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Data from the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study cohort (n = 6,130 women) were used to examine the association of type II diabetes with mammographic percent density and incident breast cancer (BC). References1.Michels KB, Solomon CG, Hu FB, Rosner BA, Hankinson SE, Colditz G et al (2003) Type 2 diabetes and subsequent incidence of breast cancer in the Nursesa€™ Health Study.
Iodine induces apoptosis and inhibits cells from forming cancer, esophageal varicose Orthoiodosupplementation in a Primary Care PracticeJorge D. Animal brains have the amazing ability to take in massive amounts of sensory information, filter out unimportant information, and generate the appropriate behavioral response. The two most famous hormones involved in regulating hunger and satiety are ghrelin and leptin (see [] for a helpful graphic). In contrast to ghrelin, the gut-derived hormone leptin is secreted from fatty tissue and acts as a satiety signal. Figure 1: Compared to the normal mice (right), leptin-deficient mice (left) exhibit excessive food consumption and diet-induced obesity. The direct application of gut-derived hunger and satiety hormones into the brain has demonstrated that these molecules probably play a role in a variety of brain processes.
A variety of eating and metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes, have become increasingly prevalent in countries such as the United States (and increasingly elsewhere []). Figure 2: Diet-induced obesity predisposes individuals to a wide variety of medical complications. Learned associations between food and non-food items can trigger highly specific feeding behavior. With the near-constant barrage of sensory cues signaling the presence of easily accessible and highly rewarding food items, is there any hope of curbing the growing epidemic of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders?
He asked another Pfizer chemist, Willard Welch, to synthesize some previously unexplored tametraline derivatives. Welch then prepared stereoisomers of this compound, which were tested in vivo by animal behavioral scientist Albert Weissman. The company has two drug candidates in development with cleared investigational new drug applications from the U.S.
A more biologically accurate metaphor would be that your gut holds several keys—not to your heart, but to your brain. We normally think about how the brain processes sensory information coming from the outside world, but it is also constantly sifting through signals generated from within the organism.
These include not only the regulation of food-seeking behavior, but also reward processing, neurogenesis, and learning and memory. Diet-induced obesity predisposes individuals to a variety of other health problems (Figure 2), and imposes a huge economic burden on society []. For example, rats can be trained to associate a simple stimulus, such as a tone, with a food reward. One approach is to emphasize and promote simple life strategies that help reduce overeating.
In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. Remarkably, the gut is capable of altering the brain’s ability to process sensory information and generate behavior. While our eyes, ears and other sense organs relay information to the brain about what is happening externally, a variety of signals generated in the body relay information about what’s happening internally. Injecting ghrelin into laboratory animals elicits food-seeking behavior; when administered intravenously, people report feeling hungry even when they’re full. Stop looking for food.” Animals lacking the gene encoding leptin or its receptor display voracious feeding behavior and develop morbid obesity (Figure 1). While the effects of peripheral gut hormones on such a wide array of brain functions may seem peculiar at first, it begins to make sense when you consider how cognitively and behaviorally demanding finding food is for animals in the wild. One potential explanation for why this has happened is that, in places with an abundance of highly palatable foods, our caloric needs are usually satisfied, and feeding behavior is motivated predominantly by hedonic (“I like this”) rather than homeostatic (“I need this”) factors.
Repeated presentations of a tone with a specific food results in a phenomenon known as ‘cue-induced feeding.’ After animals learn to associate the tone with a food reward, subsequent presentations of the tone by itself induce food-seeking behavior, even in fully fed rats []. This includes everything from getting adequate sleep [] to making a conscious effort to gauge whether or not the desire to eat is the result of a true bodily need or is merely “sensory hunger” []. Arch Gen Psychiatry -- Early Coadministration of Clonazepam With Sertraline for Panic Disorder, July 2001, Goddard et al.
Asian countries,[18] United States (including Hawaii), Canada ,[19] and Scotland)[20] due to bacterial resistance. A total of 403 women (6.6%) reported a diagnosis of type II diabetes and 333 women reported an incident breast cancer.
