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The condition leads to issues like changes in the menstrual cycle, cysts on the ovaries and problems getting pregnant.It can cause symptoms like infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods, excessive facial and body hair growth, weight gain, acne, oily skin, thinning hair or male-pattern baldness, and pelvic pain.
It affects the skin in a cell type called Keratinocytes and also affects the mucous membrane. Gardasil and Cervarix are the names of the vaccinations, which can prevent certain types of HPV including 16 and 18 which cause 70% of cervical cancers. It is being considered if an Anal pap smear should be a screen process in some populations.
Condoms do not completely protect transmission because skin contact, pelvic region, inner thighs and other skin areas. Atrial flutter is a type of supraventricular tachycardia caused by a re-entry circuit within the right atrium. The length of the re-entry circuit corresponds to the size of the right atrium, resultingA in a fairlyA predictable atrial rate of around 300 bpm (range 200-400). Atrial flutter with 1:1 conduction is associated with severe haemodynamic instability and progression to ventricular fibrillation. Turn the ECG upside down and scrutinise the inferior leads (II, III + aVF) for flutter waves. Atrial flutter will not usually cardiovert with these techniques (unlike AVNRT), although typically there will be a transient period of increased AV block during which flutter waves may be unmasked. Look for identical R-R intervals occurring sporadically along the rhythm strip; then look to see whether there is a mathematical relationship between the various R-R intervals on the ECG. In contrast, atrial fibrillation will be completely irregular, with no patterns to be discerned within the R-R intervals. The diagnosis of flutter with variable block could be inferred here from the R-R intervals alone (e.g.
The relatively slow ventricular response suggests treatment with an AV nodal blocking agent. The presence of positive flutter waves in lead II suggests a clockwise re-entry circuit (= uncommon variant).
Tip: The combination of new-onset atrial flutter with high-grade AV block is very suspicious for digoxin toxicity.
Flutter waves are not clearly seen, but there is an undulation to the baseline in the inferior leads suggestive of flutter with a 1:1 block. With ventricular rates as rapid as this, spending any further time evaluating the ECG is unwise! Negative flutter waves at ~ 300bpm are best seen in the inferior leads II, III and aVF (= anticlockwise pattern).
There is a 3:1 relationship between the flutter waves and the QRS complexes, resulting in a ventricular rate of 100 bpm. Saoudi N, CosA­o F, Waldo A, Chen SA, Iesaka Y, Lesh M, Saksena S, Salerno J, Schoels W; Working Group of Arrhythmias of the European of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. I’m glad I finally have an easy to read place I can refer new nurses (and stubborn ones) to when they are curious about AFlutter.
Via email, text message, or notification as you wait on our site.Ask follow up questions if you need to. The rash in the bottom part of the photo is shingles.Shingles is a rash that occurs from a re-infection of the chicken pox virus.
Tory Johnson, GMA Workplace Contributor, discusses work-from-home jobs, such as JustAnswer in which verified Experts answer people’s questions.
I can go as far as to say it could have resulted in saving my sons life and our entire family now knows what bipolar is and how to assist and understand my most wonderful son, brother and friend to all who loves him dearly. Suggested diagnosis was what I hoped and will take this info to my doctor's appointment next week.I feel better already!
I have been dealing with an extremely serious health crisis for over three years, and one your physicians asked me more questions, gave me more answers and encouragement than a dozen different doctors who have been treating me!! It is characterized by high levels of androgens (male hormones) in the body.Researchers have also linked insulin to PCOS because many women with this condition also have too much insulin in their bodies. The signs and symptoms tend to vary from one individual to another.This endocrine disorder is also associated with an increased risk for developing insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart disease. Follow the links below for expert commentary, video lessons, case-based discussion and detailed explanations to take your learning to the next level. A classification of atrial flutter and regular atrial tachycardia according to electrophysiological mechanisms and anatomical bases; a Statement from a Joint Expert Group from The Working Group of Arrhythmias of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology.
Our Team, headed by Mike Cadogan & Chris Nickson, consists (mostly) of emergency physicians and intensivists based in Australia and New Zealand.
The answer was far more informative than what I got from the Physicians I saw in person for my problem.
I seriously don't know what my sisters situation would be today if you had not gone above and beyond just answering my questions.
