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Please let us know if this page helped you find what you were looking for by answering the question below – you can also leave a comment for us. Email alertsGet the weekly Haringey People Extra and other important information direct to your inbox. We will be provided with an authorization token (please note: passwords are not shared with us) and will sync your accounts for you. Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Dietary behaviors consistent with guidelines for healthy eating have the potential to produce substantial health and economic benefits.
In Canada, the definition of dietary fiber includes carbohydrates that naturally occur in foods of plant origin and are not digested or absorbed by the small intestine of humans (Health Canada, 2012a). Given Canada’s publically funded healthcare system, the promotion of dietary strategies that facilitate meaningful reductions in healthcare costs and prolong economic productivity can be considered a powerful tool for healthcare practitioners and policymakers attempting to manage economic resources. Utilizing data from the current medical literature and recent healthcare cost estimates from national databases, a three-step variation of a cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to evaluate the healthcare-related economic benefits of fiber consumption: (i) Determination of the success rate, which represents the proportion of the Canadian population expected to consume fiber-rich diets, (ii) Independent analysis of the T2D and CVD reduction rates that would result from consumption of dietary fiber, and (iii) Estimation of the healthcare cost savings associated with reductions in T2D and CVD rates. In economic theory, individuals make choices to maximize their utility, an unobservable metric for the satisfaction they receive from consuming goods or receiving services, subject to the constraints of time and financial resources.
The eventual economic benefit of increased dietary fiber intake is dependent on individual consumer decisions within the marketplace. Several epidemiological and dietary intervention studies of different designs have documented beneficial impacts of increased dietary fiber intake on disease risk and mortality rates.
Similar to the T2D component, data for the estimated CVD risk reduction with higher intakes of dietary fiber was derived from a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohorts by Threapleton et al. Individual consumers are the primary beneficiary of any health improvement following increased consumption of dietary fiber. The economic cost of disease in Canada is generally broken down into direct and indirect categories. The EBIC 2005–2008 report (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2014) recently provided a comprehensive overview of the cost of diabetes in Canada. Estimated at CAD$1.3 billion in 2014 dollars, drugs constituted the largest direct costs of T2D, which includes the costs of prescribed and non-prescribed medications purchased in retail stores. The reduction in the cost of T2D was assumed to be linear when a decline in T2D incidence is observed. It is reasonable to assume that fewer individuals with T2D will require less medication for treatment.
The largest direct costs associated with CVD were the hospitalization costs, which were estimated at slightly more than CAD$5.4 billion in 2014 dollars. Similar to the T2D cost reduction, with lower CVD rates, our CVD cost reduction analysis assumed a proportional reduction in the variable (but not the fixed) hospitalization costs, drug costs, and physician costs (Table 5).
Get more information about # type 1 diabetes prevention type 2 diabetes food avoid on that post. Copyright © 2015 World Economic News, All trademarks are the property of the respective trademark owners. Take that money, put it in a storage container, then fill 99 more storage containers in the same way.  Now you have $1 billion.
Take that money, fill a 747 with it, then fill 247 other jumbo jets.  Congrats, you now have $247 billion. As I walked past product vendors, I couldn’t help but think to myself: Is all this necessary?
As a diabetic that has managed to minimize insulin usage through diet and exercise alone, it’s difficult to wade through a sea of medical equipment without thinking whether other diabetics could also achieve the same outcome using diet and exercise instead of a litany of pharmaceutical drugs. Even worse, less than 20% of diabetics eat a diet low in fat and refined carbohydrates, two dietary components that encourage the development of insulin resistance. Diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the age of 22, I have spent over a decade learning the fundamentals of nutrition at the doctorate level.
That's why I've spent over 10 years developing a rock solid system that can minimize blood glucose variability and insulin resistance. Corporate culture is the underlying values and norms that tell employees and managers “the way we do things around here.” Although it doesn’t appear on a balance sheet, corporate culture is central to how a company performs.
A company’s commitment to its core values often appears inconsistent or worse, opportunistic.