Its drug development programs include KRN5500, which completed a Phase IIa clinical trial for the treatment of neuropathic pain in cancer patients; and DB959 for the treatment of metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes.
My medical practice is situated in the Appalachian Mountains close to Asheville, North Carolina. This is achieved through the release of gut hormones into the bloodstream, which then enter the central nervous system and alter brain activity. For example, various metabolic signals—including molecules like glucose and insulin—convey information about the body’s needs to the central nervous system. Neuroimaging studies have shown that gut hormones like ghrelin change the way that the brain responds to sensory information, especially when it comes to food []. The wide range of effects that hormones like ghrelin and leptin have on central nervous system function also has potential clinical relevance; it suggests that treatments aimed at fighting obesity through disruption of ghrelin secretion may have side-effects beyond fat storage and metabolism []. Calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods are readily available, and we are frequently bombarded with the sights and sounds of logos and advertisements that we have learned to associate with food “rewards.” Based on the way our brains are wired to learn by association, these food-predicting sensory cues come to induce hunger and cravings even when our caloric needs are already satisfied. In addition, presenting the cue while the rats are eating causes them to consume more than they would in the absence of the tone. Another idea that is only just beginning to be explored by researchers is to develop therapies that affect the brain’s responsiveness to food cues.
Thus, contrary to popular belief, the brain and body are not isolated from one another by an inseparable barrier; they are engaged in an exquisitely regulated dialogue in order to serve the needs of the organism as a whole.
This type of brain-body interaction regulates how hungry or sated (“full”) we feel, ultimately promoting behaviors that will satisfy these needs. In one experiment, participants had to fast overnight before eating a controlled breakfast, prior to entering a brain scanner. Animals with diet-induced obesity display leptin resistance, analogous to the insulin resistance associated with type II diabetes []. By understanding how hunger and satiety signals such a ghrelin and leptin enter the brain and affect its activity patterns, we may be able to develop drugs that alter or block this effect in a way that reduce food-seeking behavior in response to sensory cues (such as advertisements). One of the major problems that we encounter in this location is a problem with hypothyroidism. In this way, “the wisdom of the body” helps make sure that the organism acts in order to maintain a proper internal balance, or homeostasis []. Once inside, they were shown pictures of both food and non-food items while baseline measurements were taken. This means that the body is no longer responding normally to the increase in circulating leptin that follows a meal. When presented with a different type of food, rats do not eat more in the presence of the cue. Mammograms were retrieved on women over the age of 40 and percent density was estimated with a user-assisted thresholding program. They were then given either the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin or saline (which has no effect on hunger) and shown a new set of images. When scientists deliver leptin directly into the brain, however, the same animals show normal responses (decreased feeding behavior). Thus, a simple sensory stimulus can elicit what appears to be a highly specific food ‘craving.’ Not surprisingly, the food industry takes advantage of the natural tendency of our brains to make sensory-specific associations when it produces and markets many of the foods we eat (see [] for a short video on this subject). Cross-sectional analyses revealed that mean levels of mammographic density were not statistically significantly different between diabetic and non-diabetic women.
This suggests that diet-induced obesity may lead to defective transport of these hormones into the brain.

The result: subjects who received ghrelin injections displayed enhanced responses in brain regions implicated in reward processing and motivation, but only in response to food images. Breast cancer cases with diabetes did not have a significantly higher percent density than cases without diabetes. Both of these studies were done at separate times by separate groups showing the exact number of 11.7%.
This suggests that particular bodily needs can affect brain activity specifically in response to stimuli that are relevant to those needs. Our findings suggest that breast cancer risk may be increased among women with type II diabetes, but that type II diabetes does not significantly influence mammographic breast density. This reinforces what we were taught, that iodine deficiency goes hand in hand with the manifestation of hypothyroidism.
