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Lispro was the first of what undoubtedly will be many new insulin analogues with structures designed to provide pharmacoki-netics that more closely mimic physiologic insulin secretion and needs.89 One of the features of natural (or synthetic) human insulin is that six molecules associate with a zinc molecule to form hexamers.
Another synthetic rapid-acting analogue, insulin aspart, replaces proline with aspartic acid at position B28 [see Figure 3]. Fixed-dose mixtures of insulin are not physiologically very suitable for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin requirements are increased by greater caloric and especially carbohydrate intake, by weight gain of both lean body mass and fat mass, by the onset of puberty, by infections and other medical or surgical stresses, by pregnancy, by glucocorticoid administration, and sometimes by the physiologic changes that pre-cede the onset of menses.
Figure 13 Different combinations of various insulin preparations can be employed in establishing glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (and in those patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who eventually reach an equivalent degree of insulin deficiency). CSII has improved considerably since its introduction in the 1970s.97 Modern insulin infusion pumps permit programming with multiple basal rates, allowing flexibility during the day as well as automatic adjustment of doses while sleeping at night. Implantable pumps delivering insulin into the peritoneal cavity and resulting in a more physiologic first pass of insulin through the liver have provided acceptable HbA1c levels with a lower frequency of severe hypoglycemia.99 Difficulties with obstruction of insulin delivery and infection have occurred, and they are not yet approved for commercial use. Intensive and conventional insulin treatment will produce unsatisfactory results unless it is appropriate for the nutrient intake. Exercise is another important component of diabetes care because it helps maintain cardiovascular conditioning, insulin sensitivity, and general well-being.109 However, patients must be instructed how to adjust their meals, their insulin doses and timing, or both to prevent hypoglycemia during, immediately after, or even 6 to 12 hours after exercise as muscle glycogen stores are replenished from plasma glucose.
Perform complete blood count, serum urea nitrogen measurement, serum creatinine measurement, urinalysis, appropriate cultures, and chest radiography. DKA is the ultimate result of insulin deficiency110,111 [see Figure 11], which is aggravated by stress-induced elevations of glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, epinephrine, and norepi-nephrine110 that add a component of insulin resistance.112 DKA occurs in 2% to 5% of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus a year. Treatment Treatment of DKA110,114,115 requires careful monitoring of the patient [see Table 5].
Although DKA can be managed satisfactorily with insulin given intramuscularly or subcutaneously, intravenous administration is far more reliable and results in fewer instances of hypokalemia and hypoglycemia. It is preferable to treat patients with DKA in an intensive care unit to ensure close monitoring.
Pregnancy is full of challenges—and even more so if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Pregnancy is full of challenges—and even more so if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes testers can be found online, through your local doctor’s office, at your local pharmacy or retail store. Diabetic testers or monitors as some people like to call them are used for a variety of reasons but the most popular is by measuring the amount of sugar or glucose in a person’s bloodstream. For some , the disease can be managed with diet and exercise alone .Nutrition counseling needs to be available in school so that children understand the importance of healthy eating. Insulin and some oral diabetes medications are used to control blood sugars and prevent complications of diabetes.
How do I remove a giant comedonal cyst (2x2 cm) from the interscapular area and leave minimal scarring in a keloid-forming patient? The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) guidelines recommend universal screening of all women between 24-28 weeks of gestational age. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study has shown that even mild hyperglycemia in pregnancy is associated with outcomes such as birth weight greater than the 90th percentile, increased rate of caesarean section and high cord plasma C-peptide levels which reflect fetal hyperinsulinemia.3 Adverse maternal and fetal outcomes associated with GDM are outlined in Table 2.
Women with GDM should perform self-monitoring of blood glucose, but the glycemic targets to aim for in pregnancy differ from those sought in the non-pregnant female (Table 4).1 Lifestyle modification and dietary changes with the assistance of a registered dietician are the first steps of treatment. Pharmacologic therapies are initiated if a two-week trial of lifestyle modification fails to hit glycemic targets, or if there’s significant fasting hyperglycemia or a very high HbA1c. In another randomized trial, women between 24 and 31 weeks gestational age who had mild GDM were assigned to an intervention group that included glucose monitoring, dietary advice and insulin therapy and compared to a control group with routine care. Oral hypoglycemic agents such as glyburide and metformin are considered second-line agents of treatment for women with GDM who are non-adherent to insulin therapy or refuse insulin.
