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Pancreas The pancreas is a glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes (internal secretions) and hormones (external secretions). Pancreas - Functions The pancreas contains enzyme producing cells that secrete two hormones. Pancreas - Function The pancreas also helps neutralize chyme and helps break down proteins, fats and starch. Endocrine Disorder Diabetes Millitus Diabetes Mellitus –is a chronic multisystem disease related to abnormal insulin production, impaired insulin use, or both.
Diabetes Mellitus Over time, having too much glucose in blood can cause serious damage to eyes (retinopathy), kidneys (nephropathy), and nerves (neuropathy). Current Theories leading to its Etiology Genetic Autoimmune Viral Environmental factors (e.g. DM Diagnostic Tests – Nursing Intervention FBG or FBS – ensure client has fasted for 8 hours prior to the blood draw. DM Diagnostic Tests – Nursing Intervention Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) – Instruct the client to consume a balanced diet for the three days prior to the test.
DM Diagnostic Tests – Nursing Intervention Glycosylated Hemonglobin (Hgb A1- C) - This is used to determine the long-term compliance of client to DM treatment regimen.
Type 1 – DM (Insulin Dependent DM) Type 1 diabetes ( Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus) When the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, type 1 diabetes (previously known as juvenile diabetes) occurs.
Diabetes Millitus The disease can cause long-term complications including kidney problems, nerve damage, blindness, and early coronary heart disease and stroke. Type I - DM Autoimmune disorder due to beta cell destruction Occurs in genetically susceptible individuals (islet cell antibodies) Typical onset is before the age of 30 Can result in ketoacidosis (DKA). Prediabetes It is a condition in which individuals are at increased risk for developing diabetes.
DM- Type 1 Collaborative Care and Treatment The goal of DM management is to reduce symptoms and promote well-being, prevent acute complications of hyperglycemia, and prevent or delay the onset and progression of long term complications. Drug Therapy The two major types of glucose lowering agents (GLAs) used in treatment of DM are insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Insulin Insulin is prepared through the use of genetic engineer ( derived from common bacteria (e.g. A 50-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department at 2 AM with vomiting and abdominal pain.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body’s cells resist the normal effect of insulin, which is to drive glucose in the blood into the inside of the cells.
Extremely high blood sugar levels also can lead to a dangerous complication called hyperosmolar syndrome. Retinopathy — Tiny blood vessels in the retina (the back of the eye that sees light) can become damaged by high blood sugar. Obesity, especially abdominal obesity—a condition that greatly raises a person’s risk for type 2 diabetes.
High blood pressure—a condition often present in people with type 2 diabetes, that together with diabetes greatly increases the risk of heart disease and strokes. Exercising regularly—like a brisk walk of 1-2 miles in 30 minutes—at least five times a week, even if that does not result in you achieving an ideal weight. In most cases, type 2 diabetes treatment begins with weight reduction through diet and exercise. Because type 2 diabetes develops when the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance, about one of three people with this disease take some form of insulin injection. In advanced type 2 diabetes, or for people who want to tightly control glucose levels, insulin may be needed more than once per day and in higher doses. Treatment plans that include both very long-acting insulin and very short-acting insulin are frequently the most successful for controlling blood sugar.
Fortunately, these side effects are uncommon, so the benefits of treatment far outweigh the risks.
In addition to medicines that help control the level of blood sugar, people with type 2 diabetes often take other medicines that reduce the risk or to slow the onset of the complications of diabetes. Slow the worsening of kidney disease—particularly drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). After the first few years, the majority of people with type 2 diabetes require more than one medicine to keep their blood sugar controlled. Diabetes type 2 is the very common type of diabetes and affects people across all ages and ethnic groups. The type 2 diabetes mainly occurs due to the reaction of body in producing and utilizing insulin. In short, there is an insulin resistance, which means that the liver muscles and fats don’t respond in a normal way to insulin. As a result, it enters the blood in larger quantities which creates an imbalance of sugar in the system.
The symptoms of diabetes type 2 occur in a gradual manner and because of that it becomes difficult to diagnose the condition.
