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As neurofibromatoses sao representadas por tres doencas geneticas apresentam-se nas formas clinicas de Neurofibromatose Tipo 1 (NF1), Neurofibromatose Tipo 2 (NF2) e Schwannomatose, autossomicas dominantes que tem em comum o surgimento de tumores benignos multiplos no sistema nervoso. A Seguir disponibilizaremos fotos e videos explicativos afim de poder demonstrar e orientar quem tem duvidas sobre essas doencas.
De acordo com o especialista, as manifestacoes neurologicas aparecem mais tardiamente, coexistindo com o quadro cutaneo ou nao. Ja as manifestacoes neurologicas centrais, segundo o medico, mais consideradas sao as alteracoes da medula espinhal, nos neurinomas das raizes e do tronco encefalico, nos tumores do acustico.
Dr, Ronaldo Gama explica ainda que podem ocorrer as manifestacoes oftalmologicas, com o facomo de retina que e um pequeno tumor que se equivale aos tumores cutaneos e nervosos. O tratamento cirurgico deve ser considerado desde que os tumores determinem manifestacoes clinicas, pois e frequente a transformacao maligna de tumores apos cirurgias. Atualmente, sabe-se que existem no minimo duas afeccoes identificadas como 1 e 2, e que estao localizadas respectivamente nos cromossomos 17 a 22. O especialista explica que a neurofibromatose 1 (nf1) tambem chamada doenca de Von Recklinghausen, e a forma classica, com incidencia de 1 para 3 mil individuos, existindo manifestacoes dermatologicas, manchas cafe-com-leite e neurobromas como sinais patognonamicas do tipo 1(NF1), lesoes oculares com sinal quase especificos da nf1, caracteristicos ao nivel do globo ocular, chamado de modulo de LISH. As manifestacoes neurologicas sao os neurofibromas do nervo periferico, com lesoes cutaneas e subcutaneas, ao nivel de plexo branquial, e nivel radicular, lesoes meningeas (displasia meningea) formando meningoceles, ectasias durais e cistos aracnoides.
Outro sintoma e o cisto aracnoides, que sao mais frequentes introcranianos e assintomaticos. As lesoes neurologicas nao tumorais apresentam quadro clinico impreciso, sendo identificados atraves da ressonancia magnetica, uma gliose heterotipica com acometimentos principais no nivel de nucleo da base, regiao periventicular, tronco cerebral e cerebelo, especificas da neurofibromatose nf1. As manifestacoes esqueleticas: estas anormalidades estao presentes em 30 a 50% dos pacientes que sofrem de neurofiromatose do tipo, que se apresentam em varios quadros dependendo das lesoes osseas. Cifo-escolioses: sao ligados as displasias meningicas com frequencia na regiao cervical, por exemplo, as hemivertebras.
Com relacao as manifestacoes endocrinas, ele acrescenta que as glandulas podem tambem estar acometidas, principalmente as supra-renais, com lesoes tipo feocromocitomas, tambem se observam adenomos hipofisario, sindrome adiposo genital e puberdade precoce. Vasculares: com lesoes da intima e da adventicia, em vasos de varios calibres, provocando acidentes vasculares cerebrais isquemicos em criancas, ate mesmo durante o periodo perinatal e primeiro mes de vida, podendo tambem provocar AVCs em adultos. O aconselhamento genetico deve ser prudente apesar da taxa de risco de transmissao em ate 50% pois existe um quadro variavel em sua gravidade. A neurofibromatose tipo 2 (NF2) e uma forma de acontecimento menos frequente que a neurofibormatose-1, com uma incidencia em torno de 1 para 50 mil e caracteriza-se pela presenca de Schwannomas ou neurinomos do nervo auditivo na 2? ou 3? decada de vida, podendo existir formas acometimento em idade mais precoce. A totalidade de sintomas se resume na presenca de tumores multiplos, com discretas manifestacoes cutaneas, nao ha deficit intelectual, ou anormalidade ossea. Segundo o medico, o diagnostico se baseia em estudos tomograficos ou de ressonancia magnetica. A forma 3 se caracteriza pela associacao de tumores multiplos, intro e extra axial, onde as manifestacoes cutaneas sao raras, nao existindo tambem os nodulos de LISCH.
A forma 4 se caracteriza pela associacao de multiplas lesoes tipo cafe-com-leite e de neufibromas.
A forma 6 se apresenta atraves de multiplas manchas do tipo cafe com leite sem nenhum neurofibroma e na forma 7, que e considerada uma forma tardia, acometendo pessoas com mais de 20 anos.
O termo neurofibromatose se refere a duas desordens geneticas distintas, a neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1) e a neurofibromatose tipo 2 (NF2). Pessoas portadoras de neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1) podem ter manchas cafe com leite na pele e tumores benignos pelo corpo chamados neurofibromas. A neurofibromatose tipo 2 (NF2) se manifesta normalmente na fase de jovem adulto (entre 20 e 30 anos). Atualmente tanto a neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1) como a neurofibromatose tipo 2 (NF2) nao tem cura. Ja estao disponiveis testes de DNA para portadores de neurofibromatose, porem o diagnostico normalmente e feito atraves dos sinais clinicos. Recomenda-se aos afetados que se submetam periodicamente (uma vez por ano) aos seguintes exames: audiometria de ambos os ouvidos, exame oftalmologico (campos visuais), tomada de pressao arterial e exame da coluna vertebral. A neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1) e uma doenca progressiva que afeta primariamente o crescimento celular de tecidos neurais e possui diferentes classificacoes: doenca neurocutanea, facomatose, neurocristopatia, sindrome de predisposicao hereditaria ao cancer e sindrome macrossomica. Alem disso, apresenta expressividade variavel, entre diferentes familias, entre diferentes individuos de uma mesma familia e entre diferentes segmentos de um mesmo individuo.
Entre as manifestacoes clinicas principais estao as manchas ovoides de cor uniforme cafe-com-leite e margens bem definidas; e as sardas, principalmente inguinais e axilares, que tem entre 1mm e 3mm de diametro e ocorrem agrupadas geralmente em regioes de superposicao de pele. Os neurofibromas discretos sao massas focais bem definidas que normalmente aparecem na puberdade e podem estar associados a prurido. Os nodulos de Lisch sao hamartomas pigmentados na iris, geralmente bilaterais e aparecem apos os 10 anos, sem causar comprometimento da visao, e com a deteccao feita por lampada de fenda. Para que o diagnostico seja feito, o paciente deve apresentar dois ou mais dos criterios desenvolvidos pela US NIH – Consensus Development Conference (1988), apresentados na Tabela 1. Entre as alteracoes cardiologicas estao hipertensao arterial sistemica idiopatica ou relacionada com feocromocitoma ou estenose da arteria renal por neurofibroma, cardiopatias congenitas e vasculopatias.
