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Lab tests done on mice with Type 2 diabetes revealed that glucose metabolism improved after transplanting stem cells from the pancreas combined with drugs that sensitize insulin.
The scientists conducted several tests to check which insulin-sensitizing drug could maximize the effect of stem cells on diabetes and obesity. This state-of-the-evidence review summarizes characteristics of intervention studies published from January 2000 through December 2005 in five psychiatric nursing journals.
Psychiatric nursing has a long-established precedent of relying on tradition (Forchuk, 2001; Stuart, 2001).
Evidence-based practice is the systematic use of current best evidence to make clinical decisions for patient care (Sackett, Straus, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, 2000). Several recent landmark documents - the Report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health (1999), Healthy People 2010, the National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives (2000), and the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health (2003)- highlight the need for psychiatric nursing practice that is evidence based. The future of psychiatric nursing thus depends on the development of evidence-based practice and its dissemination to all involved in implementation of care. Thus, the purpose of this analysis was to determine the extent to which intervention studies are published in psychiatric nursing journals that are most likely to be read by practicing nurses who are in the best position to implement the interventions. We found that 486 research studies, using either quantitative or qualitative data, were published from January 2000 through December 2005.
Fifty-nine of the 77 interventions studies (77% of the total) were done in the United States. Studies were also classified according to whether they were done in an institution or the community. The populations targeted included adults, elders (age 65 and over), adolescents, or a combination of age groups such as adults and elders or adolescents and elders. Indeed, after considering patients' circumstances and other factors, selection of a nursing approach involves integrating biologic, psychological, and social interventions into a comprehensive plan of care. A social intervention was tested in a study conducted by Holmes, Kennedy, and Perron (2004). Research designs were primarily quantitative, with 49 studies or 64% of the total using a quantitative design.
We also examined number of intervention studies published yearly in the five journals combined. The need for quality psychiatric care that is based on the best and most current empirical research is well documented.
This review is the first attempt to examine psychiatric and mental health nursing intervention studies reported in the new millennium. Our results have demonstrated that, while progress has been made through the years in the publication and dissemination of evidence-based findings in these five psychiatric nursing journals, more work needs to be done to move psychiatric nursing forward in the new millennium. More studies testing interventions directed toward primary prevention of mental health problems and promotion of mental health in persons with mental illness are needed.
Although the significant increase in the number of intervention studies published in the five psychiatric journals in 2005 is encouraging and may reflect a shift toward development of a stronger evidence base in mental health nursing, less than 16% of all the studies published over the five year period in these journals were intervention studies. Research findings must be published in journals that are read by psychiatric nurses in clinical practice who can best use the evidence.
In summary, as psychiatric and mental health nursing moves to embrace evidence-based practice, there is work to be done in three major areas: personnel (researchers and clinicians), process (conduct and dissemination of evidence-based research), and product (change in practice based on evidence).
More researchers with both clinical knowledge and research expertise are needed, and these nurse researchers need to increase the depth and scope of their research.
Development and rigorous testing of interventions and more focused research to build evidence for effective interventions are crucial, recognizing that not all the research conducted by psychiatric nurse researchers will be pertinent for practice as the research may not address clinically relevant issues or evaluate interventions used on a day-to-day basis. We must implement change in nursing practice based on or guided by empirical evidence and break away from the routines and practices that are familiar and comfortable to us. Quality care for consumers of mental health services will be best ensured through the implementation of best practices based on the most currently available empirical evidence. Jane Suresky is an Assistant Professor at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing of Case Western Reserve University (Case), Cleveland, Ohio.
Abir Bekhet is an Assistant Lecturer at Alexandria University, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria, Egypt, and a research assistant at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing of Case Western Reserve University (Case), Cleveland, Ohio. Lori Kidd is an Instructor at The University of Akron College of Nursing and a PhD student at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing of Case Western Reserve University (Case), Cleveland, Ohio.