In reading through BP’s sustainability reports since 1999, there is no mention of the Prudhoe Bay spill in 2000, a $100 million settlement with the state of Calif., in 2002 for falsifying inspections of fuel storage tanks, more than 700 safety violations at its Texas City refinery where an explosion in 2005 killed 15 people, or the subsequent impacts to the environment and the local economy on Alaska’s North Slope where BP later admitted to breaking safety laws by failing to guard against corrosion of the ruptured pipeline. GlaxoSmithKline’s obscuration of the heart risks of its diabetes drug, Avandia, offers another case study of how senior management’s failure to ensure ethical behavior was inherent to the company’s culture resulted in a reputational nightmare, which underscored that corporate responsibility was not, in fact, a company priority. Coverage in The New York Times, claims GSK hid from consumers and federal regulators an Avandia drug trial from as far back as 1999 that showed the drug showed a risk of heart damage. A study by cardiologists at Cleveland Clinic made public in 2007 found the drug increased the risk of heart attack by 43%. Yet another example of a company saying one thing about its responsibility to stakeholders, while doing something else entirely was Apple’s recent release of the new iPhone 4. Moreover, according to the Wall Street Journal, Apple engineers warned their superiors of the antenna’s signal problems before the June launch.
The CR and sustainability movements are filled with success stories that include improvements in environmental practices, increases in corporate giving that today reach millions of people around the world, and greater oversight and responsibility for the working conditions of contract workers. Neil Smith is managing partner of SmithOBrien, a management consulting firm in New York City that specializes in corporate responsibility strategy development, organizational change and measurement. With gastric band and bypass operations costing the taxpayer around A?5,000 some experts have argued it would save the NHS money in the long term, with obesity related illnesses, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer costing around A?6 billion each year in the UK (file picture) HOW DO DIFFERENT TYPES OF WEIGHT LOSS SURGERY WORK? Dr Jessen, said: 'Bariatric surgery is certainly not an easy option but where it is simple is in the economics. This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step.


Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.
Approximately 9% of adults around the world were diagnosed with diabetes in World Health Organization (2014), of which 90% had T2D, together with 4.9 million deaths and diabetes-related costs that reached US$612 billion.
Sources of dietary fiber within the Canadian food supply are plentiful as both whole foods and fiber-fortified foods. In this regard, the potential economic impact of increasing Canadians’ fiber consumption can be calculated by determining the proportion of the economic burden related to T2D and CVD that can be avoided by increasing the consumption of dietary cereal fiber. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) was created to cover a range of predictions within each of these steps.
Therefore, any model which attempts to measure the potential public health benefits should start with an examination of consumer behavior. Similar to Step 1 of this analysis, we established possible scenarios regarding reductions in the incidence of T2D and CVD with higher intakes of dietary fiber based on the current English-language medical and nutritional literature. However, in a publicly funded healthcare system, such as the system adopted by Canada, more widespread benefits can also be expected. Since many different medications are used to treat T2D, it is reasonable that a decrease in the overall incidence of the disease would subsequently lead to a decrease in T2D drug-related costs. Summary of direct and indirect cost reductions that correspond to a 1% decrease in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Again, the fixed costs associate with operating hospital facilities and the staff salaries, while the variable costs associate with drugs administered to the hospitalized patients, food, and diagnostic procedures.
It is logical that a reduction in the incidence of CVD and the corresponding decrease in mortality will reduce this cost. It’s not just commitments that matter, it’s corporate culture, set by the person at the top of the organization, but in reality determined by the employees and managers well below the C-suite. Within every organization there are also different subcultures,  which define day-to-day behaviors and ultimately the performance of business units and corporate functions. A 2004 study by Booz Allen, following a series of ethical breaches and billion-dollar lawsuits, and fines for legal and regulatory violations, found that three-quarters of the executives surveyed said they “felt personally pressured to demonstrate corporate values.” Yet when pre-occupied with maintaining the organization’s growth and financial survival, senior executives find it harder to observe and influence the basic work and behaviors within their organizations. GSK officials contend no studies have proved Avandia is dangerous, yet the company has reportedly paid out almost $500 million to settle about 10,000 consumer lawsuits, which claim the company hid the drug’s heart risks. With a culture that reportedly extends beyond its employees to its customers, Apple’s initial response to consumer complaints about the smartphone’s signal coverage was anything but customer-centric.
After a flood of criticism, at a press conference in mid-July at Apple’s Cupertino, Calif., headquarters, Jobs, appearing far more humble, finally did the right thing, offering buyers a free case and a full refund if their phones were returned within 30 days.
Anyone who has worked for a large company can quickly recognize the mixed messages that come from those above.  While people at the top, with their sights set on becoming the CEO, will mimic their boss’s behavior, those at the bottom, where most of the best operational solutions come from, grow disillusioned and cynical, and start looking elsewhere for an employer whose values more closely match their own. The Booz Allen study found, among those companies that reported superior financial results, their core values, such as adaptability, innovativeness, inclusion, and respect for others, “were explicitly linked to how they do business” and reinforced day-in and day-out by their CEOs.