A NF1 e uma sindrome de predisposicao hereditaria ao cancer e entre as neoplasias mais comuns estao os tumores malignos da bainha dos nervos perifericos – TMBNP, que devem ser suspeitados quando ha dor ou alteracao de tamanho ou consistencia de um neurofibroma plexiforme. Os gliomas nao-opticos, quando ocorrem, tem risco de malignizacao maior do que o da populacao em geral. A proteina neurofibromina tem 2.818 aminoacidos, 327 kDa e atua em vias de proliferacao e sinalizacao celular. Mutacoes foram encontradas no gene NF1 em pacientes com neurofibromatose por meio de varias metodologias.
O acompanhamento de um paciente com NF1 deve incluir historia familiar, avaliacao oftalmologica, radiografia de esqueleto, ultrassonografia de abdome e, em casos especiais, tomografia computadorizada de cranio e triagem para feocromocitoma. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisao da literatura sobre neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1) em criancas e adolescentes, enfatizando as manifestacoes clinicas. Conclusoes: Os cuidados com os pacientes com NF1 devem antecipar as principais complicacoes e oferecer um tratamento precoce. A neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1) foi descrita em 1882 pelo medico Friederich Daniel von Recklinghausen, apesar de existirem 168 citacoes em publicacoes anteriores. A NF-1 aparece mais frequentemente na infancia e o diagnostico baseia-se na presenca dos criterios clinicos desenvolvido pelo National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference(9,10).
Os casos decorrentes de transmissao vertical, ou seja, um dos genitores tambem e acometido pela NF-1, podem ser identificados durante o primeiro ano de vida, uma vez que o diagnostico requer apenas uma caracteristica adicional, alem da historia familiar positiva(3).
O teste genetico (ou molecular) para a NF-1 identifica aproximadamente 95% das mutacoes em individuos que preenchem os criterios diagnosticos clinicos(12). O criterio diagnostico para NF-1 originalmente desenvolvido pelo NIH Consensus Development Conference(13) admite duas ou mais das seguintes caracteristicas clinicas: 1. Seis ou mais MCCL com diametro acima de 5mm em individuos pre-puberes ou acima de 15mm, em pos-puberes.
Dois ou mais neurofibromas de qualquer tipo ou um neurofibroma plexiforme, baseado em parametros clinicos e histologicos. Uma lesao ossea distinta como pseudo-artrose de um osso longo ou displasia da asa do esfenoide. Embora a penetrancia do gene da NF-1 seja completa, as manifestacoes clinicas desse disturbio sao extremamente variaveis(2). As MCCL ocorrem em 99% dos pacientes com NF-1 e sao caracteristicamente ovais, com bordas irregulares, areas planas e sua coloracao varia do amarelo ao marrom. As efelides sao maculas lentiginosas menores que 5mm e constituem, geralmente, a segunda manifestacao clinica mais frequente em criancas(3). Os neurofibromas sao tumores constituidos por celulas de Schawann, associados ou nao a axonios, fibroblastos e celulas perineurais(16-18).
Os NFP consistem de proliferacao de celulas da bainha do nervo e estendem-se ao longo deste(16).
O risco de desenvolver um tumor maligno na bainha do nervo e de 2 a 5%, o que torna a NF-1 causa importante de morbimortalidade(17). Os NFP podem crescer e invadir tecidos vizinhos durante a infancia, devendo-se considerar a intervencao precoce para impedir o desenvolvimento de complicacoes esteticas e funcionais. A maioria dos estudos descreve a ocorrencia de proptose em cerca de 30% das criancas com tumor sintomatico(24).
No passado, muitas criancas com NF-1 e glioma optico eram submetidas a tratamento agressivo; todavia, atualmente, com o conhecimento de que a maioria destes tumores nao apresenta progressao, os pacientes podem ser acompanhados sem intervencao especifica(26,27). Os nodulos de Lisch sao lesoes hamartomatosas, bilaterais e bem definidas, que consistem em elevacoes gelatinosas na superficie da iris, de forma arredondada, variando de coloracao transparente a amarelo ou marrom. As alteracoes osseas, como a pseudo-artrose, ocorrem em cerca de 5% das criancas com NF-1 e, em geral, sao benignas, embora alguns pacientes sejam gravemente acometidos com arqueamento de ossos longos ate fraturas(21).
Como a pseudo-artrose e observada em uma minoria dos pacientes ao nascimento, alguns autores entendem que o termo pseudo-artrose congenita nao e apropriado e que deveria ser substituido por pseudo-artrose infantil. Dentre as manifestacoes inespecificas da NF-1, destacamse os deficits cognitivos, de linguagem e motores, com desordem de aprendizado, a escoliose e o aparecimento de doencas cancerosas, entre outras. Veja uma serie de 3 videos sobre a Neurofibromatose da Discovery Channel legendados em Portugues(Brasil).
Consultor de Marketing Digital, otimizacao de conteudo(SEO), especialista em WordPress e Midias Socias, Webdesigner, especialista em conteudo para blogs, Blogueiro, e administrador geral do BlogPop. Na minha opiniao, todos os portadores diagnosticados com a sindrome deveriam evitar ter filhos, pois e certo que toda crianca herda cinquenta por cento das caracteristicas dos pais. Ola, tenho manvhas de cafe com leite e aos 31 anos esta aparecendo as neuros, minha ma~es tem um monte e grande gostaria de saber se em maua ou abcd existem tratamento ou ate mesmo para retirada pelo sus. Tenho uma prima de seis anos que tem as manchas, a dermatologista falou da possibilidade de ser essa doenca, no entanto nao encaminhou para nenhum especialista para fazer o diagnostico preciso, ela ja esta apresentando deficit de atencao na escola e seus pais sao primos de primeiro grau. Nao tenho palavras para comentar, mas deixo o espirito de profunda solidariedade para com todos que sofrem deste mau, me compadeco e me comprometo a rezar por todos e estou a disposicao para conversa, apoio. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease caused by changes in the retinal blood vessels. In diabetic retinopathy, the retinal blood vessels may swell and leak in some patients, while in others new vessels can grow on the surface of the retina too, resulting in loss of light sensitivity of retina, affecting vision.
As the name indicates, people with diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. Pregnancy can precipitate the diabetic retinopathy therefore pregnant diabetic women are advised to undergo eye examinations in each trimester. People with Down’s syndrome having 3 copies of chromosome 21 almost NEVER acquire diabetic retinopathy! If you experience any of the symptoms of diabetic retinopathy consult your eye specialist as soon as possible to have a comprehensive eye examination.