High levels of insulin cause the ovaries to produce more male hormones.Women with PCOS have also been found to have low-grade inflammation, contributing to insulin resistance. Thus, early diagnosis of PCOS is extremely important.Although there is no cure for this problem yet, it can be controlled. Spearmint TeaSpearmint tea can also help deal with PCOS due to its anti-androgenic properties. I take medicine for this problem from gynecologist bt no improvement after this medicine courcemrs bilal October 4, 2014 at 2:19 pm Replyhello dr.
Some simple natural remedies, medications and lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms and reduce complications.Here are the top 10 home remedies for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
When errors occur during the process of obtaining, documenting, and communicating and using a patient’s weight, the dose of a medication can be dangerously incorrect. Apple Cider VinegarApple cider vinegar is also beneficial for dealing with PCOS because it helps control blood sugar and keeps your body from producing too much insulin. I myself is suffering frm this problem nd is taking patanjali medicines from last one year and since m gtng my periods evry month. Analysts reviewed event reports relating to patient weight submitted to the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority through the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting System from December 2008 through November 2015. CinnamonResearchers from Columbia University have found that cinnamon supplementation can help improve menstrual cyclicity in women with PCOS.
Stress is a big factor in pcods which ad verses the situation, so always try to remain stress free, practice yoga..meditation for reducing it!yoga along with helping you to relieve stress will also help you get rid of this problem!
Plus, a pilot study published in the journal Fertility and Sterility indicates that this herb can help reduce insulin resistance in women with PCOS.Add one teaspoon of cinnamon powder to a glass of hot water. Drink it daily for a few months or until you are satisfied with the results.Alternatively, you can take this herb in supplement form after consulting your doctor.

Continue for several weeks or until you see improvement.You can gradually increase the dosage of apple cider vinegar to up to two tablespoons per glass, two or three times a day. If the taste is too strong for you, mix the apple cider vinegar with orange or any other fruit juice.5. If you are taking this herb to combat insulin resistance, consult your doctor first as it may lower your blood sugar level.2. FenugreekFenugreek promotes glucose metabolism in the body and improves insulin resistance.
It contains lignans that increase the production of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) that binds testosterone in the blood, thereby preventing it from wreaking havoc in the body.Plus, being high in fiber, flaxseed helps slow down glucose metabolism and lower cholesterol levels.
It may also help lower cholesterol, aid weight loss and promote healthy heart functioning.Soak three teaspoons of fenugreek seeds in water for six to eight hours. Analysts searched the PA-PSRS database for reports of medication errors tagged as weight-related, and “Other” event type reports that were weight related, submitted to the Authority from December 2008 through November 2015.
The omega-3 fatty acids in this superfood also reduce inflammation, lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of chronic diseases like heart disease.
Take one teaspoon of the soaked seeds along with some honey in the morning on an empty stomach.
These queries yielded 1,167 and 154 reports, respectively, for a sum of 1,321 reports.The medication name, patient care area, event type, event description, and harm score, adapted from the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) harm index,14 were provided by the reporting facility. Also take one teaspoon of the seeds about 10 minutes prior to lunch and one teaspoon prior to dinner. When a medication name data field was left blank or incomplete but the name was provided in the event description, an analyst adjusted the medication name field.
Reports were evaluated to first verify that the event was related to patient weight and then determine what factors were associated with the event. Saw PalmettoThis herb acts as an anti-androgen, blocks 5-alpha-reductase activityand reduces the conversion of the testosterone into a more active form called dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Analysts could assign multiple types of error for each report, based on the event description. Analysts identified reports involving high-alert medications, based on the ISMP List of High-Alert Medications in Acute Care Settings.15 Roughly 3% (n = 30) of the reports were excluded from final analysis because they had been submitted more than once (n = 7) or the event was not related to patient weight (n = 23).
Almost one-third (30.7%, n = 396) of events required patient monitoring or intervention to preclude harm (harm score D).
A majority (8 of 11) of the events with patient harm involved high-alert medications.  Figure 1. When totaled, a variety of intensive care units (ICUs) comprised 15.9% (n = 205) of care areas involved. Figure 2 shows the most commonly reported specific patient-care areas, encompassing 65% (n = 839) of events.  Figure 2. In the entire dataset, more than half (59.3%, n = 765) of the events involved a high-alert medication.