The Hirsh Institute's mission is to build a repository of best nursing practices based on research findings. American Nurses Association, American Psychiatric Nurses Association, & International Society of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses. Completing an outline for a research paper can be essential because it makes writing the paper much easier. In order to begin outlining the research paper, determine why you are researching the subject. The MLA format provides the necessary guidelines for effectively writing an essay according to the MLA standards. The American Psychological Association style (APA format) is used for writing papers in the social science field. All main headings in the outline should begin with Roman numerals, and the subheadings should begin with capital letters. An essay outline template tells the writer what material to insert, and it tells where the information should be inserted. Scope of Practice The goal of the Family Medicine clerkship is for students to acquire a wide range of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for the recognition, understanding, and management of the common and unique health care problems in primary care. Approach to Family MedicineFamily Medicine is quite unique than other areas of medicine as it allows you to build relationships with families, and get to know their concerns overtime. Please bear in mind that with most clinics using electronic medical records, the patient’s demographics, PMHx, FHx, and allergies may already be in the system. Sample NoteFamily Medicine clinics may use paper SOAP notes or online EPR resources to document patient encounters. This time, a new research sheds light into the possibility of doing the same for Type 2 diabetes.
The tests were also conducted to assess the impact of stem cells on obesity, which yielded promising results. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. Few psychiatric nurses can articulate the empirical basis for their actions, and much of their care is based on centuries-old wisdom and experiences passed down through the generations by word of mouth or in classic textbooks. Use of best evidence for clinical decision making improves patient outcomes, provides professional development opportunities, contributes to recruitment and retention of staff, and saves health care dollars (The Sarah Cole Hirsh Institute, 2005).
All these documents point to the existence of established scientific approaches for the treatment of mental illnesses and set goals to use these approaches to decrease the prevalence of crisis states such as suicide, homelessness, and incarceration.
As a step in this direction, this article reviews intervention studies published by psychiatric nurses in five peer-reviewed psychiatric nursing journals from January 2000 through December 2005. We focused on these journals with the assumption that the majority of practicing psychiatric nurses may not read nursing research journals.
A hand search of the five journals was done by the four co-authors, who reached a joint consensus about which studies would be included as intervention studies, defined as studies in which the application of nursing strategies, procedures, or practices were examined for their effectiveness in enhancing or promoting health or preventing disability or dysfunction. However, of these studies, only 77, or 15.84% of them, evaluated or tested psychiatric nursing interventions.
Institutional settings included hospitals, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and jails or correctional facilities.
Studies included those who were mentally ill and those adolescents, adults, or elders who were not mentally ill but were experiencing stress, physical illness, pregnancy, incarceration, victimization, or bereavement.
This model uses a holistic approach, consisting of three separate but interdependent domains: biologic, psychological, and social (Boyd, 2002). Nursing interventions are defined as activities that assess dysfunction, enhance and promote health, and assist patients to regain or improve their coping abilities and or prevent further disabilities (ANA, 2000). Biologic interventions focus on physical functioning and are directed toward the patient's self care, activities and exercise, sleep, nutrition, relaxation, hydration, thermoregulation and, finally, pain and medication management. A major focus in psychiatric mental health nursing is on the psychological domain; namely, emotion, behavior, and cognition. The social domain can be viewed as including the patient's environment and its effect on the patient's reactions to disorders and stress.
Their purpose was to obtain an understanding of psychiatric patients' perception of the intervention, their experience of seclusion on an emotional level, and the way they coped during their stay in the seclusion room. Among the studies reviewed here, the most frequently used interventions were in the psychological domain; they were represented by 57% of the total or 44 studies. Interestingly, while the number of intervention studies remained essentially static between 2000 and 2004 (n =11, 11, 9, and 11 respectively), the number of intervention studies (n = 24) more than doubled in 2005. While this review excluded nursing intervention studies published in research-oriented journals, restriction to these five psychiatric nursing journals was purposeful. Our review found that the majority of nursing research studies reported in the five journals were based on the traditional medical model, or were illness-based: 75% of the studies targeted the mentally ill.