The basic idea, which is supported by work in laboratory animals, is that states of hunger induced by hormones like ghrelin alter reward processing in the brain in a way that motivates them to seek a specific type of item in their environment: food. A number of well designed studies indicate long term adherence to treatment is less than optimal, with up to 50% of patients discontinuing treatment earlier than they should. I have on a weekly basis at least one phone call from a healthcare practitioner questioning whether the intake of iodine causes hypothyroidism and goiter. To address the need for improved adherence, Soltamox was developed to offer breast cancer patients a new option for daily compliance. I often have to go back over the basics of thyroid physiology with these healthcare practitioners, and explain to them that iodine is essential for normal thyroid functions and that it is the manmade organic forms of iodine that are toxic (3). Patients who may benefit from Soltamox include those who prefer a liquid versus a pill, patients who have swallowing difficulties and patients who may benefit from a change in formulation.
For patients with intolerance to gluten or lactose, Soltamox is both gluten and lactose free. I have been using iodine supplementation in my practice over the last four years in amounts needed for whole body sufficiency (orthoiodosupplementation).
Orthoiodosupplementation is the daily amount of iodine required for whole body sufficiency (3-5). Prior to implementing orthoiodosupplementation, I perform a complete history and physical examination.
If a mass is picked up on physical then another test that I order is an ultrasound of the thyroid. While undergoing ultrasound to evaluate the mass I will have my technician measure the thyroid volume.
Each lobe will have its length measured in centimeters, width measured in centimeters and height measured in centimeters.
All three measurements are multiplied times each other and this gives the volume in cubic centimeters. Gelclair is easily applied, via an oral rinse, and provides rapid and effective relief from pain, by creating a protective coating over the oral mucosa.
This coating, or barrier, alleviates irritation of exposed nerves in the ulcer areas, as well as moisturizing the tissue.
A volume size of 5 cc or less is suggestive of thyroid atrophy, another manifestation of iodine deficiency.
Any solid mass that is picked up on ultrasound and shows itself to be greater in size than one centimeter by one centimeter will require a radioactive I-123 uptake and scan. This test should be done previous to starting any patient on iodine if a nodule is suspected. Bionect treats burns and other skin changes (radiation dermatitis) associated with radiation treatment. A nodule that does not pick up radioactive iodide is considered to be a cold nodule and would suggest the presence of thyroid cancer. Bionect is a patent-protected low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) cream or gel which penetrates to the dermal layer. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of 134 radiation patients, the low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) formulation Bionect cream was shown to significantly reduce the incidence of high-grade skin reactions, delay their onset & reduce their severity. Malignant tumors derived from the follicular epithelium are classified according to histological features.
The incidence of thyroid cancer is approximately nine per 100,000 in the population per year and this usually increases with age plateau after about age 50.
Thyroid cancer at a young age (less than 20) or in older people (greater than 65) is usually associated with a worse prognosis. Additional important risk factors include a history of childhood head or neck irradiation, large nodule size greater than four centimeters, evidence for local tumor fixation or invasion into lymph nodes, and the presence of metastasis. In my small practice of around 5,000 patients, I have found five thyroid cancers in one year. If multiple nodules of the thyroid gland are found at the time of ultrasound then the diagnosis of multinodular thyroid goiter is considered even if the gland is normal in size. I request serum T4 (the main hormone produced by the thyroid), free T3 (the biologically active thyroid hormone at the cellular level) and a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Following orthoiodosupplementation, serum T4 and TSH levels usually go down and free T3 stays steady. I have seen TSH sometimes go up rather than down while T4 and free T3 did not change or may have gone up some. Springer, New York46.Strange KS, Wilkinson D, Edin G, Emerman JT (2004) Mitogenic properties of insulin-like growth factors I and II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and epidermal growth factor on human breast stromal cells in primary culture.
This does not mean that the patient was developing hypothyroidism but that the brain was stimulating the body to make more sodium iodide symporters (NIS). The NIS are channels in the cell membrane that transport atoms into a cell as compared to a calcium channel or a sodium channel or a chloride channel where the channel only admits one atom to go through.
The NIS transports sodium iodide into cells and has been found in all cell lines tested so far. Thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin and oxytocin have been found to stimulate the making of NIS.