Most Common Medications involved in Events  related to Incorrect Patient Weights, as reported to the  Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, December 2008  through November 2015 (N = 1,291)  When evaluating event types as reported by facilities, the five most common event types accounted for 94.4% (n = 1,219) of the events (see Table). Medication Error Event Types Associated with Events  Involving Incorrect Patient Weights, as Reported to the  Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority,  December 2008 through November 2015 (N = 1,291)Analysis revealed several factors, or types of errors, associated with medication errors involving patient weight (see Figure 4).
The nurse incorrectly changed the dosing weight from 0.58 to 6 kg [increasing the documented weight by a factor of 10]. Within the same minute, she realized the error and changed the weight back [to the correct value].
Pharmacy dispensed the medication (14.4 mL or 6 mEq) based on the [incorrect weight value (approximately a 10-fold error)] and the medication was administered.
During the administration, the patient developed bradycardia and was successfully resuscitated. Sadaf October 9, 2015 at 7:57 am ReplyHi Javairia, Thank you for suggestion.Did you ever face pain during pco? Later in the day, pharmacy discovered that the dose sent was based on a 6 kg weight that was in their EMR [electronic medical record] system.A patient was dosed milrinone based on an incorrect weight of 400 kg.
Equal amounts of kalonji, methi seeds, ajvain grind this and add equal amounts of isphaghol. The nurses verified the dose off the incorrect weight and administered the bolus of 9 mg as calculated by pharmacy and started the drip of 81 mg over 1 hour. Approximately 50 minutes into the infusion of the drip, it was noted that the weight was incorrect and the bolus was stopped.
Ur pcod is gone deepti July 6, 2015 at 3:34 pm ReplyHi my daughter was suffering with P C O D. The patient subsequently hemorrhaged and required intubation and chest tube insertion for hemothorax.Patient triaged in ED via EMS [emergency medical services] following witnessed generalized seizure at home. Patient has history of seizures and has been treated with phenobarbital 30 mg PO BID [orally, twice a day] at home.
Actual dose administered was 1,100 mg but based on correct weight the dose should have been 505 mg.
After the loading dose infusion, patient became lethargic and difficult to arouse and anesthesiology and neurology were consulted. Patient’s pain medications were based on home dosing regimen, but patient was also on cefTRIAXone and azithromycin and doses were adjusted for the correct weight. Here I come up with a tried and tested remedy by which got rid of irregular periods and menstural cramps. Patient has had negative blood cultures to date and antibiotics were increased as preventive measure.Patient weighed 62 kg in ED. 3)Practice Surya namaskaar at least 6 times a dayPlease follow this to get wonderful results!!! Sarah October 27, 2015 at 5:59 pm ReplyFor all ladies on here, I have pcos all metbolic sydrome high levels of everything, the only thing you can do to control it is change your diet and exercise and I take metformin and birth control and always use weights to exercise it helps with the insulin levels. Later the nurse learned of discrepancy in weight from floor nurse, so she weighed herself and found scale [ED bathroom style scale] to be off by 10 kg.
Things like cinnamon and apple cider vinegar can help with lowering blood sugar…BUT can not and will not cure pcos. Healthcare practitioners most frequently performed incorrect estimation of patient weight, but incorrect weight estimates were also provided by patients, family members, and guardians. Besides the event reports clearly associated with incorrect estimated weights, many of the events related to too high or too low documented weights were likely related to the practice of estimating weights. Fifty-four percent (n = 47 of 87) of the incorrect estimated weight events provided enough information to calculate a percent difference between estimated and actual weight.
Of these 47 events, the estimated weight was wrong by more than 10% in 80.9% (n = 38 of 47) events.

Our bodies are storing all the carbs and that turns up the male hormones which in turn causes the problems we face. On subsequent days when the patient was actually weighed, her weight was found to be significantly lower at 58 kg. Since heparin is dosed by weight, the patient was receiving a higher dose of heparin than she required.
I noticed this error after the patient’s a PTT was supratherapeutic on two consecutive days.
The patient needed the insulin infusion placed back on later that morning, due to an increased anion gap.
When receiving report from ED, the nurse had stated the estimated weight of the patient was 240 lb.
The patient has red tracking from peripheral IV site where DOBUTamine was infusing.Patient’s weight was accidentally entered into dose field by pharmacist. Patient received more than 5,000 units of heparin over an hour instead of the ordered 1,000 units.
I have a family history of diabetes and developed PCOS after coming off the contraceptive pill. The nurse attempted to use the drug library to program the pump but received an alert and programmed the pump manually.
