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Description : Learn the definition of diabetes and understand the differences between Type 1 and Type 2.
Description : An incredibly realistic, life-size, foot replica molded from an actual human foot with hand-painted detail.
Description : A hand painted unhealthy foot replica to help teach the importance of proper foot care and nutrition to people with diabetes. Description : Explains the different types of diabetes, its warning signs, and risk factors. Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. The most common form of diabetes is Type II, It is sometimes called age-onset or adult-onset diabetes, and this form of diabetes occurs most often in people who are overweight and who do not exercise. The causes of diabetes mellitus are unclear, however, there seem to be both hereditary (genetic factors passed on in families) and environmental factors involved.
In Type II diabetes, the pancreas may produce enough insulin, however, cells have become resistant to the insulin produced and it may not work as effectively. Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease requiring lifelong behavioral and lifestyle changes. Several blood tests are used to measure blood glucose levels, the primary test for diagnosing diabetes.
Random blood glucose test — for a random blood glucose test, blood can be drawn at any time throughout the day, regardless of when the person last ate.
Fasting blood glucose test — fasting blood glucose testing involves measuring blood glucose after not eating or drinking for 8 to 12 hours (usually overnight). Oral glucose tolerance test — Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosing diabetes and pre-diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance testing is routinely performed at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy to screen for gestational diabetes; this requires drinking a 50 gram glucose solution with a blood glucose level drawn one hour later.
When diet, exercise and maintaining a healthy weight aren’t enough, you may need the help of medication. The most widely used form of insulin is synthetic human insulin, which is chemically identical to human insulin but manufactured in a laboratory. Advice patient about the importance of an individualized meal plan in meeting weekly weight loss goals and assist with compliance.
Assess patients for cognitive or sensory impairments, which may interfere with the ability to accurately administer insulin. Review dosage and time of injections in relation to meals, activity, and bedtime based on patients individualized insulin regimen. Instruct patient in the importance of accuracy of insulin preparation and meal timing to avoid hypoglycemia. Advise patient to assess blood glucose level before strenuous activity and to eat carbohydrate snack before exercising to avoid hypoglycemia.
Assess feet and legs for skin temperature, sensation, soft tissues injuries, corns, calluses, dryness, hair distribution, pulses and deep tendon reflexes. Advice patient who smokes to stop smoking or reduce if possible, to reduce vasoconstriction and enhance peripheral flow. Hypoglycemia prevalence in adults is not known because many patients solve this problem alone, without resorting to medical help.
The main causes of fasting hypoglycemia installation may be either due to low production of glucose or excessive use of glucose. Older age, renal disease, cardiovascular failure, gastroenteritis, alcoholism, poor nutrition, mental disorders (intentional overdose of insulin with suicidal purpose).
Use these free images for your websites, art projects, reports, and Powerpoint presentations! Nighttime hypoglycemia and night sweats go hand and hand but there are a few things you can do to stabilize your blood sugar while you sleep and in turn help reduce your chances of experiencing that uncomfortable sweating at night that can be caused by changes in blood sugar levels. There are a number of reasons why a person with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes might experience low blood sugar at night that leads to sweating while sleeping.
Since nighttime hypoglycemia is relatively common in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and one of the most common side effects of hypoglycemia is sweating, it’s no wonder that night sweats and diabetes are often linked. For some people, sweating while sleeping is simply a result of using too many blankets or keeping the bedroom too hot at night. For others, sleep hyperhidrosis can be a symptom of a much more serious health condition – like diabetes.
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Know the symptoms of both types as well as causes, complications, risk factors, and management techniques.
Abnormalities include: bunion, callus, corn, inflamed toenail, open sore, and dry, cracked skin. The life-size foot replica is constructed of soft, lifelike material with flexible toes to allow demonstration of washing, drying, or bandaging techniques. Information on testing, complications resulting from diabetes, and disease management is also included.