More intervention studies would help to document the efficacy of evidence-based approaches implemented by psychiatric nurses and publication of this evidence in journals read by practicing psychiatric nurses is critical.
Challenges to increasing the number of nurse researchers include the current nursing shortage in all areas of nursing and the shortage of nursing faculty. However, we must strive to engage psychiatric mental health nurses in discovering the value and relevance of evidence-based research. Effecting practice change requires both institutional support and readiness for change on the part of practicing nurses.
Moving from tradition to evidence-based practice will be of paramount importance to future mental health nurses.
Zauszniewski is the Kate Hanna Harvey Professor in Community Health Nursing and Associate Dean for Doctoral Education at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing of Case Western Reserve University (Case), Cleveland, Ohio.
She received an ND and MSN from Case, Cleveland, Ohio; and a BSN from Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio. She received her BSN and MSN (Excellent with honor degrees) from Alexandria University, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria, Egypt.


She received her MSN from Case in Cleveland, Ohio, and her BSN from The University of Akron in Akron, Ohio. Basically, it helps you organize your ideas, and appropriately place your researched information in the right section.
Basically, it helps the writer organize his or her ideas and appropriately place the researched information in the right section. Our main priorities are client satisfaction and delivering high quality, original research papers. A research paper outline or a speech outline will help keep the content of the paper in a logical order.
For instance, if you are going to write about college, determine if you are interested in college culture’s norms, or maybe why more females attend college than males? In addition to a reference page, in text citation is required when writing an APA style paper. Alternatively, Arabic numerals and lowercase letters can be used with full sentences for each outline main heading.
A MLA outline template or an APA outline template can be helpful to students who unaware of the MLA and APA style and its requirements. We have over 500 expert writers with PhD and Masters level educations who are all ready to fulfill your writing needs, regardless of the academic level or research topic.
Editing provided by Jessica O'Neil, PA-S1, McMaster PAEP Class of 2015, was greatly appreciated. These learning opportunities arise in the context of long‐term relationships with patients and families across a breadth of health care issues, and it is the longitudinal, comprehensive nature of Family Medicine that makes it unique.
Also, it is likely that in a GP’s clinic, patients will bring forward more than one concern. It may be useful for some patients to update their social history, or medication list during their visit. Of 486 research studies published in those journals, 77 were intervention studies, including 77% conducted in the United States.
While traditional modes of intervention are sometimes successful and certainly sincere, such interventions are seldom based on sound scientific data and principles.
Health care that is based on evidence has been found to lead to better clinical decisions and patient outcomes (Fineout-Overholt, Melnyk, & Schulz, 2005). Finally, the reports note the importance of delineating a needed transformation of the mental health system, including improved access and support at federal, state, and local levels. All five of the journals are provided with membership to professional organizations or by individual subscriptions. The remainder of this review is limited to these 77 intervention studies (referenced in Table 1) which were found in the five psychiatric nursing journals. Only 14% of the studies were done outside North America, specifically 2 studies each were done in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Sweden, and one study was done in each of the countries of Turkey, Korea, United Kingdom, Australia, and Thailand. Community settings encompassed outpatient hospital services and schools, as well as agencies outside acute care facilities and homes. The sections below describe interventions in each domain and categorize the studies reviewed accordingly. For example, a study conducted by Logsdon, Wisner, Hanusa, and Phillips (2003) examined 61 women with post-partum depression who were randomly assigned to treatment with one of two anti-depressants. The intervention was effective in helping the women acknowledge their problems with alcohol and other substances. Interventions in the social domain are directed toward couples, families, friends, and social groups, with special attention to ethnicity and community interactions. The authors found that the experience of seclusion intensified pre-existing feelings of exclusion, rejection, abandonment, and isolation. For example, some studies reported biopsychological, biosocial, psychosocial, or biopsychosocial interventions.