While taking iodide, one may see an elevated TSH but we have to recognize that this is not a bad thing.
Often a check of the patient’s T4, free T3 and TSH shows the T4 to go down, free T3 going down and TSH going up.
The nutritional status of the patient will determine its response to orthoiodosupplementation (3). It is crucial that the thyroid gland has plenty of antioxidants in its cells and many other nutrients. We have found that giving a multivitamin for women with PMS (Optivitea ) improves the response to orthoiodosupplementation. Iodine deficiency causes fibrocystic breast disease (FBD) with nodules, cyst enlargement, pain and scar tissue. Initially, this syndrome occurs in the premenstrual phase of a cycle or involves the whole cycle.
In 1928 an autopsy series reported a three percent incidence of FBD, whereas in 1973 an autopsy report quoted an 89% incidence.
A review by the American Academy of Pathology gives a minimum incidence for FBD of 50% but suggests that 80% of North American women are afflicted with the syndrome during their reproductive lifetime. As part of an integrated national network with annual sales of over $1 billion in cancer therapeutics, DARA has significant commercial scale and capabilities. Its distribution network consists of more than 45,000 retail pharmacies, mail order pharmacies, and long-term care facilities. He was able to develop a protocol and a scoring system that helps doctors assess how severe a woman’s FBD is.
This provides DARA with established reimbursement and logistics expertise, as well as partnering opportunities with more than 300 sales and marketing personnel uniquely focused on oncology and oncology support products.
I would recommend that this scoring system be utilized by physicians in their own medical practice.
This comprehensive network of partners is rare if not unique among companies in the oncology supportive care area and provides DARA a strong foundation for product introductions into the oncology market.

A precise method of recording the patient’s data will help both physicians and patients see the improvement that occurs following orthoiodosupplementation.
The pathological changes that can occur in FBD are noted as micronodularity, tenderness, fibrous tissue plaques, macrocysts and turgidity. For example if the micro nodularity of macrocysts disease was present in the upper half of the breasts the numerical score would be one for micro nodularity and two for the two breast quadrants scoring a total of three. If all five changes occurred in all quadrants in one breast the score would be 4 (all four breast quadrants) x5 (all five changes) equals 20 and for both breasts would be 40.
Patients are also encouraged to evaluate their own symptomology as expressed by a number of zero equals symptoms worse, one equals symptoms unchanged, two equals less pain only premenstrual discomfort, three equals no pain unable to predict menstruation. Zero equals no palpable abnormalities normal, one equals is score of less than 7.2 and a score greater than 7 but less than the pretreatment score and three equals a score greater than the pretreatment score (See Table I). After a full year at 50 mg iodine per day (4 tablets of Iodorala ), the patients mean score dropped to 3.8. The other findings of micronodularity, tenderness, fibrous tissue plaques, macrocysts and turgidity will take almost a full year to fully go away. Optimum amount for most patients for FBD is 50 mg (4 tablets) per day continued indefinitely.
It was while treating a large 320-pound woman with insulin dependent diabetes that we learned a valuable lesson regarding the role of iodine in hormone receptor function. She was then started on insulin during her hospitalization and was instructed on the use of a home glucometer.
Two weeks later on her return office visit for a checkup of her insulin dependent diabetes she was informed that during her hospital physical examination she was noted to have FBD. One week later she called us requesting to lower the level of insulin due to having problems with hypoglycemia. She was told to continue to drop her insulin levels as long as she was experiencing hypoglycemia and to monitor her blood sugars carefully with her glucometer.