Nutrition plays a critical role in wound healing, and this kit will help you demonstrate its importance. Type II is considered a milder form of diabetes because of its slow onset (sometimes developing over the course of several years) and because it usually can be controlled with diet and oral medication. Symptoms of Type II diabetes can begin so gradually that a person may not know that he or she has it.
It is best managed with a team approach to empower the client to successfully manage the disease.
The body’s primary energy source is glucose, a simple sugar resulting from the digestion of foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches). It is used to monitor blood glucose control in people with known diabetes, but is not normally used to diagnose diabetes. However, the OGTT is not routinely recommended because it is inconvenient compared to a fasting blood glucose test. The person then drinks a 75 gram liquid glucose solution (which tastes very sweet, and is usually cola or orange-flavored). For women who have an abnormally elevated blood glucose level, a second OGTT is performed on another day after drinking a 100 gram glucose solution. These medications, such as repaglinide (Prandin), have effects similar to sulfonylureas, but you’re not as likely to develop low blood sugar. Metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR) is the only drug in this class available in the United States. These drugs block the action of enzymes in your digestive tract that break down carbohydrates. These drugs make your body tissues more sensitive to insulin and keep your liver from overproducing glucose. By combining drugs from different classes, you may be able to control your blood sugar in several different ways. In the second case hypoglycemia occurs only in response to meals, and usually occurs within 5 hours after. The transient hypoglycemia occurs in 2 of 3 new born babies and also in 80-90% of babies born from mothers who suffer from insulin-dependent diabetes or have suffered from gestational diabetes. One of those reactions is sweating, either as traditional night sweats or cold sweats at night.
Luckily there are some effective nights sweats treatments to help you avoid diabetic night sweats. Exercising before bed can lower blood sugar levels, as can eating smaller meals, eating at different times or altering the contents of meals. Don’t eat too heavy or too much before bed though as this can disrupt sleep also; choose a light, healthy snack that won’t impact blood sugars too much, so you don’t have a drop in the middle of the night. Drinking too much alcohol can cause blood sugar levels to drop during the night when you are sleeping. If diabetes runs in your family, if you’ve noticed increased thirst or urination or if you’ve experienced any vision changes, seek the guidance of your health care professional. Posters describe insulin, illustrate its role in the body, and show the steps in glucose metabolism.
The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin.
The consequences of uncontrolled and untreated Type II diabetes, however, are the just as serious as those for Type I.
In Type I diabetes, the immune system, the body’s defense system against infection, is believed to be triggered by a virus or another microorganism that destroys cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.
As part of the team the, the nurse plans, organizes, and coordinates care among the various health disciplines involved; provides care and education and promotes the client’s health and well being. Glucose from the digested food circulates in the blood as a ready energy source for any cells that need it.
The blood glucose level is measured before, and at one, two, and three hours after drinking the solution. Everyone with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes must take insulin every day to replace what their pancreas is unable to produce.
One of its chief failings is that it doesn’t mimic the way natural insulin is secreted.
It works by inhibiting the production and release of glucose from your liver, which means you need less insulin to transport blood sugar into your cells. That means sugar is absorbed into your bloodstream more slowly, which helps prevent the rapid rise in blood sugar that usually occurs right after a meal.
Side effects of thiazolidinediones, such as rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone hydrochloride (Actos), include swelling, weight gain and fatigue. Hunger hypoglycemia means that a pathological process is associated with decreased plasma glucose, while symptoms suggestive of postprandial hypoglycemia are often found in the absence of diseases that could be recognized. Approximately 10-20% of children from the high risk groups, develop stable severe hypoglycemia. Diagnosis of severe hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus is established on the patient history, collected from the patient or family diary data from and on the clinical signs: sudden onset of symptoms, irritability, sweating, hunger, headache. If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it’s likely that you have suffered from night sweats on at least one occasion, possibly accompanied by other disturbing sensations like weakness, heart palpitations, dizziness, hunger or anxiety.


In people without diabetes, the pancreas responds by producing less insulin and everything stays in balance. Sweating can also be accompanied by trembling, hunger, weakness or fatigue and a sense of nervousness or anxiety. Also learn about hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, long-term health problems, and healthy lifestyle changes. This form is also called noninsulin-dependent diabetes, a term that is somewhat misleading.
Other symptoms may include sudden weight loss, slow wound healing, urinary tract infections, gum disease, or blurred vision. Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by cells in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. Unfortunately, insulin can’t be taken in pill form because enzymes in your stomach break it down so that it becomes ineffective. But newer types of insulin, known as insulin analogs, more closely resemble the way natural insulin acts in your body.
Second-generation sulfonylureas such as glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase) and glimepiride (Amaryl) are prescribed most often. One advantage of metformin is that is tends to cause less weight gain than do other diabetes medications. Most doctors prescribe two drugs in combination, although sometimes three drugs may be prescribed. Hypoglycemic coma occurs frequently during the night, during sleep, with signs that should alert the family members: noisy breathing, convulsions and sweating.
For individuals with diabetes, the pancreas either doesn’t produce enough insulin or produces no insulin at all, requiring individuals to inject insulin to control blood sugar levels.
These symptoms are important to note as it is your body’s way of signaling you that you need to restore your blood sugar to a normal level. Many people with Type II diabetes can control the condition with diet and oral medications, however, insulin injections are sometimes necessary if treatment with diet and oral medication is not working. It is not unusual for Type II diabetes to be detected while a patient is seeing a doctor about another health concern that is actually being caused by the yet undiagnosed diabetes.
Insulin bonds to a receptor site on the outside of cell and acts like a key to open a doorway into the cell through which glucose can enter.
For that reason, many people inject themselves with insulin using a syringe or an insulin pen injector,a device that looks like a pen, except the cartridge is filled with insulin.
The most common side effect of sulfonylureas is low blood sugar, especially during the first four months of therapy. Possible side effects include a metallic taste in your mouth, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, abdominal bloating, or pain, gas and diarrhea.
Although safe and effective, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors can cause abdominal bloating, gas and diarrhea. The thiazolidinedione troglitzeone (Rezulin) was taken off the market in March 2000 because it caused liver failure. Newer medications, such as Glucovance, which contains both glyburide and metformin, combine different oral drugs in a single tablet. However, injecting too much insulin or changing the quantities or timing of meals can throw off blood sugar levels. If you do notice large dips in your blood sugar, consult with your doctor to either adjust insulin levels or switch the type of insulin you’re using from long-acting to fast-acting.
Some of the glucose can be converted to concentrated energy sources like glycogen or fatty acids and saved for later use. Others may use an insulin pump, which provides a continuous supply of insulin, eliminating the need for daily shots. You’re at much greater risk of low blood sugar if you have impaired liver or kidney function.
These effects usually decrease over time and are less likely to occur if you take the medication with food. If your doctor prescribes these drugs, it’s important to have your liver checked every two months during the first year of therapy. When there is not enough insulin produced or when the doorway no longer recognizes the insulin key, glucose stays in the blood rather entering the cells.
A rare but serious side effect is lactic acidosis, which results when lactic acid builds up in your body. Contact your doctor immediately if you experience any of the signs and symptoms of liver damage, such as nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, dark urine, or yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice).
These may not always be related to diabetes medications, but your doctor will need to investigate all possible causes. Lactic acidosis is especially likely to occur if you mix this medication with alcohol or have impaired kidney function.



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