Note that the above mentioned options simply slow down the progress of disease or may even stop it, but they don’t treat the damage already occurred and can’t reverse it. Low Vision SpecialistsIf you or a loved one have vision loss, call today for a free phone consultation. Low Vision Specialists Specialists of Maryland and Virginia servicing Annapolis, Baltimore, Bethesda, Columbia, Rockville, Silver Spring, Towson, and other locations.
Serving the following areas since 1975 MARYLAND: Annapolis, Baltimore, Bel Air, Bethesda, Bowie, Carney, Cockeysville, Columbia, Crofton, Elkton, Essex, Fallston, Fredrick, Gaithersburg, Glen Burnie, Glenwood, Hampstead, Havre de Grace, Jarrettsville, Kingsville, Laurel, Lutherville, Manchester, Monkton, Parkton, Parkville, Perry Hall, Phoenix, Pikesville, Potomac, Randallstown, Reisterstown, Rockville, Severn, Severna Park, Silver Spring, Sparks-Glencoe,Sparrows Point, Towson, Westminster, and Whitemarsh. Continuing the series on The Physiology of Nutrition, I present to you the connection between food and mood – serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter which is highly common throughout nature.  How it works is incredibly simple. At the same time, as soon as the transmitter is dumped in between the cells, special proteins which are responsible for taking the transmitter back into the neurons start pumping, so the time that the transmitter is in between the cells is short. OK, if you pay enough attention to those annoying medical ads you probably have heard of serotonin. In many species, including us, serotonin is key in the functioning of gut muscles, causing contraction of our intestines. For example, if you eat something that upsets some of your stomach cells, they release copious amounts of serotonin.
There’s even rising evidence that serotonin is important in our hunger signaling, particularly in feelings of fullness.
Since it has so many diverse and important roles in the body, serotonin levels are key to health mentally and physically. These foods can boost serotonin levels in the gut, ensuring rapid communication between gut cells.
In fact, our bodies naturally understand this, and cause us to crave foods rich in tryptophan, an amino acid key to serotonin production in our brains when serotonin levels are low.
Of course, just because that’s how the world seems to work, women have to be even more careful than men when it comes to dieting and serotonin.
All these mood-boosting behaviors might just help raise overall serotonin levels, allowing us to keep out of those bad moods later on. Even worse, eating too serotonin-boosting foods, while it might feel good for a short time, can lead to a worse crash later on. Golden RN, Gaynes BN, Ekstrom RD, Hamer RM, Jacobsen FM, Suppes T, Wisner KL, & Nemeroff CB (2005).
Perreau-Linck E, Beauregard M, Gravel P, Paquette V, Soucy JP, Diksic M, & Benkelfat C (2007). I struggled sometimes explaining the connection to clients, but this has just made my job so much easier!
This was an amazing article, because it actually explained why I need to eat right, take my vitamins, and exercise. Hey again:)- forgot something- since one of the symptoms of serotonin withdrawal is Fatigue (but too much serotonin is sedating), is the thinking that the fatigue is due to stressing while having too low levels of serotonin, thus making coping harder?
I know that at least some of my sleepiness comes from stress- first I get tired, then if the stress continues, I get sleepy, and long ago when my depression was severe, the sleep was also an escape.
The complexity of it all makes articles like yours that discuss safe things to try- like exercise, good sleep, light, working on your outlook, that much more important. Very interesting read, a lot of my friends dieting on carb crashing diets, good for them to read this article. Eczema is a broad term a for wide variety of skin conditions, but its true synonym is atopic dermatitis meaning that it is found on the top layers of inflamed skin. Symptoms for eczema include redness due to irritation, swelling (also called edema), ashy texture of the skin as a result of dryness, crusting, flaking, and other symptoms that include itching, blistering, oozing, and bleeding.
As the skin itches, people suffering from atopic dermatitis will be prone to scratching or rubbing, but as this is done, the symptoms flare up further, causing more pain and discomfort.
Dry areas will stay as they were prior to receiving sunlight, which will often be most prevalent in joints where the skin touches itself, such as behind the elbows or knees. There is no definitive answer as to what causes eczema, but several correlations have been drawn in families where allergies and asthma are present.
To solve this problem for those who find themselves especially troubled by the winter weather the best course of action is to engage in tepid (not too hot, but not cold either) showers, and to dry themselves afterward by blotting the towel on the skin rather than wiping or rubbing it as so many are used to. One thing many should never confuse eczema with is contagious skin conditions, such as ring worm.
Other environmental irritants can include soaps, detergents, and clothing that is harsh on the skin as well as particles from materials. Potential side-effects of using steroid medications include Glaucoma, which is why it should never be applied to the face, especially near the eyes, hypopigmentation, which is when the skin whitens, and another possible side effect is the skin increasing in its severity of atopic dermatitis. Cortisone creams can work quite effectively, but in some cases they will make matters worse. For those who do not want to treat their dermatitis with a pharmaceutical method, the next alternative is to engage in behaviors that are in support of the skin. For those who work in a wet environment, such as dishwashers and fishermen, it is best to where gloves while working. Adding to this, environments that are extreme can cause a person to scratch or rub certain areas repeatedly. As extra sensitive areas like the eyes are repeatedly rubbed the result can be a kind of chronic itch in need of being addressed almost constantly.
Just as one must engage in self-control over larger parts of his or her environment, so must he or she take control over the need to create relief in this manner. Not only will it create a more severe edema, flaking, or bleeding, but it may also cause infection as dirt can collect on the hands and under the fingernails that will then be transferred into the the breaking surface of the epidermis. Athletes have been getting in on this trend by taking advantage of new workout technology that wicks away sweat rather than collects it. For those who are unsure as to whether or not they have eczema, it can be difficult since conditions like psoriasis appear to be similar in nature.
Patients should do their best to provide the most accurate answers in relation to when the skin irritation first appeared. My name is Kim Wang and this site is my work in progress helping to pass on some of the things my mother has taught me over the years.
Have you got skin problems?Is your skin itching, breaking out, covered in a rash, or playing host to strange spots? To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements. If you are new here, you might want to subscribe to the RSS feed for updates on this topic.
No final deste artigo citaremos alguns links que poderao ajudar pessoas portadoras de Neurofibromatose. E importante considerar a evolucao dos tumores do sistema nervoso com associacao da neurofibromatose.
Principal causa nas manifestacoes osseas, a cifoscoliose conta com aspecto do estado disrafico, o que tambem pode ser acarretado por um desequilibrio muscular de fundo neurogenico.
