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Type 2 diabetes is a growing concern, but a healthy diet can be very helpful for low blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. The most common form of diabetes is Type II, It is sometimes called age-onset or adult-onset diabetes, and this form of diabetes occurs most often in people who are overweight and who do not exercise. The causes of diabetes mellitus are unclear, however, there seem to be both hereditary (genetic factors passed on in families) and environmental factors involved.
In Type II diabetes, the pancreas may produce enough insulin, however, cells have become resistant to the insulin produced and it may not work as effectively.
Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease requiring lifelong behavioral and lifestyle changes.
Several blood tests are used to measure blood glucose levels, the primary test for diagnosing diabetes.
Random blood glucose test — for a random blood glucose test, blood can be drawn at any time throughout the day, regardless of when the person last ate. Fasting blood glucose test — fasting blood glucose testing involves measuring blood glucose after not eating or drinking for 8 to 12 hours (usually overnight). Oral glucose tolerance test — Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosing diabetes and pre-diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance testing is routinely performed at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy to screen for gestational diabetes; this requires drinking a 50 gram glucose solution with a blood glucose level drawn one hour later. When diet, exercise and maintaining a healthy weight aren’t enough, you may need the help of medication. The most widely used form of insulin is synthetic human insulin, which is chemically identical to human insulin but manufactured in a laboratory. Advice patient about the importance of an individualized meal plan in meeting weekly weight loss goals and assist with compliance. Assess patients for cognitive or sensory impairments, which may interfere with the ability to accurately administer insulin. Review dosage and time of injections in relation to meals, activity, and bedtime based on patients individualized insulin regimen. Instruct patient in the importance of accuracy of insulin preparation and meal timing to avoid hypoglycemia.
Advise patient to assess blood glucose level before strenuous activity and to eat carbohydrate snack before exercising to avoid hypoglycemia. Assess feet and legs for skin temperature, sensation, soft tissues injuries, corns, calluses, dryness, hair distribution, pulses and deep tendon reflexes.
Advice patient who smokes to stop smoking or reduce if possible, to reduce vasoconstriction and enhance peripheral flow.
Living with diabetes is difficult, but the illness is highly manageable if you know how to take care of yourself with the proper diet, treatment and lifestyle.
When the body does not produce insulin, as in the case of Type 1 diabetes, the body is unable to convert sugar to provide the body with the energy it needs to carry out its physiological function.
Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90% of diabetes cases and it is a chronic condition involving the abnormal process of metabolizing sugar in the body to convert sugar into energy. While diabetes is a lifetime chronic disease, there are different ways to manage the condition.
Reversing the negative effects of diabetes in the body is highly manageable with medications.
An exercise of 30 minutes three to four times a week will keep the body strong and helps the body to produce and utilize more blood sugar.
Diabetics need to be conscious about maintaining their weight to reduce the risk of more severe symptoms of their diabetes and to prevent its progression. Learn how to reverse and manage diabetes more effectively with this eBook for diabetes management.
Diabetes and Stroke are Related in Women But Not In Men Diabetes is becoming more of a common condition nowadays. Diabetes complicationsConditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Send Home Our method Usage examples Index Statistics Advertise with us ContactWe do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Diabetic neurology or Diabetic Neuropathy, is one of the most advanced conditions of Diabetes Type II, where patients suffer from damages to their nerves and other neurological problems.
The symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus are progressive in nature and with the aging of the disease, various symptoms start appearing in different parts of the body.
One of the most common symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy is the tendency to feel full even after a small meal.
Sometimes the patients suffer from the symptoms of constipation, nausea and other problems related to the ingestion and digestion of food .Vomiting and throwing up after a few hours of having the food,is another common symptom of the development of diabetic neuropathy.
The beginning of the nerve damage is revealed by a burning or tingling sensation in the feet and hands. The numbness in the extremities of the hand and feet, are important symptoms that signal the beginning of this progressive disease.
The damage caused in the nerves may lead to a complete loss of sensation and power of response to stimuli in the legs and feet. As the nerve damages spread to the various blood vessels and the heart, there is a feeling of lightheadedness called orthostatic hypotension when the patient stands up. The heart rate becomes faster than normal and the detection of angina, which is the pain in the chest that is a warning signal for heart attack or other diseases of the heart. The male diabetic patients develop sexual problems such as erectile dysfunctions while women face vaginal dryness or problems with their orgasms. The damages caused to the nerves, makes it difficult to understand the situations that may lead to the blood sugar falling to extremely low levels.
Most patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy develop bladder problems such as leaking of urine and difficulties in emptying the bladder.
Patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy may find themselves sweating excessively, even when they are at rest or when the temperature is not too high. One of the major symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy is blurring of the vision, appearance of cataract problems in the eyes, issues related to the retina, etc. The patient who has been diagnosed for diabetic neuropathy can suffer from sudden bouts of dizziness and muscle weakness. The difficulty in remaining alert can lead to loss in concentration levels and work efficiency. The symptoms of diabetic neuropathy develop as the nerves get damaged due to a deficiency of oxygen and blood flow to the nerves and uncontrolled sugar levels. There may be specific symptoms that are typically related to certain organs and their immediate functions, but it is important to note that the symptoms of diabetic neurology are not mutually exclusive of each other.
It is important to keep a track of all the changes that occur in the different parts of the body as the disease progresses. Insulin is a peptide hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to increases in blood sugar, usually following a meal. After a meal, the amount of insulin secreted into the blood increases as blood sugar rises. If these nutrients are shuttled primarily into muscle cells, then the muscles grow and body fat is managed.
Without enough insulin, you lose all of the anabolic effects, since there is not enough insulin to transport or store energy or nutrients. Continual elevation of insulin leads to large amounts of fat gain and risk for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by obesity (particularly central deposition adiposity, or fat around the middle and deep in the abdominal cavity), cardiovascular disease, systemic inflammation, and the poor ability of muscles to store nutrients, which leads to muscle wasting and fat storage as well as nutrients circulating in the blood.
Insulin resistance, and its associated metabolic syndrome, is a step along the road to type 2 diabetes. Due to the anabolic power of insulin, many over-fat individuals want to avoid insulin release. You need insulin, but the trick is to learn how to balance the anabolic effects in muscle tissue against the fat storage effects. Aim for a moderate carbohydrate consumption (~40% of diet) with an emphasis on fibrous carbohydrates like vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole grains.
Investigate chromium and alpha lipoic acid, and make sure intake is adequate (but not excessive). While the glycemic and insulin indices of many foods are similar, some foods cause unexpected responses. The purpose of nutrient timing is to maximize insulin’s anabolic effects while minimizing its other problematic side effects.


Some epidemiologic studies have found that breast-feeding is associated with a reduced risk for developing insulin-dependent diabetes.
Supplementing infant diets with gluten-containing foods before 3 months of age may encourage pancreatic dysfunction.
Asian and African populations who are physically active and follow diets low in fat and high in fibrous carbohydrates have lower incidence of diabetes than those living the “Western” lifestyle.
The American Academy of Pediatrics stated that avoiding early exposure to cow’s milk may reduce the risk of developing antibodies to cow’s milk protein and type 1 diabetes. Alpha lipoic acid may increase glucose uptake in the cell by recruiting glucose transporters. Some people who are not obese by traditional measures are still at risk for insulin resistance anyway, particularly individuals with one or more close relatives who are diabetic, as well as many people of South Asian ethnic origin. Many bodybuilders have experimented with injecting insulin in an attempt to maximize insulin’s anabolic effects. To learn more about making important improvements to your nutrition and exercise program, check out the following 5-day video courses. They’re probably better than 90% of the seminars we’ve ever attended on the subjects of exercise and nutrition (and probably better than a few we’ve given ourselves, too). Type II is considered a milder form of diabetes because of its slow onset (sometimes developing over the course of several years) and because it usually can be controlled with diet and oral medication. Symptoms of Type II diabetes can begin so gradually that a person may not know that he or she has it. It is best managed with a team approach to empower the client to successfully manage the disease. The body’s primary energy source is glucose, a simple sugar resulting from the digestion of foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches). It is used to monitor blood glucose control in people with known diabetes, but is not normally used to diagnose diabetes. However, the OGTT is not routinely recommended because it is inconvenient compared to a fasting blood glucose test.
The person then drinks a 75 gram liquid glucose solution (which tastes very sweet, and is usually cola or orange-flavored).
For women who have an abnormally elevated blood glucose level, a second OGTT is performed on another day after drinking a 100 gram glucose solution. These medications, such as repaglinide (Prandin), have effects similar to sulfonylureas, but you’re not as likely to develop low blood sugar.
Metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR) is the only drug in this class available in the United States. These drugs block the action of enzymes in your digestive tract that break down carbohydrates. These drugs make your body tissues more sensitive to insulin and keep your liver from overproducing glucose. By combining drugs from different classes, you may be able to control your blood sugar in several different ways. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease affecting about 380 million of the worldwide population and the incidence continues to grow.
As a result, the person will experience the symptoms of fatigue, weakness, blurred vision and extreme hunger. The body cells resist insulin or it may not produce enough insulin for the proper sugar maintenance in the body. Individuals who are overweight or have a high body mass index are more at risk to the condition.