Four weeks later during an office visit her glucometer was downloaded to my office computer, which showed her to have an average random blood sugar of 98. I praised the patient for her diligent efforts to control her diet and her good work at keeping her sugars under control with the insulin. She then informed me that she had come off her insulin three weeks earlier and had not been taking any medications to lower her blood sugar. When asked what she felt the big change was, she felt that her diabetes was under better control due to the use of iodine. Two years later and 70 pounds lighter this patient continues to have excellent glucose control on iodine 50 mg per day. We since have done a study of twelve diabetics and in six cases we were able to wean all of these patients off of medications for their diabetes and were able to maintain a hemoglobin A1C of less than 5.8 with the average random blood sugar of less than 100. All diabetic patients were able to lower the total amount of medications necessary to control their diabetes. The one insulin dependent diabetic was able to reduce the intake of Lantus insulin from 98 units to 44 units per day within a period of a few weeks. If C-peptide is absent then we feel there is no insulin being produced and we have not been able to help this particular group of patients to get off their insulin. We have been able to help these patients lower the total amount of insulin needed to control their glucose. When patients take between 12.5 to 50 mg of iodine per day, it seems that the body becomes increasingly more responsive to thyroid hormones (3-5). Clur (17) has postulated that iodization of tyrosine residues in the hydrophobic portion of these receptors normalize their response to the corresponding hormone.
Optimal intake of iodine in amounts two orders of magnitude greater than iodine levels needed for goiter control may be required for iodization of these receptors (4). The insulin receptor tyrosine kinase plays a major role in signal transduction distal to the receptor as the primary event leads to subsequent phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins, called insulin receptors substrate proteins (IRS). The IRS proteins are cytoplasmic proteins, with multiple tyrosine phosphorylation sites, and phosphorylation of IRS proteins has been implicated as the first post receptor step in insulin signal transmission. I have one patient with liver fatty infiltration who had varicosities of the esophagus with bleeding. Once she started on iodine for FDB we noticed that her GI bleeding stopped and the varicose veins of her stomach and esophagus disappeared. At its worse this ovarian pathology is very similar to that of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The patients have successfully been brought under control with the use of 50 mg of iodine per day. Control with these patients meaning cysts are gone, periods every 28 days and type 2 diabetes mellitus under control. Ideally, all patients should have an iodine loading test prior to orthoiodosupplementation. This test is one in which 50 mg of iodine is given after discard of the first morning void. All urine is collected for the next 24 hours including the first morning urine void the next day.
The lab is a CLIA approved high complexity testing laboratory in the state of North Carolina.
The majority of the loading tests that are performed at FFP Lab are on women ages 31 – 70 years old. In 667 patients analyzed, the mean level of excretion was about 18 mg for all age groups no patient achieved whole body sufficiency prior to orthoiodosupplementation. This suggests that of a total 50 mg of iodine given, the patients on the average retained a mean of 32 mg into their body on the first go around. Following orthoiodosupplementation, patients have described vivid dreams, dissipated depression, no more cold extremities, more energy and less fatigue.
One patient after taking four pills of iodine lost eight pounds of fluid weight in 24 hours. Patients who have been constipated for over ten years have now noted daily bowel movements. After treating over 1,000 patients with iodine, I have at no time seen the Wolff-Chaikoff Effect. Goiter is associated with breast cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer . I feel that those patients with the lowest excretion rates and the highest absorption of iodine on the iodine loading test are the ones with the highest risk for development of cancer.
From literally hundreds of phone interviews with patients over the last two years, the levels of iodine excretion that seem to raise the highest alarm are those in which the excretion is somewhere around 10 mg or less per 24 hours in patients age 35 and up. My observations at this point show that there is a definite increase in the incidence of breast cancer, stomach cancer, ovarian cancer or thyroid cancer.
If a patient has the iodine loading test and has an iodine excretion of 10 mg or less in a 24-hour period, I initiate a cancer workup. In 1976, a JAMA article showed that 6% of the female population was at risk for breast cancer (25)). Trends and Public Health Implications: Iodine Excretion Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surverys I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994).
Clur, A., DI-Iodothyronine as Part of the Oestradiol and Catechol Oestrogen Receptor – The Role of Iodine, Thyroid Hormones and Melatonin in the Aetiology of Breast Cancer. Measurement of urinary iodide levels by ion-selective electrode: Improved sensitivity and specificity by chromatography on anion-exchange resin.

Genes and type 2 diabetes
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