CT [computed tomography] [scan] of head showed no evidence of acute intracranial pathology. Clinical oncology specialist noticed weight was significantly different between flow sheet and medication order. I know the pain of not being able to fall pregnant and also miscarriages, but please see an Endocrinologist.
The specialist used kg weight to dose chemotherapy order and did not notice conversion was incorrect by 10 kg.
The patient received one dose of chemotherapy and was scheduled for next cycle on a later date.
Upon further investigation, it was noted that weight was recorded in pounds with an incorrectly calculated kilogram weight next to it. Per the infectious disease team, the acyclovir should have been prescribed based on the patient’s ideal body weight.
The pharmacist updated the weight that populates into [the pharmacy information system] with the patient’s new and accurate weight. The new weights in [electronic health record] do not populate to [pharmacy information system], thus any dosing based on weight may be incorrect.DiscussionSimilar to the previously published Advisory article6 and ECRI Institute report,7 data analysis revealed general themes related to errors involving patient weight. Once clinicians overcome the barriers associated with obtaining a current, accurate patient weight, they face obstacles related to documenting and communicating the weight to other members of the healthcare team. Clinicians must take the obtained weight value and accurately transfer this information to the medical record, either paper based or electronic, and to an infusion pump or other systems requiring this information.
This is a process ripe for error as demonstrated by many events (23.2%, n = 300) involving confusion between pounds and kilograms. A clinician may obtain a weight measured in pounds and forget to convert to kilograms, or obtain a weight in kilograms but document it incorrectly as pounds. Additionally, clinicians may transcribe the weight into the medical record or infusion pump incorrectly, by transposing numbers or using the wrong patient’s weight.
Similar to the issue described by Hilmer and colleagues,3 certain event reports pointed to problems related to the patient weight being documented in multiple locations within the medical record. This may lead to the documentation of multiple different values in the medical record, causing confusion among clinicians about which value is current and correct. This problem is exacerbated by the numerous clinical systems into which a weight should or must be documented.
For example, patient weight may be required in the medical record, computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) system, pharmacy information system, infusion pump, and other systems as appropriate. These systems may not be integrated or automatically share patient weight information, resulting in the possibility of multiple different weight values being documented across systems.
Although many medications dosed by weight use a patient’s actual weight, in some situations it is more appropriate to use a patient’s ideal body weight (IBW), adjusted body weight (ABW), or another determined weight value to serve as the “dosing weight.”20,21 Patients can receive inappropriate dosages of medications when the actual body weight is used as the dosing weight instead of the more appropriate IBW or ABW, or vice versa. In nearly 3% (n = 38) of event reports, these mix-ups were identified as a factor contributing to the event.
Additional patient weight events and associated causes may have been reported but not identified by the query and analysis. Additionally, unique organizational reporting cultures and patterns, along with different interpretations of what occurrences are reportable may lead to reporting variations.
Risk Reduction StrategiesThe events included in this analysis, observations from the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, and recommendations in the literature offer strategies that healthcare facilities may consider to reduce risk of errors in the medication-use process involving patient weight. Strategies related to patient weight that healthcare facilities can apply to the medication-use process include the following:Ensure all patient care areas have the necessary equipment to easily obtain an accurate patient weight, including weights for infants and children, as appropriate. Use scales that measure in metric units only, or lock scales to measure only in metric units.7-10,12,13,22,23Document and communicate patient weight in metric units only. Ensure computer information system screens, infusion pumps, and other medication device screens, printouts, and preprinted order forms prompt users to record patient weight in metric units only.7,10,12,13,22,23Develop organizational expectations that obtaining the patient’s actual weight is part of the mandatory nursing assessment and reweighing of the patient occurs as warranted, based on patient’s clinical condition. Analysis of 1,291 reports submitted to the Authority from December 2008 through November 2015 revealed multiple factors contributing to medication errors related to obtaining, documenting, communicating, and using patient weight. Results were consistent with those presented in 2009,6 indicating that Pennsylvania facilities continue to struggle with the complexity of the issue. Risk-reduction strategies presented in this analysis may help organizations minimize the occurrence of medication errors involving patient weight.
Doctors and nurses estimation of the weight of patients: a preventable source of systematic error. Medication errors in acute cardiovascular and stroke patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Medication errors involving continuously infused medications in a surgical intensive care unit. Effect of a weight-based prescribing method within an electronic health record on prescribing errors.
Drug dosing based on weight and body surface area: mathematical assumptions and limitations in obese adults.

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