Psychological interventions included both psycho-education and cognitive-behavioral strategies. Indeed, integration of the best evidence available into nursing practice would help ensure optimal nursing care, effective and efficient patient care delivery, and the achievement of goals recommended by the Report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health, Healthy People 2010, and the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. Our intent was to focus on the "disconnect" between research and practice, which may be associated with limited dissemination of research findings in the journals that practicing psychiatric nurses may be more likely to subscribe to and read. While the need for evidence-based nursing interventions for persons with mental illness is clear, far less is known about mental health promotion (U.S. Another suggestion based on our review is that the ages of targeted populations be more clearly stated. Thus, those in practice and in academic settings must work together to encourage our youth to become nurses, and psychiatric and mental health nurses in particular. This transition can be supported by annual updates of this content analysis provided here to help keep psychiatric nurse researchers and clinicians informed of progress toward disseminating research for evidence-based psychiatric nursing practice.
Consultative intervention to improve outcomes of high utilizers in a public mental health system. Long-term effects of teaching behavioral strategies for managing persistent auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Effectiveness of the Anger-Control program in reducing anger expression in patients with schizophrenia.
Qualitative evaluation of a stress management intervention for elderly caregivers at home: A constructivist approach.
Exploring the benefits of an exercise program for people with schizophrenia: A qualitative study. The effectiveness of a mutual support group for family caregivers of a relative with dementia. Effects of a long term psychosocial nursing intervention of adolescents exposed to catastrophic stress. The mentally ill and social exclusion: A critical examination of the use of seclusion from the patient's perspectives. Promoting self-management of urinary incontinence in a gero-psychiatric day treatment program. Treatment of suicidal and deliberate self-harming patients with borderline personality disorder using dialectical behavioral therapy: The patients' and the therapists' perception.
Therapeutic relationships and boundary maintenance: The perspective of forensic patients enrolled in a treatment program for violent offenders. Behavioral management of persistent auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: Outcomes from a 10-week course. Exploring the relationship between brief inpatient treatment intensity and treatment outcomes for mood and anxiety disorders.
Her clinical experience in psychiatric nursing covers Psychobiological Research, Adolescent Dual Diagnosis, and Mood Disorders. Her clinical experience in psychiatric nursing is with persons with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and depressive disorder. She has clinical experience as a staff nurse, nurse manager, clinical preceptor, nurse psychotherapist, and nurse educator in both adult and geriatric psychiatry. Nurses' perceived knowledge, beliefs, skills, and needs regarding evidence-based practice: implications for accelerating the paradigm shift.
Knowledge and use of evidence-based practice by allied health and health science professionals in the United Kingdom. In addition, we care about our client’s confidentiality and all transactions with us are private. It also helps the writer organize ideas, connects the ideas in the paper, and builds an organized overview of the paper. Next, establish who will be your target audience and make the content of the paper relevant to them.
It can also make writing the actually paper much easier even if the student is aware of the requirements and guidelines. Just imagine, you place the order before you go to sleep and in the morning an excellent, 100% unique essay! You simply place an order with the writing instructions you have been given, and before you know it, your essay or term paper, completely finished and unique, will be completed and sent back to you. It is your responsibility to determine the chief complaint for the particular visit, and decide whether the subsequent concerns need to be addressed in the same visit or further appointments need to be organized.
Interventions reflected psychological (57%), social (9%), and biological (12%) dimensions of the biopsychosocial model; 22% of the studies tested interventions with overlapping dimensions.
Rather they often are based on trial and error, a response to authoritarian influences, or random application of methods that have worked for others in the past (Stuart, 2001).
The documents also point to the need for mental health care based on excellence achieved through research. Our goal was to capture the types of research being disseminated to practicing psychiatric nurses through these five journals. Content analysis was used to identify the setting where each study was conducted, the targeted population, and the intervention domain. Results showed that 48% or 37 studies were conducted in community settings; and 44% or 34 studies were conducted in an institutional setting.