In a landmark trial, 404 women with GDM at 11 to 33 weeks gestation were randomized to treatment with glyburide or insulin. In an open-label trial, women with GDM at 20 to 33 weeks gestation were assigned to treatment with metformin or insulin. There are no specific guidelines on the frequency of ante-natal visits, but women with GDM are generally seen at least every 1 to 2 weeks. Women with GDM have a 17-63% risk of developing Type 2 DM within 5 to 16 years after the pregnancy.11 Post-partum follow-up with a 75 g OGTT between 6 weeks and 6 months is recommended. On a balmy spring evening sitting on the balcony of a Spanish holiday villa, Anthony and Ian Whitington asked their father to sit down and look through some old family photos. The brothers had arranged the ten-day break to spend precious time with their dad Geoff, but also to remind him of the man he once was. Geoff was just 62 at the time but his weight had nudged over 20 stone — way too high for his 6 foot frame.
AboutSilver Star Diabetes is a registered charity campaigning to provide diabetes awareness. There are currently over 3 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK and another over 1 million people who have type 2 diabetes but do not yet know it. Insulin hexamers must disassociate to monomers before they can be absorbed from subcutaneous injection sites. The dose of regular or lispro insulin or insulin aspart before each meal is chosen by the patient on the basis of the blood glucose level, the estimated amount of carbohydrate to be eaten, or both. During acute illnesses, patients will require extra doses of rapid-acting insulin when hyperglycemia accelerates and especially if ketosis occurs.


Frequently, the basal rate needs to be lower in the first half of the night and then increased to accommodate the so-called dawn phenomenon [see Figure 13].
Closed-loop insulin-delivery devices that would measure the patient’s blood glucose level very frequently and would automatically adjust insulin delivery still await the development of a practical and long-lived indwelling continuous glucose sensor. On the negative side, the patient incurs the risk of operative mortality and morbidity and must remain on immunosuppressive therapy with its attendant risks of infection and malignant disease.103 Length of stay, readmission rates, morbidity, and the number of acute rejection episodes are higher for pancreas transplants than for kidney transplants. Furthermore, the ability to immunomodulate isolated islets in the laboratory (by masking or removing cell surface antigens) may someday allow transplantation with little or no immunosuppression.
To facilitate the matching of insulin doses to meals and to prevent hypoglycemia, patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus should eat consistent regular meals comprising about 50% carbohydrate calories, less than 30% total fat calories, and less than 300 mg cholesterol a day.106 Various methods of teaching patients how to assess amounts of foods and their nutrient and caloric content have been utilized. High-impact sports are con-traindicated for patients with advanced retinopathy who are at risk for vitreous hemorrhage or for patients with peripheral neuropathy or vascular disease who are at risk for foot trauma, because such sports can be hazardous. Check blood pressure, pulse, respiration, mental status every 1 to 2 hr and temperature every 8 hr. Check serum potassium every 2 to 4 hr; check other electrolytes and serum ketones or betahydroxybutyrate every 4 hr. Perform ECG on admission; repeat if follow-up serum potassium level is abnormal or unavailable.
Persistent vomiting calls for gastric intubation, and the airway of an obtunded patient should be protected to prevent aspiration. Diabetes testers are a main staple item when it comes to being a diabetic because diabetics need these in order to maintain their diabetes and remain healthy on a daily basis.
Diabetes testers help monitor the blood glucose level in a person’s bloodstream and without a diabetes tester a diabetic can’t function on a daily basis. Diabetic testers can be found in a wide variety of places such as grocery stores, convenience stores, on ambulances, hospitals, doctor offices, retail stores and wholesale outlets or pharmacies just to name a few. These testers or meters are loved by most diabetics because not only are they a necessity but they also have ease of use, portability and are convenient. These reviews can be found online, at your local library, through speaking with your doctor or the most popular way is to talk around to other diabetics, you can do this online through many diabetic chat rooms or people you know.
RAVIKUMAR MUPPIDI DM EndocrinologyAdvanced Endocrine Hospital & Research Centre KPHB Hyd.