Sometimes the condition can be overwhelming, especially to a person who understands that they have to deal with their condition throughout their lifetime.
By taking your medication regularly, exactly as prescribed by your doctor, you can control your blood sugar level to maintain the adequate level of sugar metabolism that the body needs.
By exercising, you decrease the fat storage in the body and keeps the body in its ideal weight. Smoking can double the risk of a person of getting diabetes or it can cause their diabetes to become worse with more serious complications. One of the most important causes for the development of Diabetic Neurology is high blood sugar levels and high levels of blood pressure and hypertension along with many other reasons. The problems in the nerves occur in various places in the body over a period of time and the symptoms are dependent on the location of these affected nerves. The problems in digesting food leads to the elevation of blood sugar levels, causing other diabetic complications.
The swelling of the abdomen, bloating and gastric problems are other common signs of the disease.
Abnormal sensations may start in certain parts of the body and this is known as Dysesthesia .
It is common for patients of Diabetic Neuropathy to not feel pain when they step on something sharp. The sudden fall in the sugar levels can cause unconsciousness, dizziness and a complete collapse that needs immediate medical attention. It is difficult for them to understand that their bladder is full and they need to urinate. The changes that occur at this stage can cause various other problems connected to the eye and this can cause major discomfort to the patient.
These symptoms usually start developing after the patient has lived with diabetes for over 20-25 years. These include the motor neurons, pain fibers and the autonomic nervous system. As all the nerves in the body are interconnected, the problems spread progressively to all the organs in different parts of the body. There are several symptoms of diabetic neuropathy and it is not necessary that all the symptoms occur in the same patient at the same point of time. Proper management of the blood sugar levels can help in the control and prevention of this diabetic neurological problem to a certain extent.
If these nutrients are shuttled primarily into fat cells, then muscle mass is unchanged and body fat is increased. Since glucose is then poorly stored, people end up with both high circulating blood insulin and high circulating glucose. This can be done by increasing insulin sensitivity in the muscle while decreasing insulin sensitivity in the fat cells.
In theory, it may help manage blood sugar, but trials using chromium have shown mixed results. Caffeinated coffee consumption impairs blood glucose homeostasis in response to high and low glycemic index meals in healthy men. Dynamic strength training improves insulin sensitivity without altering plasma levels and gene expression of adipokines in subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese men. Association of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and celiac disease: a study based on serologic markers.
Six months of gluten-free diet do not influence autoantibody titers, but improve insulin secretion in subjects at high risk for type 1 diabetes.
Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to glucose metabolism in subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the Botnia Dietary Study. Dietary patterns, insulin sensitivity, and adiposity in the multi-ethnic Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study population.
Antioxidant effects of chromium supplementation with type 2 diabetes mellitus and euglycemic subjects.
Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with poorly controlled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in an obese Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Exercise training and the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. No effect of a diet with a reduced glycaemic index on satiety, energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women. Dietary fats, fatty acids and insulin resistance: short review of a multifaceted connection. A low-fat, vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
The effects of epigallocateghin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study. Effects of 3-week consumption of green tea extracts on whole-body metabolism during cycling exercise in endurance-trained men. The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin.
The consequences of uncontrolled and untreated Type II diabetes, however, are the just as serious as those for Type I.


In Type I diabetes, the immune system, the body’s defense system against infection, is believed to be triggered by a virus or another microorganism that destroys cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. As part of the team the, the nurse plans, organizes, and coordinates care among the various health disciplines involved; provides care and education and promotes the client’s health and well being. Glucose from the digested food circulates in the blood as a ready energy source for any cells that need it. The blood glucose level is measured before, and at one, two, and three hours after drinking the solution. Everyone with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes must take insulin every day to replace what their pancreas is unable to produce.
One of its chief failings is that it doesn’t mimic the way natural insulin is secreted.
It works by inhibiting the production and release of glucose from your liver, which means you need less insulin to transport blood sugar into your cells.
That means sugar is absorbed into your bloodstream more slowly, which helps prevent the rapid rise in blood sugar that usually occurs right after a meal. Side effects of thiazolidinediones, such as rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone hydrochloride (Actos), include swelling, weight gain and fatigue. It is also common for the individual to experience frequent urination, unintended weight loss, mood changes and irritability. The condition occurs during adulthood and the person does not require insulin injection as in the Type 1 diabetes.
With a normal functioning metabolic process going on, you can control the occurrence of diabetes symptoms. Different kinds of exercise are beneficial in helping control the blood sugar level in the body and reverse the adverse effect of diabetes.
Keeping a record of the ideal meal plan helps one control their diabetes and to potentially reverse the disorder.