Ronaldo Gama esclarece que etiopatogenia desta afeccao e obscuro, sendo provavelmente uma displasia que compromete os cristais neurais. Portanto, uma doenca hereditaria autossomica de forte penetracao, proveniente de uma anormalidade do desenvolvimento embrionario, principalmente derivado da crista neural.Existindo um quadro clinico bastante variavel, e sendo citadas varias formas de acometimento sistemicos com classificacao das doencas em ate sete formas de 1,2,3,4,5,6 e 7. O facoma da retina e um pequeno tumor que se equivale a pequenos tumores cutaneos e nervosos. Acontece ainda as meningoceles que sao evaginacoes transforaminais das meninges ocorrem com grande frequencia ao nivel da regiao lombar e toracica. As deformidades secundarias que se caracterizam pelo crescimento de tumores no torax ou regiao medular ou paramedular. O Scallopin e uma deformidade na concavidade posterior da face posterior do corpo vertebral, podendo existir meningocele associado. As viscerais sao representadas por tumores digestivos, tipo neurofibromatose multipla, com frequentes hemorragias digestivas.


Atualmente, as anormalidades provocadas pela neurofibromatose vascular estao associada a doenca arteriais de base do cranio (sindrome de MOYA-MOYA) aneurismas gigantes intracranianos e fistulas arterio-venosas. O diagnostico da doenca do tipo deve ser feito com muito cuidado, reexaminando o paciente por varias vezes.
Os neurinomos do acustico tem transmissao familiar autossomica dominante,podendo existir a forma bilateral.
O tratamento cirurgico baseia-se num quadro progressivo de perda de audicao e o crescimento do tumor visto por neuroimagem. A diferenca para a neurofibormatose-2 esta na maior frequencia de tumores intra parenquimatosos no sistema nervoso central. Na forma 5 essas manchas tipo cafe-com-leite e neurofibroma estao limitadas a um segmento corporal unilateral. Os estudos atuais e mais avancados, baseiam-se no quadro clinico e na histopatologia para melhor classificacao da doenca, finaliza o medico.
A neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1) e tambem conhecida como Neurofibromatose de Von Recklinghausen ou Neurofibromatose Periferica.
A neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1) e causada por uma mutacao genetica no cromossomo 17 e a neurofibromatose tipo 2 (NF2) e causada por uma mutacao genetica presente no cromossomo 22. Portadores de neurofibromatose tipo 2 (NF2) costumam apresentar tumores benignos no nervo auditivo (neurinomas do acustico) podendo levar a surdez por compressao. As pessoas com neurofibromatose precisam realizar cirurgias quando tem problemas com algum tipo de tumor. Os testes sao geralmente usados para identificar se uma crianca sem ou com pouco sinais e portadora de neurofibromatose, sendo importante na neurofibromatose tipo 2 (NF2) visto que a desordem se manifesta tardiamente.
A maioria dos afetados leva uma vida praticamente normal e bem adaptada, uma vez que esses exames previnem complicacoes, que felizmente nao sao muito comuns. Tem incidencia de 1 em 3.500 nativivos e e uma doenca autossomica dominante com penetrancia completa. Os neurofibromas sao tumores da bainha dos nervos perifericos e podem ser discretos ou plexiformes.
Os gliomas opticos sao classificados como astrocitomas pilociticos grau I (WHO I), normalmente benignos e indolentes. As alteracoes endocrinas mais comuns sao as puberais (puberdade precoce ou tardia) e a exacerbacao da doenca durante a gravidez. Tambem e comum a ocorrencia de neoplasias hematologicas, principalmente leucemias e linfomas nao-Hodgkin. No Intron 27b, encontram-se 3 genes transcritos na direcao oposta do gene NF1, EV12A, EV12B, OMGP. Apresenta uma regiao de homologia com a familia de proteinas ativadoras de GTPase (GAP), com o dominio relacionado a GAPs (GRD) e atua na regulacao de ras, proto-oncogene que, quando ativo, atua no crescimento celular e controle da apoptose. A analise do DNA, dominio GRD, permite a deteccao de 20% de mutacoes e a analise da proteina por PTT – teste da proteina truncada – detecta 70% das alteracoes, confirmadas posteriormente por sequenciamento direto. Deve ser anual para adultos e semestral para criancas, realizado por uma equipe multidisciplinar familiarizada com a historia natural da doenca.
Neurofibromatosis type 1: a model condition for the study of the molecular basis of variable expressivity in human disorders.
The diagnostic evaluation and multidisciplinary management of neurofibromatosis 1 and neurofibromatosis 2. No aconselhamento genetico, e importante informar pais e familiares a respeito do panorama geral da doenca e suas possiveis complicacoes, enfatizando que a maioria dos pacientes apresenta vida saudavel e produtiva. Esse medico observou a existencia de tumores no nervo e utilizou o termo neurofibroma para o tumor e neurofibromatose para a condicao de multiplos neurofibromas(1). Varios estudos demonstraram que 50% das criancas acometidas herdam a condicao de seus familiares e a outra metade decorre de mutacoes novas, ou seja, os pais sao sadios(3). Aproximadamente 4 a 5% dos individuos acometidos pela NF-1 apresentam delecoes de todo o gene da NF1(8). Os estudos demonstram que 70% dos pacientes com NF-1 podem ser diagnosticados antes de um ano de idade.
Apesar disso, ha dificuldades no diagnostico da doenca, principalmente em criancas menores, uma vez que aproximadamente 50% dos casos sao esporadicos e alguns sinais da NF-1, como as efelides, os neurofibromas e os nodulos de Lisch, surgem no decorrer da vida(11).
Nesses casos, recomenda-se o acompanhamento anual do paciente e pode-se indicar o teste molecular para a confirmacao da NF-1. Esse estudo molecular pode beneficiar aqueles individuos com somente um criterio ou quando o diagnostico e incerto. Possuem uma predilecao por areas nao expostas ao sol, sao assintomaticas e raramente sofrem alteracoes malignas(2). Estes tumores sao benignos e nao sofrem transformacao maligna, sendo observados em 48% dos pacientes aos dez anos de idade e em 84% aos 20 anos(3,17). Em um estudo populacional, Huson et al(6) observaram que 27% dos pacientes com NF-1 apresentavam NFP evidentes no exame fisico. Os NFP ocorrem principalmente no tronco (44%), membros (38%) e na cabeca e pescoco (18%)(6). O crescimento dos NFP pode ocorrer em qualquer idade; contudo, parece haver preferencia por dois periodos distintos.
No entanto, NFP pequenos raramente podem ser removidos por inteiro e seu crescimento pode se reativar apos a cirurgia(21). Quanto a sua localizacao, o glioma optico geralmente acomete a via anterior (nervo optico intraorbital, nervo optico intracranial e quiasma optico) e, raramente, estende-se para o interior do trato optico.
Ha evidencias de que os tumores localizados proximos ao hipotalamo interferem no sistema nervoso central (SNC), inibindo o eixo hipotalamo-pituitario-gonadal, o que resultaria em inicio precoce da puberdade.