The study found that symptoms and most measures of functional status improved in both groups. The psychological domain includes counseling, conflict resolution, bibliotherapy, reminiscence, behavior therapy (including behavior modification and token economy), cognitive interventions, psycho-education, health teaching, and spiritual interventions. In another study, the long-term effects of a cognitive behavioral group intervention in reducing depressive symptoms, negative thinking, and chronic stressors were examined in low-income single mothers at risk for clinical depression (Peden, Rayens, & Hall, 2005). Interventions that affect the patient's environment, such as modifying the environment to promote positive behavior or helping caregivers in decision making for a patient in a long term care, also fall in the social domain.
In another study, an inpatient psychiatric unit was modified to reflect best practices in geropsychiatry. One study that combined all three domains was conducted by Roper and Manela (2000), who examined whether interventions to alter the environment would reduce psychiatric patients' perceptions of waiting time in psychiatric emergency services.


However, a review of psychiatric nursing intervention studies published in research-oriented professional journals would provide more complete information regarding dissemination of evidence for psychiatric nursing practice. While an increase in the workforce of nurse researchers can help to increase the research produced in psychiatric nursing, it will not guarantee it. Research should be reported in language that is understandable, not in complex research terminology and statistical jargon. Effects of a social support intervention on health outcomes in residents of a domestic violence shelter: A pilot study. Life review therapy as an intervention to manage depression and enhance life satisfaction in individuals with right hemisphere cerebral vascular accidents. A pilot study of immune and mood outcomes of a community-based intervention for dementia caregivers: The PLST intervention. Treatment of depressive disorders in split versus integrated therapy and comparisons of prescriptive practices of psychiatrists and advanced practice registered nurses. Benefits of psychiatric consultation-Liaison nurse interventions for older hospitalized patients and their nurses. To tame a volcano: Patients with borderline personality disorder and their perceptions of suffering.
Evaluating the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation in reducing the aggressive behaviors of mentally handicapped patients. Using brief therapeutic interventions to create change in self-efficacy and personal control of chemically dependent women. Regulating: The social control process registered nurses use to teach psychiatric patients about their medications. Effects of exercise on mental and physical health parameters of persons with schizophrenia. Transforming health care from the inside out: advancing evidence-based practice in the 21st century.
The mentally ill and social exclusion: A critical examination of the use of seclusion from the patient= s perspective.
It will also allow you to know if you need to conduct further research on the topic of your choice. If you are unfamiliar with constructing an outline, use a sample outline like the essay outline template on this page. A great way to get started with the outline is by brainstorming, which will guide you towards finding data and facts for the paper. Using an outline template can help the student organize the paper and eliminate the ideas that are not relevant to the purpose of the essay. For example, Cretin, Farly, Dolter, and Nicholas (2001) found that at least a third of health care providers did not follow evidence-based practice guidelines when making patient care decisions. The most recent of these documents, The President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health (2003), specifically recommends the dissemination of evidence-based practices and partnerships to guide implementation, as well as improvement and expansion of the workforce providing evidence-based mental health services and supports. However, we did not include subspecialty journals, such as those that address child and adolescent or geriatric psychiatry in our review.
Both quantitative and qualitative methods for evaluating the interventions were considered acceptable. Mixed settings -institution and community-were used in 5% of the studies (n=4), and for two studies (3%), the setting could not be identified from the information provided. One study involved children and adults, another involved adolescents and elders, and a third involved all ages across the life span (3.9%). Another study examined the effects of a 16-week walking program on mental and physical health parameters of outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia (Beebe, Tian, Morris, Goodwin, Allen, & Kuldau, 2005).
Findings were that women in the intervention group experienced a reduction in depressive symptoms, negative thinking, and chronic stressors, and these effects continued over a 12-month period.
Interventions in the social domain include milieu therapy, safety, home visits, group, family, and community actions. Results revealed a reduced fall rate, no mortality, and no restraint use among the older adults (Nadler-Moodie & Gold, 2005). Interventions included the use of relaxing music, educational videos, and recreational activities.