Smoking can result in an increases blood glucose level and it can also constrict the blood vessels, increasing the potential complications of nerve damage, kidney disease and infection. A cut or a blister may go unnoticed, as the nerves develop further damage. The sensation that is felt on touching something cold or hot is also lost, as the nerves fail to respond to different external stimuli. Thus, the symptoms are directly related to the age and duration of diabetes in the patients. Once insulin is in the blood, it shuttles glucose (carbohydrates), amino acids, and blood fats into the cells of the body. This form is also called noninsulin-dependent diabetes, a term that is somewhat misleading.
Other symptoms may include sudden weight loss, slow wound healing, urinary tract infections, gum disease, or blurred vision. Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by cells in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. Unfortunately, insulin can’t be taken in pill form because enzymes in your stomach break it down so that it becomes ineffective. But newer types of insulin, known as insulin analogs, more closely resemble the way natural insulin acts in your body.
Second-generation sulfonylureas such as glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase) and glimepiride (Amaryl) are prescribed most often. One advantage of metformin is that is tends to cause less weight gain than do other diabetes medications. Most doctors prescribe two drugs in combination, although sometimes three drugs may be prescribed. There are Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the type 2 diabetes accounts to about 90% of diabetes cases. This condition is most common among children and the young adults, hence Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also called as juvenile diabetes. Hence, type 2 diabetes mellitus is also called as non-insulin dependent or adult onset diabetes.
Medication treatment or regular insulin injection can help you live a normal life without the risks of developing heart disease, neuropathy, visual problems and other possible complications of diabetes. Learning about your eating pattern will help you control your appetite better and a meal plan will give you better food choices that are ideal for your condition. Alcohol in drinks contains calories, which can also result in repercussions in the body weight that increases the risk of worsening your condition.
The symptoms start developing as and when the damages occur to the cranial nerves, nerves in the spinal cord and its branches and the nerves that mange the functions of the vital body organs such as bladder, stomach, heart and intestines. Keep in mind that a low glycemic diet can result in better fasted insulin and glucose, but results have been mixed. Many people with Type II diabetes can control the condition with diet and oral medications, however, insulin injections are sometimes necessary if treatment with diet and oral medication is not working. It is not unusual for Type II diabetes to be detected while a patient is seeing a doctor about another health concern that is actually being caused by the yet undiagnosed diabetes. Insulin bonds to a receptor site on the outside of cell and acts like a key to open a doorway into the cell through which glucose can enter.
For that reason, many people inject themselves with insulin using a syringe or an insulin pen injector,a device that looks like a pen, except the cartridge is filled with insulin. The most common side effect of sulfonylureas is low blood sugar, especially during the first four months of therapy. Possible side effects include a metallic taste in your mouth, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, abdominal bloating, or pain, gas and diarrhea.
Although safe and effective, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors can cause abdominal bloating, gas and diarrhea. The thiazolidinedione troglitzeone (Rezulin) was taken off the market in March 2000 because it caused liver failure. Newer medications, such as Glucovance, which contains both glyburide and metformin, combine different oral drugs in a single tablet. Diabetes involves changes in the blood sugar level in the body owing to the inadequate production of insulin (Type 1 diabetes) or the body cells fail to respond to insulin (Type 2 diabetes). About 10% of cases of diabetes are Type 1 and patients with this condition need to take insulin injections to help the body sustain its normal function in utilizing the blood sugar. Start with low intensity exercise and progress in performing high intensity resistance exercise to help the body adapt to more intense physical activity.
Doctors, however, advise that starving yourself will not help and preventing your cravings will tend to make you eat more instead. By quitting your bad habits, you can improve your chances of living healthier with the ability to control your diabetes symptoms. Some of the glucose can be converted to concentrated energy sources like glycogen or fatty acids and saved for later use. Others may use an insulin pump, which provides a continuous supply of insulin, eliminating the need for daily shots. You’re at much greater risk of low blood sugar if you have impaired liver or kidney function. These effects usually decrease over time and are less likely to occur if you take the medication with food.
If your doctor prescribes these drugs, it’s important to have your liver checked every two months during the first year of therapy. The best way of managing your diet is to allow yourself to enjoy eating even the forbidden foods in small servings only.
When there is not enough insulin produced or when the doorway no longer recognizes the insulin key, glucose stays in the blood rather entering the cells.
A rare but serious side effect is lactic acidosis, which results when lactic acid builds up in your body. Contact your doctor immediately if you experience any of the signs and symptoms of liver damage, such as nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, dark urine, or yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice).
This will help satisfy your cravings without causing you to go through a crash diet that can produce a more disastrous effect to your condition.
These may not always be related to diabetes medications, but your doctor will need to investigate all possible causes.
Lactic acidosis is especially likely to occur if you mix this medication with alcohol or have impaired kidney function.



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