Apesar do rastreamento tumoral por meio de neuroimagem nao ser recomendado,  a NF-1 Optic Pathway Gliomas Task Force of the National Neurofibromatosis Foundation recomenda exames oftalmologicos detalhados em criancas acometidas pela NF-1.
Tais nodulos diferem dos nevi iris devido a morfologia, pois esses sao constituidos de melanocitos e derivam da crista neural.
Procurem grupos de apoio, no Rio Santa Casa de misericordia, encontrar pessoas com o mesmo problema nos ajuda, atraves do dialogo a amenizar o sofrimento.
Therefore anyone with diabetes should be vigilant about any vision related changes and issues and get a detailed eye examination regularly every year at least. This is believed to be due to elevated endostatin levels which is an anti-angiogenic protein derived from a collagen located on chromosome 21. Your doctor should take a detailed history, including family history, and do various tests at your eye examination. There are certain other treatments that seem promising but are under trial and development phases.
As the receptors recognize the neurotransmitter, they send signals inside the second cell which pass the signal onward and do whatever other physiological response that particular transmitter dictates. As it turns out, our digestive system has its own neural network and largely controls itself without any input from our brains whatsoever.
In fact, so much serotonin enters our stomachs every day that if it were injected into the body in general it would be lethal. Injecting low serotonin doses into the body has caused rats to eat less even though they’re hungry, an effect enhanced by those same MAOIs that increase serotonin levels. Because its so common in all kinds of animals, serotonin can be found in a variety of foods.
But because serotonin in its complete form cannot pass through the blood-brain barrier, we have to do more than include serotonin-rich foods in our diets: we have to include its building blocks. In women, calorie reduction has a dramatic impact on serotonin and tryptophan levels – an effect not nearly as strong in men. It turns out that vitamin levels in our diets can have a dramatic impact on serotonin systems.
Boosting folate levels in older people, who are generally deficient compared to younger adults, has been found to improve their mood and cognitive function. People have been studying the connection between serotonin and sleeping behaviors for over 50 years. Over-eating of carbohydrates and sugars can lead to decreased sensitivity to serotonin, leading to negative mood and physical side effects like obesity.
We are outside less than we should be, sleeping odd or too few hours, exercising less, and generally eating poorer. Dieting changes serotonergic function in women, not men: implications for the aetiology of anorexia nervosa? Prediction of treatment response in geriatric depression from baseline folate level: interaction with an SSRI or a tricyclic antidepressant. Effect of folic acid combined with fluoxetine in patients with major depression on plasma homocysteine and vitamin B12, and serotonin levels in lymphocytes. Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: a unifying theory. Effects of conditioned running on plasma, liver and brain tryptophan and on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism of the rat. The efficacy of light therapy in the treatment of mood disorders: a review and meta-analysis of the evidence. In vivo measurements of brain trapping of C-labelled alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan during acute changes in mood states.
Since norepinephrine is also suspected of playing a role in depression, and norepinephrine is not sedating, it makes me wonder if some people with depression are deficient in the one but not the other, and others are deficient in both. Certain foods,and the lack of certain foods, can be so powerful, a balanced diet is the safest approach to pretty much any ailment, physical or mental.
It is important to know that the most powerful way to change emotion is through the power of thought. It can often be confused for, or misdiagnosed as, psoriasis and urticaria because they all share similar symptoms.
Lighter skinned people will find that their skin will redden as the symptoms become more severe and darker skinned people will find that their skin color will change as well. Physiologically, the body’s immune system may be overacting to one of many triggers causing the skin to become irritated more easily.
They may find their skin flaring up as a result of touching materials that it is sensitive to, such as wool.
Following a very hot shower a person with eczema will find that not only is the skin more sensitive, but that the coarseness of a towel further irritates the area, resulting in more cracking and bleeding.
Ross Zeltzer notes in his article for Baptist Health Systems about which specific factors increase one’s risk of suffering from it.
While some people are more comfortable in a dry environment others thrive in a tropical one. Those who work in wood shops may find that sawdust is unkind to them just as those who work in metal shops can find the same of steel, aluminum, and various alloys. People who are allergic to pollen or animals may find the reaction come by way of their skin.
Most people who suffer from eczema begin doing so before they are toddlers with the vast majority of the rest developing it before they are five years old. Having already covered this area, the next steps are to figure out what steps people can take as a means of not having to deal with it between behavioral and pharmaceutical therapy. But for those who have chronic flare-ups engulfing large areas, or the majority of their skin, Cortisone creams carry risk factors as well.
Along with never using it on one’s face, it should not be applied to the groin, and a doctor should be consulted if it does not work within three weeks. Mild hand soaps like Oil of Olay, Cetaphil, and Dove are highly recommended because they are gentle.
These same brands come in body washes as well, but they will not be of much help for those who insist on taking very hot showers.
For those who have something prescribed by a medical professional, use that and to the specific instructions of the provider. For those who have irritated skin that is not eczema, moisturizer can actually be part of the problem, but for those with it, it is vital. However, it is also important to note that excessive sweat causes eczema as well, so for those who wear waterproof hand protection, another method necessary to prevention may be to wear a thin pair of cotton gloves to soak up the sweat that builds up beneath. Cotton and clothes made of a cotton blend are often more gentle than those made of wool or synthetic materials. While sweat is an efficient means of helping the body cool, it is also a productive way to create chaffing.
While there will always be stress in a person’s life, there are techniques that can cause a person to settle it to a lessening degree. After the symptoms of eczema have gone away it is very important to be proactive in one’s self treatment. Sometimes a dermatologist can tell simply by observing common areas of sensitivity like the creases in one’s skin, the chest, and the face.
Those who have a personal or family history of eczema, or the common allergies that correlate with it, strengthen the case for a proper diagnosis.
If the area with the irritant is red and inflamed then the culprit has been found, but only if the skin with no applied irritant is not. A skin lesion biopsy can be taken where a small area is excised for testing, or a Radioallergosorbent Test (RAST) will be performed, which involves taking a sample of blood and mixing it with potential irritants separately.
Skin inflammation, changes in texture or colour and spots may be the result of infection, a chronic skin condition, or contact with an allergen or irritant. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
Um artigo de utilidade publica e mais completo dos demais que encontramos nos sites sobre o assunto. Ja nos nervos perifericos, a sintomatologia se traduz por parestesias e paresias tronculares. Para casos de malignidade como: gliomas do quasmo optico, glioblastomas multiformes, ependimomos e meningiomas unicos ou multiplos, comenta . Os facomos possuem aspecto de uma mancha circular esbranquicada e a atrofia do nervo optico depende de glioma do nervo ou do quiasmo optico”, acrescenta.
