appears more often in people whose skin is of a darker pigmentation. Patients may develop pruritus with generalized hypermelanosis or focal pigmentation of pressure points, extensor creases, or linear flagellated bands usually within 9 weeks of the first administration of the drug. Although its cause is not known, the disease has a direct relationship to female hormonal activity, as it is associated with pregnancy and the use of oral contraceptive pills. Multiple clinical and etiologic varieties exist depending on race, history of sun exposure, genetic findings, and other factors related to each type of lentigo. It affects the head, neck, and face and results in malignant conditions, most commonly squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma.
The cause is either epidermal melanosis, which increases the synthesis of melanin and subsequently the transfer of pigment to surrounding keratinocytes, or dermal melanosis, which occurs when inflammation causes melanin pigment to be released and trapped in the papillary dermis.
Carotenemia is most commonly associated with excessive intake of carrots but may also be found with ingestion of other yellow and green vegetables or citrus fruits. The most common cause is mechanical impregnation of the skin by silver particles in workers involved in silver manufacturing. Patients also typically have photophobia, poor visual acuity, and nystagmus from misrouting of optic fibers from the retina to the visual cortex of the brain. Comparison of the complexion with other family members may be necessary to identify the deficiency.
The patient can also experience bleeding, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, kidney failure, and cardiomyopathy.
Although the spots are usually solitary and are just a few centimeters in diameter, this image shows a patient with larger and numerous lesions that involve the buttocks, flanks, and shoulders in addition to the sacral area. Diagnosis requires a thorough history of all prescribed and over-the-counter medications plus any nutritional supplements used. The flagellated bands on the trunk are thought to be associated with trauma caused by scratching or irritation from clothing. Other considerations are photosensitizing medications, ovarian or thyroid dysfunction, and certain cosmetics. Benign lesions, which include freckles, lentigo simplex, and solar lentigo, usually maintain a uniform appearance; malignant lesions, such as lentigo maligna, are asymmetric, have irregular borders, and change color. The image illustrates a solar lentigo, known as a liver spot, which is the most common benign form caused by sun-induced skin damage. Other lentigines with a genetic basis include LEOPARD syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and inherited patterned lentiginosis.
The disorder occurs equally in men and women but more frequently in dark-skinned individuals. The most common patients with carotenemia are infants being fed commercial infant food with large amounts of carrots.
Other identifiable causes are colloidal silver dietary supplements and silver implants from surgical or dental procedures. The disorder occurs in both men and women and in people of all races, but men and darker-skinned people are more susceptible. Some pigmentation disorders, such as liver spots, are common, whereas others, such as albinism, are rare, affecting approximately 1 out of every 17,000 people.
Two other subtypes of oculocutaneous albinism have moderate pigmentation, termed type 1B, or pigmentation in hair follicles on the cooler areas of the body, termed type 1TS. It is caused by the inheritance of an autosomal recessive trait in the tyrosinase-related protein 1 gene. Secondary manifestations include visual defects, such as light sensitivity, crossed eyes, and involuntary eye movements, that leave the patient legally blind. The disease is present at birth, with approximately 75% of patients brought for medical care by 2 years of age. As shown in this image, it first presents as an asymptomatic tan-brown patch on the shoulder, upper chest, or back. A physical examination based on the distribution of the pigmentation, color of the lesion, and clarity of the lesion's outline may help identify the drug-specific etiology.
The upper-left image shows discoloration of the sclera, whereas the patient in the upper-right image presents with "muddy" brown hyperpigmentation that is seen in patients whose skin has been exposed to the sun. Genetic factors play a role; more than 30% of patients have a family history of the disease.
The image on the left shows superficial spreading lentigo maligna, which is characterized by a brown, irregular-shaped macule.


The typical physical examination finding is shown: diffuse skin yellowing, especially on the palms and soles, without any scleral icterus. There is great heterogeneity in the length of exposure and total dose needed to produce argyria.
Patients with segmental vitiligo are affected in specific dorsal roots, whereas nonsegmental vitiligo exhibits some form of bilateral symmetry.
It mainly presents in children between 3 and 16 years of age but occasionally is seen in adults. With some disorders, the cause of dyspigmentation may be readily identified as sun exposure, drug reactions, or inflammation; in other cases, the etiology is not as clear.
Type 4 oculocutaneous albinism manifests phenotypically similar to type 2 and is caused by a defect in the SLC45A2 gene. Almost 85% of patients experience an accelerated phase that includes fever, anemia, neutropenia, and neurologic problems. In some patients, the discoloration may fade slightly in adulthood, but in others, the patch expands to cover a large area, with central skin thickening and dark hair growth. The patient in this image presents with discoloration as the result of an antimalarial drug.
The lower 2 images of the same patient show blue-gray pigmentation of the extremities because melanin and iron-containing granules are deposited in the dermis and subcutis.
The incidence is highest among people with light brown skin, especially Latino and Asian persons, who live in regions where the sun is strong.
The age of onset is decreasing, however, as a result of increased exposure to the sun and artificial tanning sources. The patient in this image presents with macules of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation as a result of acne exocrine. Types 2, 3, and 4 oculocutaneous albinism have similar but typically less severe ocular manifestations as those of type 1. Most patients die within the first decade of life from infection, bleeding, or the effects of the accelerated phase of the disease. In the United States, the highest incidence of the disease is in Puerto Rico, where estimates are 1 in 2,000.
Hypomelanosis of Ito is often associated with a host of other congenital abnormalities, including mental retardation, seizures, developmental delay, ophthalmic problems, hearing disorders, headache, and dental problems. Although discoloration usually affects the lower extremities, it has involved the nose, cheeks, and forehead in this patient. Lentigines are typically brown, may slowly increase in size and number, and coalesce to form larger patches. Typical physical examination findings are diffuse metallic gray to blue-gray discoloration, especially in the sun-exposed areas of the skin, as shown in the patient on the left. No consistently effective cure exists, but systemic phototherapy, laser therapy, steroids, topical immunosuppressives, and depigmentation therapy may all be used on a case-by-case basis.
Ocular albinism manifests with some degree of depigmentation and iris translucency and often congenital motor nystagmus, leading to reduced visual acuity, refractive errors, and fundus hypopigmentation.
The cutaneous findings require no treatment, although the patient may use makeup to camouflage the manifestations. Topical depigmentation agents are the most common therapeutic methods, but response to treatment is highly variable. Daily sunscreens are effective, because tanning of the surrounding skin may exaggerate the depigmentation. As seen in the image, the disorder generally affects the face, particularly the mouth, chin, and cheeks.
The image on the left illustrates the manifestation of the syndrome on the eye, which is very light brown, with a red reflection.
Other conditions associated with carotenemia that are unassociated with the ingestion of carotene are hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, anorexia nervosa, and renal disease.
Postmortem examination in patients with argyria may show blue discoloration of the viscera. The patient on the left presents with trichome vitiligo, which presents with 3 shades of color -- brown, tan, and white. The image on the right shows a patient with the common combination of very blond hair and very pale skin. Treatment with selenium and sulfur has favorably modified the metabolism and toxicity of silver. The patient on the right presents with marginal inflammatory vitiligo, which has a red, raised border and in this case, mild pruritus.



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