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Diet, exercise, and education remain the foundation of any type 2 diabetes treatment program.
Ultimately, many patients will require insulin therapy alone or in combination with other agents to maintain glucose control. The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes have updated guidelines on the management of hyperglycemia in nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes. The novel position statement on the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes was necessary because since the last similar treatment algorithm, which is more than 3 years old, a lot of new insights have been generated that required an update. According to the ADA, to reduce the incidence of macrovascular disease, HbA1c should be lowered to less than 7% in most patients. For strong recommendations in favour (or against) certain diabetes medications, the evidence is not strong enough; choices and preferences will differ with different patients, their characteristics and attitudes. Several therapeutic options were discussed, including lifestyle interventions to change physical activity levels and food intake; oral agents and noninsulin injectables, as well as insulin. The second step can be a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, it can be a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, it can be a thiazolidinedione, it can be a sulfonylurea agent, or it could be basal insulin. If a patient needs a more intensive insulin regimen, then it is recommended to add 1 or 2 - maybe even 3 - doses of mealtime insulin.
The position statement lists all commonly used medications with all their properties (positive and negative), and gives all the information to make good choices based on priorities (ie, avoiding hypoglycemia at all costs) and preferences. Overall, comparative evidence for antihyperglycemic treatment of type 2 diabetes is lacking, and there is a considerable need for high-quality, comparative-effectiveness research on costs and outcomes important to patients, including quality of life and the avoidance of life-limiting complications such as cardiovascular disease. Because of the rapid change in lifestyle in China, there is concern that diabetes may become epidemic. A nationally representative sample of 46,239 adults, 20 years of age or older, from 14 provinces and municipalities participated in the study. These results indicate that diabetes has become a major public health problem in China and that strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes are needed. In an editorial comment in the European Heart Journal, some opinion leaders indicate what might be the reasons for the failure of the dal-HEART programme.Both the on-treatment vascular effects and the underlying molecular mechanism causing increased HDL-c are important in determining the vascular effects of an HDL-c raising therapy. The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study assessed how to manage diabetes in children and adolescents. The China National Survey of Chronic Kidney disease was a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of CKD and associated factors in Chinese adults between 2007 and 2010.CKD has become an important public health issue in China, maybe as a consequence of increased diabetes and hypertension. DPP-4 inhibitors can be used as second line treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes who do not achieve their glycaemic targets with metformin alone.


The study was set up to determine all cause mortality and deaths from cardiovascular events related to intensive glucose lowering treatment in people with type 2 diabetes. In GPRD data, current use of sulphonylureas only (with active or inactive metabolites) was associated with an increased risk of hypoglycaemic events, as compared with current use of metformin.
Recent outcome trials of novel antidiabetic drugs shed new light on why diabetes patients develop heart disease. Out of 18 biomarkers, Lp-PLA2 and adiponectin were independently associated with a decreased risk for T2DM. In females with gestational diabetes, the future risk of developing type 2 diabetes depends on certain pregnancy-related and maternal factors that could be used for postnatal counselling.
Results from the first real-world study evaluating Lyxumia® (lixisenatide) extends the evidence for its contribution to effective blood sugar control when added to existing basal insulin treatment for adults with poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes in a clinical practice setting. Blood sugar – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. Blood glucose monitoring – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood . High and low blood sugar symptoms – youtube, It can be important to recognise the difference between low and high blood sugar symptoms. Hyperglycemia: facts on symptoms, signs and treatment, Hyperglycemia is an abnormally high blood glucose (blood sugar) level. The animated map below shows the United States obesity prevalence from 1985 through 2008. Blacks had 51 percent higher prevalence of obesity, and Hispanics had 21 percent higher obesity prevalence compared with whites. Greater prevalences of obesity for blacks and whites were found in the South and Midwest than in the West and Northeast. For more, see Differences in Prevalence of Obesity Among Black, White, and Hispanic Adults a€” United States, 2006a€“2008. Wide sections of the Southeast, Appalachia, and some tribal lands in the West and Northern Plains have the nation's highest rates of obesity and diabetes.A In many counties in those regions, rates of diagnosed diabetes exceed 10 percent and obesity prevalence is more than 30 percent.
Eighty-one percent of counties in the Appalachian region that includes Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia have high rates of diabetes and obesity. The estimates, in this weeka€™s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, are the first to provide county-level snapshots of obesity across the United States.A  They also update diabetes county-level estimates released in 2008. One of 7 low-income, preschool-aged children is obese, but the obesity epidemic may be stabilizing.


Combination therapy with an additional 1–2 oral or injectable agents is reasonable, aiming to minimize side effects where possible.
The update is based on new evidence of risks and benefits of glycemic control, evidence on safety and efficacy of new drug classes, the withdrawal and restriction of other drug classes and the increasing need for a more patient-centered approach to care. However, data from type 2 diabetes cardiovascular trials have demonstrated that not all patients benefit from aggressive glucose maintenance, again pointing toward a more individualized approach to treatment. In contrast to previous statements, the present one is based on a patient-centered approach.
According to the guidelines, when it comes to prescribing oral agents and noninsulin injectables, agent- and patient-specific properties, such as dosing frequency, side effect profiles, cost and other benefits, are often used to guide drug selection. Anticipated glucose-lowering effects should be balanced with the convenience of the regimen, in the context of an individual’s specific therapy goals. We conducted a national study from June 2007 through May 2008 to estimate the prevalence of diabetes among Chinese adults.
BMI is calculated from a person's weight and height and provides a reasonable indicator of body fatness and weight categories that may lead to health problems. Hispanics in the Northeast had lower obesity prevalence than Hispanics in the Midwest, South or West. A So do three-quarters of counties in the southern region that includes Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina.
The authors recommend combination therapy with the addition of one to two oral or injectable agents, with the goal of reducing side effects when possible. The prevalence of diabetes was higher among urban residents than among rural residents (11.4% vs. Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Insulin therapy, whether alone or in combination, will ultimately be required to maintain glucose control for many patients.
The prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance was higher than that of isolated impaired fasting glucose (11.0% vs. Thirty-two states had a prevalence equal to or greater than 25%; six of these states (Alabama, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia ) had a prevalence of obesity equal to or greater than 30%.



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