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This presentation was developed under tho guidance of Victor Lawrence Roberts, MD, MBA, FACP, FACE, Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL. Type 2 DiabetesWhat is type 2 diabetes?When your body cana€™t make enough insulin or cana€™t use insulin, it is called type 2 diabetes.
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG).A This test checks your blood glucose levels after 8 hours of fasting. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).A For this test, your glucose level is measured before and then after 2 hours after you drink a sugary drink.
The goal of treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible without letting them get too low. You may be able to control type 2 diabetes with weight loss, exercise, and healthy eating habits.
Taking oral medicines, other medicines, or insulin replacement therapy, as directed by your healthcare provider. When your body cana€™t make enough insulin or is unable to use insulin, it is called type 2 diabetes. The goal of treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible without making them too low. Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you. At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit. Print Email Diabetes can cause complications that affect your feet, especially if your blood sugar is not under control. Secondly, diabetes, especially poorly controlled diabetes, can cause damage to the nerves in your feet.
The international guidelines for the management of diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) put into consideration factors such as age, social environment, the duration of the illness and associated health complaints. According to the researchers from the Medical University of Vienna in Austria, gender is becoming an ever-growing issue, as men and women bear different risks and fall victim to or suffer from a different type of diabetes.
For this reason, the researchers put forth that diabetes treatment should be more personalized and more gender-specific. From a biological aspect, the researchers said that men are principally at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than women. Men are most at risk because they have a greater amount of stomach fat and more liver fat, as well as a lower sensitivity to insulin regardless of whether or not they are overweight. Men, on the other hand, are more at risk of developing diabetes at a later point in life, the researchers said.


According to the researchers, there are also gender-specific biomarkers, which helps detect diabetes risks early on. The researchers found that synthetically manufactured substances such as Bisphenol A or Phatalate - risk factors for diabetes - have different effects in men and women.
According to the researchers, the mentioned gender-specific factors in diabetes should be incorporated in the guidelines. The condition of gangrene is a serious one, primarily marked by loss of adequate supply of blood to the tissues of the body, ultimately resulting in its necrosis or death.
Injury to the tissues, infection (mostly of bacterial origin) and presence of any underlying health ailment that inflicts damage to the blood carrying vessel structure form the three key underlying mechanisms that are responsible for initiation and development of irreversible tissue damage and life threatening condition of gangrene. As already explained, one of the causes of gangrene in the toes and fingers is linked with damaged blood vessels. High level of blood glucose associated with diabetes mellitus also damages the nerves (known as peripheral neuropathy), especially the nerves in the lower extremities. The dullness or lack of sensation puts diabetic individuals at an increased risk of injuring the skin of their fingers or feet without having any realization (it mostly goes unnoticed in the feet region). The sore or foot ulcer formed takes an extended time to heal because of both, poor circulation of blood through the injured area as well as lesser number of defence cells. Bacterial infection also forms another causative factor that makes the diabetic individual more prone to developing gangrene. Such type of infection is marked by noticeable skin discolouration and dryness along with the formation of skin blisters. The weakened immune system (seen in diabetes) further raises the risk of incurring serious infection, which later develops, into gangrene. It is the most common type of diabetes.What causes type 2 diabetes?The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is unknown. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.How is type 2 diabetes diagnosed?ThereA are several ways to diagnose diabetes. Experts recommend testing at least twice a year if the blood sugar level is in the target range and stable, and more often if the blood sugar level is unstable. Emphasis is on control of blood sugar (glucose) by monitoring the levels, regular physical activity, meal planning, and routine healthcare.
Phares specializes in diabetes care, obesity, and prevention of diabetes and heart disease. If you have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, it is a good idea to check your feet every day and tell your doctor if you have any problems with foot pain or unusual symptoms in your feet.
First, diabetes can cause circulation problems to the extremities, and the feet are most affected by this poor blood flow.
Women are "protected" for a while due to increased production of the estrogen hormone, until menopause causes hormonal change and reduces this protection.
But the lack of testosterone in men is also a risk factor, and women with a greater amount of male sexual hormones are at a higher risk. On the other hand, the stomach circumference in women has a better diabetes predictive power than in men,"Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, diabetes expert, professor for gender medicine in Austria and study author, said in a press release.


For instance, the protein Fetuin-A formed by the liver as well as Copeptin, and proneurotensin are biomarkers in women but not in men. Death of cell and tissue may target any part of the body, however, it has been typically observed in the extremities, such as the toes, fingers and hands. In both, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the raised level of sugar is capable of causing damage to the blood vessels and reducing blood supply.
Owing to the nerve damage, the transmission of sensation, particularly those of pain to the brain gets impaired.
A notorious bacterial organism, Clostridium perfringes is often linked with gas gangrene; after it attacks the site of injury or sometimes, surgical wound.
She has more than 20 years of experience as an independent advanced pratice clinician, both in public health and private practice clinical settings. Not only does this result in your feet feeling numb or cold most of the time, but if you get any cuts or blisters on your feet, it will take much longer for them to heal.
Diabetic neuropathy can be felt as shooting or burning pain, pins and needles tingling or numbness in the toes and feet.
Managing your diabetes and taking your medication as directed is important to prevent your foot pain from getting worse.
In the absence of a continuous supply of nutrient and oxygen rich blood, the cells within the body begin to fail in carrying out their normal function and finally give up.
As a result of restricted blood circulation to the extremities, such as the feet, the area becomes deprived of those cells (white blood cells) which aid in fighting off any infection. If circulation is really poor in a person with diabetes, there is a danger of infection of small sores or cuts that can lead to gangrene. A person with neuropathy in their feet may feel pain when they are walking or when even the lightest pressure is applied to their feet.
Other lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking and exercising regularly, can help improve your circulation. Swelling and inflammation resulting from the infection causes the local temperature of the area involved to be slightly elevated, and also leads to pain.
If you are diabetic, it is recommended to wear diabetic socks that are better for your circulation in your feet and never walk around barefoot, even inside your house.
In diabetics, nerve damage typically occurs first in the feet, but other parts of the body can be affected over time, especially if a person is having a hard time controlling their blood sugar levels. Always wear athletic shoes that fit your feet properly and will not cause friction blisters.



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