Outras manifestacoes podem se associar como, a feocromacitoma, a diabete insipida, malformacoes de visceras e tumores renais e no aparelho digestivo. Por um outro lado, o medico acrescenta ainda que os transtornos psiquiatricos sao relacionados a neurofibromatose, mas nao sao confirmados. E raro com a localizacao peripapilar e papilar, podendo haver concomitancia de glioma do nervo otico.
Elas sao anormalidades analogas da meningoceles e se diferenciam por nao se evaginar atraves dos forames de conjugacao. As lesoes neurologicas do sistema nervoso central sao tumores encefalicos, como por exemplo: astrocitoma pilocitico fibrilar e tumores de vias opticas.
Uma anormalidade a nivel cervico-occipital coexistindo com uma diferenca de formacao Arnold-Chiari. Estudando-se o sistema nervoso de forma geral, medidas da acuidade visual e estudos psicometricos. A neurofibromatose tipo 2 (NF2) e tambem conhecida como Neurofibromatose do Neurinoma do Acustico Bilateral ou Neurofibromatose Central. Alguns portadores podem apresentar comprometimentos osseos e outras complicacoes pouco frequentes. As decisoes sao dificeis pois os tumores podem estar localizados em pontos delicados do corpo humano. Os plexiformes envolvem multiplos fasciculos ou ramos de nervos e podem crescer exageradamente, apresentando degeneracao maligna, tumores malignos da bainha dos nervos perifericos – TMBNP, que podem ser classificados como difusos ou nodulares.
Os feocromocitomas tem forte associacao com NF1, geralmente acometem as adrenais de individuos adultos e sao bilaterais em 10% dos casos e malignos em 10%. Com a neurofibromina truncada, ras nao e inativado e ha desregulacao no crescimento celular. Ja foram descritos varios tipos de alteracoes: alteracoes cromossomicas, delecoes de todo o gene, varios Exons ou microdelecoes, insercoes e mutacoes de ponto, geralmente restritas a familia. No final da decada de 1990, Barker et al e Seizinger et al mapearam o gene da NF1 no braco longo do cromossomo 17(2). O termo “expressividade” refere-se a variabilidade de sinais fisicos ou clinicos associados a um dado gene. O fenotipo desses pacientes tende a ser mais grave, com inicio precoce dos neurofibromas e presenca de deficiencia mental, caracteristicas dismorficas variaveis e outras anomalias congenitas(8).
O diagnostico, nessas criancas, podera ser realizado por volta dos quatro anos de idade, seguindo os criterios do NIH(2).
O resultado positivo do teste molecular nao pode predizer a presenca, a idade de inicio ou a gravidade dos sintomas da NF-1. Assim, recomenda-se que criancas com seis ou mais MCCL acima de 5mm de diametro ao nascimento sejam acompanhadas, uma vez que a maioria destas ira desenvolver outras manifestacoes da NF-1, as quais poderao surgir somente no final da infancia ou mesmo na adolescencia(2,14). O tumor normalmente expressa a proteina S-100, um marcador antigenico que indica a origem neural das celulas(16). Outros neurofibromas incluem os de localizacao intraneural, os difusos que envolvem pele e tecido submucoso e os tumores moles.
O primeiro ocorre na infancia, quando o NFP cresce rapidamente por varios anos, e cessa de repente ou continua a crescer de modo constante. As criancas com glioma optico geralmente apresentam pouca ou nenhuma visao no olho acometido. Alem disso, indica-se a ressonancia nuclear magnetica de cabeca e orbita com contraste para todas as criancas que apresentam anormalidades oftalmologicas inexplicadas(26). A presenca de multiplos nodulos de Lisch parece ser exclusiva da sindrome de von Recklinghausen(28). Soon enough, the first cell has all its signal back inside it, and the two neurons are back to their resting state, ready to signal again when the time is right. Think of it like a volume control on a stereo: serotonin changes how efficiently neurons communicate with each other, making other signals louder or softer. They hunt for food, put off mating and egg laying, and generally do whatever they can to find another bite to eat.
In fact, if you were to cut the main nerve that connects the two, the gut would continue to function independently.
But if the serotonin overflows the gut’s management system, it leaks into the blood, where it stimulates 5HT3 receptors in the brain which induces vomiting. Luckily for us, there are certain gut cells which contain a lot of serotonin transporters which keep the serotonin in our stomachs and out of the rest of our bodies. Research has shown that dieters tend to become depressed about two weeks into a diet, about the time their serotonin levels have dropped due to decreased carbohydrate intake.


This strange double standard is suggested to be a part of why women are so much more prone to eating disorders. One of the most important vitamins key to serotonin function is thiamine, one of the components of Vitamin B Complex.
Even in healthy adults higher levels of serum folate have been linked to fewer mood swings and negative moods. For example, stressing, feeding, and exercise have been shown to have marked affects on serotonin levels in rats. Exercise is a cheap and dirty way to boost blood and brain serotonin levels immediately, making it a good alternative to other ways of dealing with stress and depression.
We know that changes in serotonin levels have marked impact on sleeping, with decreases in serotonin leading to apnea or other sleep problems. They looked at levels of serotonin in recently-dead people, and found higher concentrations of serotonin in those who died in the summer instead of the winter. In other words, trying to boost our moods or rosy our outlooks can help raise serotonin levels.
Proper nutritional balance is required for sustained energy throughout the day and a balanced mood. Is it something like that carbohydrates have lower levels of building blocks for serotonin but act Faster? Those with dry skin due to eczema will find that in the summer months they will not tan evenly. Others may find reactions in certain products like soaps and detergents leading them to have to purchase more expensive, skin-friendly brands that include Dreft and SA8. As mentioned earlier, one may simply contract atopic dermatitis as a result of a mother or father having it.
People who work around harsh chemicals may find that the fumes cause their skin to feel irritated even if they are more common chemicals like chlorine or those added to lotions and perfumes. This being said, a person may still find themselves with dry, flaky, crusting skin behind their elbows and knees, and even on the tops of their heads and the backs of their necks when they are middle aged or retired. The heat, when extreme, will be counter-productive in the process of creating any kind of relief. Between breathing exercises, physical exertion, talk therapy, and laughing, people who suffer from atopic dermatitis can find relief by forgetting about it temporarily. Regular moisturizing should not stop if it can be helped because managing eczema when it is not flaring up is much easier than when it is, making it true that prevention sometimes can be the best cure. If these areas are red, swollen, itchy, ashy, flaking, or cracked, it may be concluded that it is eczema. This part of the test is very important because it could very well be that the skin was irritated simply from having tape on it for an extended period of time. While both tests are very effective, they are often unnecessary with proper behavioral care through moisturizing and sometimes applying prescribed medicated creams.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health.