Yet the role of the CEO as a leader and model for others in building and sustaining a truly responsible and transparent organization should take center stage. All service requests need to be sent to Customer Services directly.Was this information useful? In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Additionally, the Canadian population already has the necessary tools available in the marketplace to enact behavioral changes that would be consistent with increased intakes of dietary fiber. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential economic benefits of increased intakes of dietary cereal fiber for adults as determined by consequence reductions in annual healthcare costs associated with independently reduced rates of T2D and CVD in Canada.
These are the cut-off values that policy makers, dietitians, and other healthcare providers in Canada and the US typically use as guidelines.
More recent work (Lioutas, 2014) has examined the information processing behavior that consumers utilize as it relates to food choices. A key assumption in health psychology and economics is that behavioral changes are the result of a decision-making process, where the benefits and costs of particular changes are considered before the adoption of a specific course of action. After careful examination of the available literature, model assumptions were generated based on two recent comprehensive systematic meta-analyses by Threapleton et al. For the purpose of this modeling exercise, it is assumed that the relative risk reduction of T2D and CVD per g cereal fiber intake corresponds to a decrease in the population-wide incidence of T2D and CVD of the same magnitude. A reduction in T2D and CVD rates will result in the diversion of fewer resources to the treatment of these highly prevalent health conditions. Hospitalization costs of T2D, estimated at CAD$527.2 million in 2014 dollars, were calculated on the basis of bed occupation and aggregated by diagnostic category.
In the case of CVD, the direct costs as presented by the EBIC 2005–2008 report include hospital care, drug, and physician visits, whereas the indirect costs include mortality and morbidity. Similar to T2D estimates, only the variable costs are expected to decrease with fewer hospitalizations resulting from reductions in the incidence of CVD.
Morbidity, or disability, costs arise when productivity is lost due to illness for a period of time. Operating in silos, these subcultures are typically not well understood by each other and therefore often work at cross purposes.
As a result, operating responsibly becomes an after-thought rather than deeply ingrained in the culture. As reported in Computerworld, the company’s initial response, telling customers to “avoid gripping it in the lower left corner,” struck many as insulting. Equally important: a board of directors that insists the company doesn’t just pay occasional lip service to integrity and ethical behavior. We require stronger warning measures, penalties for not managing weight, and as a society we need to discuss other options to help reduce weight loss, such as hypnosis.A 'We don't have the money in the bank to pay for such surgery. While the proportion of those who are overweight has remained largely unchanged since the mid 1990s, there has been a significant increase in childhood obesity levels over time, by around 1% every two years until 2007.
Similar trends have been observed for costs related to CVD, which accounted for over 30% of all deaths (17 million) worldwide in 2008 (World Health Organization, 2011). However, fiber education and motivation remain as long-term dietary challenges to consciously increase the consumption of fiber in Canada. The second analysis examined the healthcare cost savings per g increase in cereal fiber intake.
Given a subsequent reduction in morbidity and mortality that are secondary to improved dietary habits of the population, society will also benefit from increased productivity. Indirect costs, on the other hand, are commonly known as those incurred by the loss of productivity to society arising from mortality and morbidity. Generally, hospital costs are largely the fixed costs related to operating and maintaining hospital facilities, as well as the salaries of the medical professionals and support staff.


The former is incurred regardless of the prevalence of any disease, whereas the latter is largely affected by the number of admissions. Finally, as the number of cases with T2D decreases, costs associated with mortality and morbidity were assumed to follow in a proportional manner.
Prescribed drug costs of CVD were estimated at CAD$4.6 billion in 2014 dollars and, similar to the T2D estimates, are logically expected to decrease with better management of the disease.
It’s this lack of alignment that causes operational failures like the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico or the reception problem following the launch of Apple’s iPhone 4. When contacted by a customer complaining about the iPhone’s poor reception, CEO Steve Jobs was dismissive, telling the customer “Just avoid holding it that way,” wrote The Mercury News. The board should hold itself and the company’s top executives, to the highest standards of corporate responsibility. The global economic burden associated with the disease management costs of CVD was estimated to reach US$863 billion in 2010 and is projected to exceed 1 trillion by 2030 (World Health Organization, 2011). The third analysis estimated the total dollar savings at incremental levels of 20, 25, 30, and 35 g fiber per day for men and women alike, reflecting a moderate stepwise increase in cereal fiber consumption. If this behavior is sustained over a period of time, the consumer may experience a health improvement. In this way, although consumers make deliberate dietary choices, such as increasing fiber intake, without considering the effect on healthcare expenses, the overall impact of their actions on society can be considerable. A detailed description of the calculations used to determine the direct and indirect disease costs in Canada can be found in the EBIC 2005–2008 Report (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2014). The more variable components of hospitalization include the cost of medications administered to the hospitalized patients, the cost of food and accommodation, and the cost of diagnostic procedures carried out in hospitals.