In pregnancy, insulin resistance occurs due to placental secretion of growth hormone, cortisol, human placental lactogen, and progesterone.
Hypocaloric diets aren’t recommended as they can cause ketosis and lack adequate nutrients.
Insulin lacks significant transplacental passage and is the standard of care for treatment of GDM. In a randomized trial, women between 24 and 34 weeks’ gestation who had GDM were assigned to receive dietary advice, blood glucose monitoring, and insulin therapy (intervention group) or routine care, which resembled clinical care without the knowledge of GDM diagnosis. Physicians should discuss with their patients that the use of oral agents in pregnancy is off-label and long-term safety data are limited.
Metformin alone or with supplemental insulin wasn’t associated with adverse outcomes such as respiratory distress, need for phototherapy or birth trauma.
Some studies have shown that offspring of mothers with GDM are at an increased risk of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance but the importance of tight glycemic control to prevent these long-term outcomes isn’t established.1 Women with previous GDM should plan future pregnancies in consultation with their family physician or an endocrinologist to attain good glycemic control at conception and throughout pregnancy. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Prebtani, MD, FRCPC, is Associate Professor of Medicine and Program Director of the Endocrinology & Metabolism Residency Training Program at McMaster University in Hamilton, ON. The Charity runs Mobile Diabetes Units which main role is to to carry out important diabetes testing and to promote culturally sensitive healthcare in the major towns and cities of Britain. This requirement is the main reason that crystalline zinc insulin (regular insulin) has a peak action 2 to 4 hours after injection and must be taken 30 to 60 minutes before eating to have any chance of limiting postprandial hyperglycemia.
Glargine is given as a single bedtime injection to provide basal insulin for 24 hours with less nocturnal hypoglycemia.96 For reasons that should now be clear, intensive treatment regimens are the preferred form of therapy and should be implemented early in as many patients as is safely possible. Frequent telephone contact with caregivers allows timely professional guidance of the extra insulin doses, nutrient intake to prevent hypoglycemia, and fluid intake to prevent dehydration.
The latter is a slow rise in the plasma glucose level before the patient awakens, demonstrable in normal individuals but exaggerated in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus who cannot limit it by increasing endogenous insulin secretion. Various attempts to package insulin for oral administration so as to prevent its degradation in the gastrointestinal tract have also been investigated, as has transdermal insulin. From 1994 to 1996, the 1-year pancreas transplant survival was 81%, compared with a kidney transplant survival of 88%.103 The large majority of pancreas transplantations are still performed as an option in conjunction with a necessary kidney transplant. Alternatively, islets can be placed in semipermeable hollow tubes that allow glucose to enter and insulin to leave but shield the islets from inflammatory reactions to a foreign body.
These methods include exchange lists that place foods into six categories; each category has approximately the same quantity of carbohydrate, protein, and calories per serving. Most cases occur in patients already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, but DKA still can be the first manifestation of diabetes, especially in children. After an initial liter in 30 to 60 minutes, fluid therapy should continue aggressively until the circulating volume is replenished, as indicated by an increase in blood pressure to normal and a reduction in compensatory tachycardia. It may not be as hard as you think, says Cheryl Alkon, author of Balancing Pregnancy With Pre-Existing Diabetes.
By speaking to other people it will allow you to find the best diabetic testers for your needs. The patient is given a 50g oral glucose load at any of time of day and plasma glucose (PG) is measured 1 hour later.


Gentle exercise such as walking is beneficial, although obstetrical concerns may limit physical activity. In the intervention group, the composite end point of serious perinatal complications (death, shoulder dystocia, bone fracture or nerve injury) was significantly lower.
There was no difference in the primary outcome, which was a composite of stillbirth or perinatal death and neonatal complications such as hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and birth trauma.