Hemoglobin A1C test: This test is one of the best to identify whether a person is at the prediabetes stage. Oral Glucose Tolerance test: This is one of the most glucose tolerant tests, which takes up to 3 hours. The main objective of treatment of diabetes is to lower the levels of sugar levels in the blood.

A person suffering from diabetes needs to follow a proper diet that is low in fat and calories and rich in fiber content. A person suffering from type 2 diabetes has high chances of developing kidney diseases, heart diseases and other medical problems. It is important to remember that diabetes type 2 is a chronic illness and can create many other complications.
Diabetic neuropathy is expected to increase over time and the treatment for the damages caused to the nerves, include blood sugar management, anti depressants, control of blood pressure levels and inclusion of medications and drugs to prevent further advancement of diabetic neuropathy. Patients who have managed to live with diabetes for over 25 years have a higher risk of having diabetic neuropathy. Patients who suffer from high levels of cholesterol and high blood pressure are more liable to be diagnosed for diabetic neuropathy. Certain unhealthy lifestyle patterns such as excessive smoking and regular consumption of alcohol can lead to the development of serious nerve damages in the diabetic patients. If the patient has been suffering from diabetes mellitus for a long time, then the administered insulin units fail to keep up with their proper performance level. Failure to keep up with the dietary recommendations, lack of proper exercise and activity levels, not taking oral medicines and insulin at the proper time, failure to cope up with physical and emotional stress, negative patterns of thinking and an overall improper approach towards life, lead to the increase in blood sugar levels that causes the advanced symptoms of nerve damages, vision issues and foot problems in diabetic patients.
Some diabetic patients have an inherent nature of taking undue stress which increases their anxiety levels.
The causes leading to diabetic neuropathy should be understood carefully as the prevention of further deterioration in the patient is dependent on the proper management and handling of the same. As the body's chemical messengers, hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another.
Chyme is a thick semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is passed from the stomach to the duodenum. Antidiabetic (hypoglycemic agents) medications should be postponed until after the level is drawn. The body’s own T-Cell attack and destroy the pancreatic beta cells which are the source of insulin.
Islet cell antibodies responsible for B- cell destruction are present for months to years before onset of symptoms. Nutrition Drug therapy Exercise And self-monitoring of blood glucose are the tools used in management of DM. Insulin – exogenous insulin is needed when a client has inadequate insulin to meet specific metabolic needs.
He had a 2-week history of polyuria and polydipsia, accompanied by a 20-pound weight loss and blurred vision. Bloomgarden, MD Case 1 History A 50-year-old male patient presentedto the emergency department at 2 AM with vomiting and abdominal pain. This is more likely if blood sugars remain elevated and high blood pressure is not treated aggressively.
However, people with type 2 diabetes can sometimes restore their blood sugar levels to normal just by eating a healthy diet, regularly exercising, and losing weight. The medication metformin (Glucophage) offers some additional protection for people with pre-diabetes. Very short-acting insulin is used with meals, to help control the spike in blood sugar levels that occur with a meal. All diabetics should consider taking medication to lower their cholesterol, usually one of the statin medications.
Diabetics should use medication to control high blood pressure if it can’t be improved by lifestyle changes. Contact your doctor immediately if you develop vomiting or diarrhea and are not able to drink enough fluids. In case of a person displaying symptoms of excessive weight, there is large amount of fat present in the body and that interferes with the normal creation of insulin by the body.
For this test, a person with diabetes symptoms is asked to drink a liquid containing glucose and their blood is then tested after every 30-60 minutes.
If you were experiencing type 2 diabetes symptoms and are consequently diagnosed with this type of diabetes, then it is essential to exercise on a daily basis and follow a proper diet. This is because exercising helps to lower the levels of sugar in the blood without the need to take medications. A good diabetes diet contains good amount of complex carbohydrates such as beans, whole grains and others. It is advisable for you to take necessary steps and visit a physician to keep your diabetes under control.
70 percent of the patients suffering from diabetes suffer due to nerve damages in the later stages of the disease which is caused due to uncontrolled glucose levels in the blood and hypertension. These conditions lead to cardiovascular problems which is associated with poor blood circulation and damages to the blood vessels.