A comprehensive breakdown of hospital care costs in Canada is, to our knowledge, not available. A summary of the relationship between T2D incidence and associated costs is provided in Table 3. The physician care costs were CAD$2.5 billion in 2014 dollars and, similar to the drug costs, are expected to decrease with fewer physician visits when CVD rates decrease.
Akin to the mortality component, morbidly costs are expected to decrease with a reduction in the incidence of CVD.
In a pre-trial deposition, a former FDA official lawyers that GSK withheld from regulators a 2001 study showing Avandia may cause heart attacks.
The company also advised users to buy and wrap a Bumper case around their new phones to improve reception. In Canada, 29% of all deaths in 2008 were secondary to CVD, which was estimated to cost upward of CAD$21 billion in annual healthcare expenditures (Conference Board of Canada, 2010). However, the actual long-term intake behavior for dietary fiber has not been previously measured. Under the context of this study and the studies reviewed, cereal fiber refers to fiber from cereal grains. A reduction in the incidence of T2D would be anticipated to lead to fewer hospitalizations resulting from this disorder and, as a consequence, reductions in variable costs. As a result, it was necessary to approximate the portion of hospital costs that are fixed and not affected from reduced incidence of T2D. Further, GSK failed to disclose emails from researchers who concluded that the diabetes drug “strengthens the signals” of heart ailments. As more NCMP data becomes available and annual data aggregated to rolling averages, overall national and local trends over time will become more apparent.Overweight and obesity profile of Haringey childrenEvidence shows that at a basic level, obesity is caused by an intake of calories in excess of calories expended. This analysis was applied to Canadian adults, which were defined as men and women ≥18 years of age. Finally, the physician costs were calculated based on fee-for-service billings submitted to provincial health insurance plans and are allocated on the basis of the primary diagnostic category. Previous research has provided a breakdown of fixed and variable costs in American hospitals and found that hospital costs are approximately 84% fixed and 16% variable (Roberts et al., 1999).
A reduction in CVD will reduce the demand for some, but not all, of the above-mentioned services and, as a result, reduces a portion of this component of direct costs.
However, obesity is a complex problem with a range of influences and determinants which makes it difficult for people to adapt their behaviour to make changes to their diet and lifestyle (see footnote 2).Childhood obesity is associated with significant psychological and physiological health problems. Demographic populace data was from 2014 and attained from Statistics Canada (Statistics Canada, 2015).
The universal fortification scenario assumed a 100% success rate and represented a dramatic shift in the dietary habits of Canadians.
For example, if a patient visits a physician’s office for a follow-up treatment after a first diagnosis of T2D, this cost would be attributed to the cost of T2D. Thus, for the purpose of this research, it was assumed that a reduction in T2D would not result in reductions in fixed costs of hospitalization, but would facilitate a proportional reduction in the variable costs. As well as increasing mortality, obesity is a risk factor for a range of chronic diseases including Type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and some cancers.
While this scenario is not realistically achievable in the short-term, it represents the maximum potential of economic savings with increased fiber intake over the very long-term. The estimated cost of T2D-related visits to physicians was approximately CAD$521.4 million in 2014 dollars.
This means that each 1% reduction in the incidence of T2D would be followed by a 0.16% reduction in hospital costs.
Most of these are diseases of adult life, but the major risk of obesity and overweight in children is the likelihood that this excess weight will continue through adulthood (overweight adolescents have a 70% chance of becoming overweight or obese adults), but some directly affect children themselves. The optimistic success rate was assumed to be 50%, and represented a medium- to short-term pragmatic estimate of the potential economic savings possible through an increased dietary fiber intake.
It follows that a reduction in overall T2D levels will result in fewer doctor visits, which will reduce these costs. Of particular concern is the emergence of type 2 diabetes, previously considered to be a disease of adulthood, in obese schoolchildren.
The pessimistic and very pessimistic success rates were set at 15% and 5% to respectively represent a less positive (but practical) short-to-medium term estimate of economic savings following increased fiber intake, and determine the impact on the cost estimates when assumptions are more pessimistic than normal. Childhood obesity has also been linked to poor self-image, low self-confidence and depression, as well as social and psychological consequences – including stigmatisation, discrimination and prejudice.
A reduction in the incidence of T2D is assumed to lead to decreases in both components of the indirect costs.




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