Among these, 53% used psychosocial strategies, while 47% used either bio-psychological or bio-psychosocial approaches (see Figure for details). In addition, findings cannot be generalized to specific populations if ages are unknown; thus, the benefits of the studies are limited. Perceptions of risk and resiliency factors associated with rural African American adolescents' substance abuse and HIV behaviors. Assaultive behavior intervention in the veterans administration: Psychodynamic Group Psychotherapy compared to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
Role functioning and symptom remission in women with postpartum depression after antidepressant treatment. Effects of light therapy on sleep, mood, and temperature in women with non-seasonal major depression. Inpatient group therapies for people with bipolar disorder: Comparison of a self-management and an international model. With over 30 years of nursing practice, including 21 years in the field of psychiatric-mental health nursing, Dr.
In addition, she has been involved in nursing research that focuses on stress of female family members of the severely mentally ill. Evidence of psychiatric nursing practice: An analysis of three years of published research. When outlining your research paper, you must have all your researched materials at hand to make sure that all sub-topics are not overlooked.
When outlining a research paper, all researched materials should be at hand to make sure that all sub-topics are included and not overlooked.
To begin brainstorming you merely need to write down a list of all the things that come to your mind about your research subject. We understand the pressure students are under to achieve high academic goals and we are ready help you because we love writing. Patients’ conditions could range from common cold (pharyngitis) to acute myeloid leukemia. The findings describe the current state of published intervention research in five psychiatric nursing journals and suggest the need for increased dissemination of intervention research, more rigorous testing of interventions, and more focused programs of research to build evidence for effective psychiatric nursing interventions across the lifespan and globally. Melnyk et al.,2004) reported that the implementation of evidence-based practice was strongly associated with providers knowledge of evidence for specific interventions. Overall, 50 studies or 64.1% were conducted on samples with mental illness (see Table 2 for details).
The experimental group showed significant reduction in body fat, greater aerobic fitness, lower body mass indexes, and fewer psychiatric symptoms than controls. The key concepts of milieu therapy are containment, validation, structured interaction, and open communication. The study found that these interventions were helpful in reducing patients' perceived wait time and in conveying concern and caring.
Increasing the workforce of qualified psychiatric nurse researchers and practicing nurses is of vital importance. Zauszniewski has experience as a staff nurse, clinical preceptor, head nurse, supervisor, patient care coordinator, nurse educator, and nurse researcher.
She has been awarded first place for two research presentations, one from the Midwest Nursing Research Society in 2003, and one from the International Society of Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses in 2005. However, if you are unclear about how your research paper should look or what to include, you will find a research paper outline template on this page, which will aid you in writing your paper. Place your order now and our professional writers will be more than happy to help you with any kind of your written assignment. Afterwards, put all the correlating ideas together; then list the ideas from general facts to specific facts. By choosing us as your partner, you can achieve more academically and gain valuable time for your other interests.
In six studies (7.7%), it was not possible to determine the age of the sample with certainty. Interventions that are designed for patients' safety include observation, de-escalation, seclusion, and restraints. Her program of research focuses on the identification of factors and strategies to prevent depression and to preserve healthy functioning during depressive episodes across the lifespan. Because Family Medicine encompasses a wide variety of clinical conditions and occurs in multiple different settings, not all conditions will be encountered in a single rotation.
She is best known for her research examining the development and testing of nursing interventions to teach resourcefulness skills to elders with chronic illness. For instance, if the writer’s thesis statement and position is “smoking is harmful to your health,” then key sections and subsections should support this idea.
The purpose of the rotation is to develop basic skills in clinical assessment, diagnosis, and management, and to acquire the knowledge and attitudes that underlie Family Medicine. As their student, you may be required to attend their clinic hours, as well as, the hospital hours. She has received research funding from the National Institutes of Nursing Research and Aging, National Institutes of Health, Sigma Theta Tau International, American Nurses Foundation, Midwest Nursing Research Society, and the State of Ohio Board of Regents. The key sections and subsections should not be written in phrases but in complete sentences.



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