The body cells find it difficult to use the insulin properly and some cases there may be an absolute deficiency of insulin in the system. The increased blood sugar levels trigger off nerve damages, that lead to further complications. The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are t – hypothalamus - pituitary - thyroid - parathyroids - adrenals pineal body - and the reproductive glands, which include the ovaries and testes. Insulin and glucagon are secreted directly into the bloodstream, and together, they regulate the level of glucose in the blood. If the pancreas is not working properly to neutralize chyme and break down proteins, fats and starch, starvation may occur.

In addition, autoantibodies to the islet cells cause a reduction of 80% to 90 % of normal B –cell before hyperglycemia and other manifestations occur. Manifestation develops when the person’s pancreas can no longer produce sufficient amount of glucose to maintain normal glucose. His medical history was unremarkable, except for being treated for hypertension with amlodipine 10 mg daily, which provided good control.
He had a2-week history of polyuria and polydipsia, accompanied by a 20-pound weightloss and blurred vision. If a person does not eat on a regular schedule, very short-acting insulin can be particularly helpful.
And the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas may wear out as the pancreas tries to keep up with the body’s extra insulin needs. Here, we are going to take a look at what are the causes, symptoms and treatments of this type of diabetes in detail. However, in case of a man or a woman suffering from diabetes type 2, the body doesn’t respond to insulin.
Family history as well as genetics can also lead to diabetes type 2, as well as poor diet and low physical activity levels. In addition to that, exercising on a regular basis also burns the excess fats and calories and helps to maintain normal weight. A diabetes diet should also include good amount of vegetarian food cooked in olive or coconut oil. The development of cardiovascular diseases leads to reduced blood supply and oxygen to the nerves.
As a result, the normal functions related to the breakdown of sugar in the blood stream fails to take place, leading to an increase in the blood sugar levels.
It is very important to avoid situations that lead to undue fluctuations in blood sugar levels that lead to hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia. The difficulties faced in anger management can lead to high blood pressure levels that can affect the nerves in an extremely adverse manner.
The pancreas is also part of this hormone-secreting system, it is also associated with the digestive system because it also produces and secretes digestive enzymes. Insulin lowers the blood sugar level and increases the amount of glycogen (stored carbohydrate) in the liver. Follow or ensure that the client follow the procedure for blood sample collection and use of glucose meter. In children and teens, the condition is usually an autoimmune disorder in which specific immune system cells and antibodies produced by the immune system attack and destroy the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. A genetic predisposition and exposure to virus may contribute to the pathogenesis of Type 1 DM.
Most people with prediabetes are at increased risk for developing Type 2 DM, and if no preventive measures are taken, they will usually develop it within 10 years. His medical history was unremarkable, except for beingtreated for hypertension with amlodipine 10 mg daily, which provided goodcontrol. People with diabetes who also have high levels of total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol are at greatly increased risk for heart disease and strokes. This causes progressive nerve damages in the diabetic patients in the advance stages of the disease. Taking on undue physical, emotional or work related stress can also cause pressure on the nerves, which have weakened with age and other health complications. When levels of glucose in the blood rise (for example, after a meal), the pancreas produces more insulin. Some people with type 2 diabetes become dependent on dialysis treatments because of kidney failure.
The patients diagnosed for diabetic naturopathy need to practice self control over their emotions and practice relaxation techniques to control their levels of stress.
Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes, and is really a different disease. The patient was seen as an outpatient 4 days afterhe is discharged from hospital.Table 1-1. Antibody testing was not performed, presumably because of the typical type 1 presentation. During his hospital stay, the patient received instructions regarding diet, medication schedule, and home glucose monitoring.
The high HbA1c supports the existence of sustained hyperglycemia prior to hospitalization. There may be some peripheral neuropathy, but no evidence of nephropathy or retinopathy is found. Over the next few weeks, the goal was to stabilize his insulin regimen to his diet and lifestyle. Home glucose monitoring showed recurring lunchtimehypoglycemia and bedtime hyperglycemia (Table 1-4).

Can type 1 diabetes be managed by diet
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  2. Akira

    Health, diabetics should and the load all the time injuries.Migraine, a severe form.