The group receiving metformin had less neonatal hypoglycemia but more spontaneous pre-term delivery. By simply exchanging lysine and proline at positions 28 and 29 of the B chain of insulin [see Figure 3], hexamer formation is prevented and the monomer is rapidly absorbed from an injection site. Different combinations of insulin preparations can be used to approximate (but never reliably reproduce) normal plasma insulin profiles [seeFigure 13]. Lispro insulin or insulin as-part is especially useful in these circumstances because the effect of an overdose is short lived and hypoglycemia is less likely. On the other hand, interruption of insulin delivery from a pump for as little as 8 hours can result in extreme hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and hyperkalemia. Islet transplantation with function lasting at least 1 year has been achieved in less than 10% of attempts worldwide. Self-monitoring of blood glucose and urine ketones and close contact with the diabetes care team should facilitate recognition and abortion of evolving DKA by early and aggressive treatment with extra insulin and fluids at home. If bicarbonate therapy is given, serum potassium and arterial pH should be monitored hourly and extra potassium given to prevent hypokalemia.
But you do need a plan.Before starting a family, check out these 7 tips that can help you ace diabetes management and have a healthy pregnancy. Fast-acting prandial insulin analogues such as Lispro and Aspart, regular insulin, and longer-acting insulins such as Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) are safe in pregnancy. Lispro insulin action begins within 15 minutes, the peak effect is reached at 1 to 2 hours, and the duration of action is only 4 to 6 hours.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus can almost never be satisfactorily controlled on less than two injections a day of intermediate- or long-acting insulin combined with rapid-acting insulin. A Canadian group has reported on seven successive cases of islet injection into the liver, with persistent function and independence from insulin injections for up to 15 months, using a new immunosuppressive regimen.105 This technique is undergoing a multicenter trial.
Another approach is to focus only on the carbohydrate content of foods because carbohydrates cause most of the postprandial hy-perglycemia. The anion gap metabolic acidosis is secondary to elevated levels of acetoacetate and betahydroxybutyrate with small contributions from lactate and free fatty acids. Thus, lispro insulin injected just before a meal provides a postprandial plasma insulin profile similar to that of normal human insulin secretion [see Figure 2]. Only in patients experiencing a honeymoon remission or in patients with late-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus in adults can satisfactory metabolic control be established with a single injection of insulin daily.
Sepsis, myocardial infarction, and other major intercur-rent illnesses are more often the cause of death than the metabolic disequilibrium itself. Although serum potassium and phosphate levels are usually normal or even high initially, this finding masks a profound total body depletion of these electrolytes, along with magnesium. The chief benefits of using lispro insulin are to reduce postprandial blood glucose peaks and to somewhat decrease the hypoglyce-mia that can result from the late tail of regular insulin action.90,91 However, loss of that late action can lead to recurrent hypergly-cemia before the next meal. Such success is made possible only by the presence of some normally regulated endogenous insulin secretion. The effective depletion of total body bicarbonate through loss of the strong organic acids acetoacetate and betahydroxybutyrate in the urine is revealed later, when a hyperchloremic metabolic aci-dosis often ensues.
Hence patients switched from regular insulin to lispro insulin may have no reduction in HbA1c unless their doses of basal insulin (neutral protamine Hage-dorn [NPH], Lente, or Ultralente or the basal rate in CSII) are increased.92 It may even prove useful to combine lispro insulin with regular insulin in a single injection to optimize postprandial control. It usually appears 6 to 12 hours after treatment is initiated when biochemical improvement is manifest; yet it is often fatal. Ketones, which current tests detect only as acetoacetate or acetone, may be missing from the serum if the redox potential of the patient is very high and the equilibrium of the ketoacids is shifted toward the reduced partner betahydroxybutyrate (as may occur in alcohol intoxication).
Otherwise, serious hypokalemia will result as insulin stimulates potassium uptake by cells [see Figure 4]. The I insulin administered at bedtime provides safer, more effective overnight glucose control; without predinner insulin, however, glucose levels may rise to unacceptably high levels after dinner. Arterial blood pH may be normal if there is coexistent metabolic alkalosis caused by diuretic ingestion or pernicious vomiting. Preprandial doses of R insulin are adjusted according to blood glucose levels and anticipated meal carbohydrate content.
A pump-driven continuous subcutaneous infusion of R insulin replaces basal insulin secretion. For example, the basal rate can be lowered or even suspended during periods of intensive aerobic exercise. Preprandial bolus doses are individually dialed in and rapidly pumped in, adjusted according to blood glucose levels and anticipated meal carbohydrate content.



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