We Have A Prolific Team Of Highly Qualified And Experienced Diabetologists, Diabetes Educators, Psychologists And Counselors. E uma neuroctodermose, cujas manifestacoes compreendem as alteracoes cutaneas como as chamadas manchas de cafe com leite que aumentam em tamanho e numero com a idade, sardas axilares e nodulos cutaneos e subcutaneos aparecem na idade escolar.
Em muitos casos sao palpaveis, os nervos perifericos comprometidos com maior frequencia que sao o ulnar, radial, mediano, os nervos intercostais, os ramos do pelxo braquial e raizes de cauda equina.
O diagnostico se baseia no quadro clinico, dados heredologicos e exames complementares com a biopsia cutanea e nervosa, aspectos radiologicos do esqueleto e exames neuroradiologicos contrastados. A deteriorizacao intelectual esta presente em cerca de 8% dos pacientes, podendo ser observado um quadro de autismo. Na regiao toracica, a neurofibromatose e mediastinal, de preferencia posterior e com frequentes transformacoes malignas. As tres principais manifestacoes – neurofibromas, manchas cafe-com-leite e nodulos de Lisch – ocorrem em mais de 90% dos pacientes ate a puberdade. Ate o momento, nao existem evidencias de predominio da NF-1 em determinadas populacoes ou genero(5). A NF-1 e uma das doencas geneticas que melhor exemplifica tal fenomeno, uma vez que ha ampla variabilidade clinica, mesmo intrafamiliar. Nestes ultimos, observa-se infiltracao difusa no tecido mole do corpo, destacando-se a formacao de grandes massas que podem desfigurar o organismo, como os neurofibromas plexiformes (NFP)(16). No segundo periodo, observa-se crescimento quando existem alteracoes hormonais, principalmente durante a puberdade ou, nas mulheres, durante a gravidez(20). Neste sentido, a decisao quanto a remocao cirurgica do NFP ainda constitui um grande desafio(21).
Em geral, a pseudo-artrose esta limitada a uma localizacao, sendo a tibia o osso mais acometido, seguido pelo radio e femur. Most often, it accompanies other transmitters, changing a neuron’s response to that particular signal. Many depression drugs target the serotonin system by attempting to artificially boost serotonin levels or sensitivity.  MAOIs prevent the breakdown of serotonin in the body in general, thus artificially raising levels. So depending on how bad the insult to your stomach, serotonin levels control how your body reacts. All of a sudden those calorie-rich, carbohydrate-packed comfort foods make a whole lot of sense. Cutting calories has been shown to reduce tryptophan levels in rats, leading to less serotonin , and even decreases the number of receptors in their brains, so they’re less responsive to the serotonin they have. The obvious recourse when it comes to dieting, logically, is that by cutting calories we make ourselves more depressed, which in turn makes our bodies want more carbohydrates and calories to boost our moods. Simply altering the levels of thiamine in our diets and ensuring enough intake can have amazing effects. And even more impressively, high folate levels can improve other depression treatments, particularly with how well anti-depressants work.
And if you do want a snack with a pick-me-up in terms of mood, try something with less sugar or caffeine but plenty of tryptophan, like nuts – plus nuts are packed with other brain-boosting goodies, too.
Understanding the impacts of our actions and what we eat on this important system can help us improve our moods and gut health dramatically without resorting to anti-depressants or other drugs and their side effects, allowing a natural way for us to feel great more often. It is unknown as to why, but parents who suffer from allergic disorders like hay fever, asthma, and eczema have children who offer suffer from it as well.
Those who had suffered from eczema the previous year carried no symptoms while deployed overseas. As strange as it may sound to some, water can actually be a causal factor in drying out the skin. It creates a thin barrier between the skin and the outside environment that is damaging it, much like lip balm does.
This test consists of applying a small area of tape with the suspected irritant on it to be applied to the skin for a day or two. Yet, while many are minor, they may indicate something more serious, so always seek medical advice for correct diagnosis.
Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site.
Today, DIP Continues To Provide World-Class Diabetes Care, Education, Publications And Research That Meet The Needs Of Patients And Their Families.
Epoca, que segundo o medico, que e aquela quando a crianca ja evidencia baixo rendimento escolar. O nervo craniano, que tem comprometimento mais frequente e o acustico, podendo ter envolvimento bilateral, e trigemeo e o vago tambem podem ser comprometidos com menor frequencia.
Observa-se tambem acometimento da lingua com macroglossia, devido a um neurofibroma ou angioma. As lesoes osseas caracteristicas sao escoliose displastica, pseudoartrose tibial e fibromas ossificantes. A maior parte das delecoes intragenicas tem origem materna e as mutacoes de ponto, origem paterna. Em estudos recentes, Friedrich et al(22) sugerem que a vantagem das intervencoes cirurgicas precoces nos NFP pequenos nas criancas seria impedir a progressao dos mesmos. O exame fisico nos quatro membros e imprescindivel para detectar a instabilidade ossea nos locais da pseudoartrose(21). Because of this, its used by all kinds of nerve cells all over the body, and serotonin levels can dramatically alter our behavior.
Zoloft and other SSRIs (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors) target the serotonin system by blocking the those pumps which bring the serotonin back in after a signal, causing signals to seem stronger and last longer.
Because of this, some of those anti-depressants, particularly the SSRIs, frequently trigger nausea and vomiting as a side effect.
It’s logical, then, that sad people tend to eat more junk food even when a more nutritious option is available. It’s yet another reason our weight tends to yo-yo when we try to diet, especially when carbs are cut, and helping keep serotonin levels in check might just be the solution. One study, for example, found that supplemental vitamins for a year significantly boosted women’s moods and overall well-being, particularly due to levels of thiamine. Exactly how folate relates to serotonin is unclear, though it appears to act through an intermediate compound called S-adenosylmethionine (SAM).
After all, one of serotonin’s major actions in our bodies is as a sedative, so its not shocking that it has close ties with how we regulate our energy.
Lack of sleeping negatively affects our brains neuronal signaling, including how it responds to serotonin. It was already known that many people have seasonal changes in mood, with more depression occurring during the cold, dark winter than the warm, sunny summer. Some say that it is best to apply moisturizer while the skin is wet after a shower and others disagree. Then, the moisturizing barrier will allow the body to soothe itself with its own means before it evaporates from the skin, which will then result in the need to reapply. As lesoes tumorais periaqueditais se apresentam com um quadro de hidrocefalia por estenose do aqueduto de SYLVIUS e mal formacoes obito-cranio-faciais, como por exemplo, os neurinomios plexiformes da palpebra superior, neurofibroma primitivo da orbita. Outros tumores que ocorrem associados a NF1 sao carcinoides, rabdomiossarcomas, tumores da crista neural e tumor de Wilms.
Poucas correlacoes entre o genotipo e o fenotipo existem: as microdelecoes parecem aumentar o risco para TMBNPs e grandes delecoes estao associadas a um fenotipo mais grave, talvez por envolver outros genes. Os gliomas opticos estao entre os tumores mais frequentemente observados na NF-1, associados aos neurofibromas. Levels too high can lead to sedation, whereas low levels are associated with debilitating psychiatric conditions and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
Increased levels of exercise have been shown to increase neuron production, giving out brains better ability to utilize the serotonin boosts and improve our moods. Sleep deprivation has been shown to desensitize serotonin pathways, meaning that consistent lack of sleep has a negative impact on our brain’s response to serotonin in general. It is a mild sedative, and eating serotonin-boosting foods in the middle of the day can make us drowsy and less focused. Em alguns casos podem ter evolucao lenta, acometendo cerca de 10% dos doentes de neurofibramatose. Nos tumores, foi verificada a inativacao do alelo normal, por perda de heterozigosidade, o que levou a classificacao do gene NF1 como um gene supressor de tumor.
Mescaline, LSD and other psychedelics mimic serotonin and activate serotonin receptors in the brain. Giving yourself a carb-rich treat every so often can help you maintain higher serotonin levels and keep you in a better mood where you can curb your cravings to eat calorie-craving comfort foods during the rest of the week. Exercise also allows our brains cells to function better by making them more flexible, leading to better responses to all neurotransmitters, including serotonin. This means that consistent healthy sleeping patterns are key to maintaining healthy serotonin signaling in our brains and likely our bodies in general.
A protein-rich snack instead will help increase energy and keep you going when you need it most. This cannot be emphasized enough because so much unnecessary and easily avoidable skin damage can be done in the moments after a shower or bath is taken.
Most people recover, but pain, numbness, and itching linger for many and may last for months, years, or the rest of their lives. Taken together, these suggest that a walk in the sun or getting away on vacation to somewhere tropical and sunny during the darker months might be able to naturally boost serotonin levels. Hives (urticaria)Hives, a common allergic reaction that looks like welts, are often itchy, stinging, or burning. Severe hives can be associated with difficulty breathing (get immediate medical attention if this occurs). Medication, foods, or food additives, temperature extremes, and infections like a sore throat can cause hives.
PsoriasisA non-contagious rash of thick red plaques covered with silvery scales, psoriasis usually affects the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. The precise cause of psoriasis is unknown, but the immune system mistakenly attacks skin cells causing new skin cells to develop too quickly. EczemaEczema describes several non-contagious conditions where skin is inflamed, red, dry, and itchy. Stress, irritants (like soaps), allergens, and climate can trigger flare-ups though they’re not eczema's cause, which is unknown. Treatments include emollient creams and ointments, steroid creams and ointments, antibiotics and antihistamines.
RosaceaOften beginning as a tendency to flush easily, rosacea causes redness on the nose, chin, cheeks, forehead, and can cause eye irritation. If left untreated, bumps and pus-filled pimples can develop, with the nose and oil glands becoming bulbous.
Rosacea treatment includes topical gels, medication, as well as surgery to remove blood vessels or correct nose disfigurement. Rash from poisonous plantsMost plants in the UK will not give you a rash, but the same is not always true on holiday abroad where you may be in contact with species that don't grow here.
For example, in the US, contact with sap from poison ivy, oak, and sumac causes a rash in most people.
The typical rash is arranged as a red line on an exposed area, caused by the plant dragging across the skin.
The sharp edge of closely shaven hair can curl back and grow into the skin, causing irritation and pimples, and even scarring. To minimise razor bumps, have a hot shower before shaving, shave in the direction of hair growth, and don't stretch the skin while shaving. Skin tagsA skin tag is a small flap of flesh-coloured or slightly darker tissue that hangs off the skin by a connecting stalk. They’re usually found on the neck, chest, back, armpits, under the breasts or in the groin area. Skin tags are not dangerous and usually don't cause pain unless they become irritated by clothing or nearby skin rubbing against them. Often seen on the face, chest, and back, acne is caused by a number of things, including the skin’s response to hormones. To help control it, keep oily areas clean and don't squeeze pimples (it may cause infection and scars).
Athlete's footA fungal infection that can cause peeling, redness, itching, burning and sometimes blisters and sores, athlete's foot is contagious, passed by direct contact or by walking barefoot in areas such as changing rooms or near swimming pools. It's usually treated with topical antifungal cream or powder, or oral medication for more severe cases. MolesUsually brown or black, moles can be anywhere on the body, alone or in groups, and generally appear before age 20.
Have a medical check-up for moles that change, have irregular borders, unusual or uneven colour, bleed or itch.
Age, sun or liver spots (lentigines)These pesky brown spots are not really caused by ageing, though they do multiply as you age. They're the result of sun exposure, which is why they tend to appear on areas that get a lot of sun, such as the face, hands, and chest. To rule out serious skin conditions such as melanoma, seek medical advice for correct identification. Pityriasis roseaA harmless rash, pityriasis rosea usually begins with a single, scaly pink patch with a raised border.
Days to weeks later, salmon-coloured ovals appear on the arms, legs, back, chest, and abdomen, and sometimes the neck. The rash, whose cause is unknown, usually doesn't itch, and usually goes away within 12 weeks without needing treatment. MelasmaMelasma (or chloasma) is characterised by brown patches on the cheeks, nose, forehead and chin.
Melasma may go away after pregnancy but, if it persists, can be treated with prescription creams and over-the-counter products. Cold soresSmall, painful, fluid-filled blisters around the mouth or nose, cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus.
Antiviral pills or creams can be used as treatment, but seek medical advice immediately if sores contain pus, you have a fever greater than 38C, or if your eyes become irritated.
WartsCaused by contact with the contagious human papillomavirus (HPV), warts can spread from person to person or via contact with something used by a person with the virus. You can prevent spreading warts by not picking them, covering them with bandages or plasters, and keeping them dry. Seborrheic keratosisNoncancerous growths that may develop with age, seborrhoeic keratoses can appear anywhere on the body - but particularly on the chest or back - alone, or in groups.
They may be dark or multicoloured, and usually have a grainy surface that easily crumbles, though they can be smooth and waxy. Because seborrheic keratoses may be mistaken for moles or skin cancer, seek medical advice for correct diagnosis.



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Comments

  1. PRINS_666

    Low-intensity exercise, but for anyone concerned with strength, power and but found it all too.

    21.07.2014

  2. Hulya

    That it's sixty five% fats, 30% protein and particular person who switches from a excessive-carbohydrate.

    21.07.2014