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An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) is used to assess the body’s ability to metabolize glucose. Traditional methods of glucose tolerance tests consist of the following basic steps: Fast the subject for 6-16 hours, depending on the protocol and IACUC considerations. If doing manual sampling to use as a reference or for calibration purposes, follow guidelines in DSI technical note related to appropriate timing and entry of values into software. Tamer Coskun1, Libbey O’Farrell1, Robert Brockway2, Paul Haefner2, Kimberly White2, Richard G. The current standard for routine glucose measurements in preclinical research is often glucometers and test strips.
Presently, few continuous monitoring glucose options are available for preclinical research. Robert Brockway1, Tamer Coskun2, Libbey O’Farrell2, Paul Haefner1, Kimberly White1, Charles V. Background and aims: The current standard for routine glucose measurements in preclinical research is often glucometers and test strips. Results: The glucose sensors provided high resolution data and demonstrated the ability to accurately assess chronic diurnal patterns matching with the feeding pattern of rats from 3 days up to 7 weeks after surgery. Scott Tiesma1, Robert Brockway1, Tamer Coskun2, Libbey O’Farrell2, M Dodson Michael2, Amy L Cox2.
Continuous glucose monitoring options have been very limited for research applications in pre-clinical models. The effect of a high-fat diet on glucose and food intake (FI) in pre-diabetic ZDSD male rats was assessed using continuous glucose (CG) telemetry (DSI, model HD-XG) and the BioDAQ FI monitoring system (Research Diets).
The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a high-fat diet on glucose and food intake (FI) in pre-diabetic ZDSD male rats using continuous glucose (CG) telemetry (DSI, model HD-XG) and the BioDAQ FI monitoring system (Research Diets). Chronic cervical vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) causes weight loss in obese patients and in experimental animal models of obesity. The gene encoding for the catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), p110a (PIK3CA) is the most frequently mutated kinase in cancer. However until now, continuous glucose monitoring options have been very limited in biomedical research. The present study evaluates the use of a new radio-telemetry device (HD-XG, Data Sciences International) incorporating an implantable glucose sensor (Nova Biomedical, Waltham, MA) for chronic continuous (every minute) glucose measurements in the arterial blood of brown Norway (BN) rats. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems are becoming more prevalent providing real-time measures of blood glucose in humans but may also prove invaluable in diabetes research. Background: Chronic continuous glucose monitoring options for animal research have been very limited due to various technical and biological challenges.
Methods: In vivo testing in rats including oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTTs) and ex vivo waterbath testing were performed to evaluate acute and chronic sensor performance. Results: Results demonstrated the ability to record continuous measurements for 75 days or longer. Conclusions: This device provides significant advantages in the quality and quantity of data that can be obtained relative to existing alternatives such as intermittent blood sampling. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of abnormalities often associated with obesity and diabetes.
There are numerous sex differences in metabolic parameters and blood pressure (BP), although many fewer studies have examined the molecular mechanisms driving high-fat (HF)-induced increases in BP and metabolic disorders in males vs.
Historically, diabetes, obesity and metabolism research has focused on acute metabolic testing characterized by infrequent sampling methods. In this exclusive webinar sponsored by Data Sciences International, we present a new method of continuously monitoring blood glucose via implantable telemetry. Six male Sprague Dawley rats were simultaneously implanted with a telemetry device measuring continuous arterial blood glucose (HD-XG) transmitting at 455KHz, and an second telemetry device measuring arterial blood pressure and a biopotential (ECG) operating at 18MHz (HD-S11-F2).
Insulin-resistant diabetes (Type 2 diabetes mellitus, T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes. New technology was employed in a novel way to monitor the effect of diet change on continuous blood glucose in addition to standard hemodynamic parameters. The HD-XG glucose telemetry implant from DSI provides the ability to obtain continuous, real-time, blood glucose measurements in rodents. Apple Cider Vinegar can be extremely helpful, and is one of the most natural healing sources available today. These pose significant limitations in terms of accuracy, animal stress, and frequency of sampling. This study compares the performance of an existing interstitial system (Medtronic MiniMed) with a fully implantable direct blood monitoring prototype (Data Sciences International). Investigators have used periodic sampling of blood glucose to provide a coarse assessment of the efficacy of novel anti-diabetic therapies. Ten male rats, 14 weeks old, were housed singly for 3 days prior to aseptic surgery to acclimate them to the FI system on control diet (Purina #5008).
When rats were switched to D12468 their glucose excursion was significantly greater, even though their FI was similar to 5008.
Ten male rats, 14 weeks old, were housed singly for three days prior to aseptic surgery to acclimate them to the FI system on control diet (Purina #5008). Furthermore, parasympathetic activity directed to the liver has been demonstrated to reduce hepatic glucose release.
To assess whether bitter taste also decreases blood glucose after a glucose load, we took advantage of a new technology that continuously monitors changes in blood glucose – the DSI HD-XG glucose sensor. This discovery triggered the development of small molecule anti-PI3K inhibitors, such as NVP-BYL719. Investigators have used periodic sampling of blood glucose using a glucometer and test strips approach to provide a snap-shot assessment of the effect of PI3K inhibitors to glucose metabolism. Aging nonhuman primates (NHPs) develop insulin resistance and high blood glucose in a way similar to the progression and onset of type 2 diabetes in humans, which makes them an excellent model for diabetes research. We provide an evaluation of a novel telemetry device for continuous monitoring of temperature, activity, and plasma glucose levels in the arterial blood of rats for up to 2 months. Animal studies were in accordance with the guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals and approved by the corresponding animal care and use committees (Data Sciences International, Eli Lilly). These devices provide the opportunity to expand the understanding of both glucose metabolism and homeostasis and to work toward improved therapies and cures for diabetes. The hallmark of diabetes is insulin resistance, an impairment of insulin action within tissues at the level of the insulin receptor and subsequent cellular events. This research contributes critical information regarding glucose metabolism and homeostasis; however, the acute approach and low sampling frequency leaves critical gaps in glucose metabolism research findings. Using case studies, we explore how a complete glucose profile can be observed while also reducing animal stress and associated labor for the scientist. The HD-XG sensor was placed in the descending abdominal aorta and the device body was located IP. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) can naturally develop to insulin resistance and diabetes in a way similar to the progression and onset of T2DM in humans, which makes them as an excellent model for diabetes research.
A new telemetry implant (HD-S11-F2, DSI) enables researchers to collect and transmit data at a different radio-frequency (18MHz) than the traditional 455KHz implants.
The goal of the current study was to compare spot blood glucose measurements with values obtained using telemetry in male and female DSS.
Because of its power, you may find that uncomfortable side effects occur after consuming either the liquid or the pill version of Apple Cider Vinegar which is found at many nutrition stores. Prototype sensors were surgically implanted in the abdominal aorta of 10 weight matched Sprague Dawley rats at 8 weeks of age. Each animal was surgically instrumented with glucose sensors in the abdominal aorta and the telemetry device placed in the intraperitoneal (ip) cavity.


All rats under isofluorane anesthesia were implanted with a glucose sensor in the abdominal aorta and transmitter in the peritoneum. All rats were implanted with a glucose sensor in the abdominal aorta and transmitter in the peritoneum. Thus, chronic cervical VNS may be particularly beneficial in obese type 2 diabetic patients. The HD-XG sensor was inserted into the abdominal aorta of a Sprague Dawley rat and a telemetry transponder was implanted into the peritoneal cavity.
The conventional tests of blood glucose are by handheld glucometer, clinical chemistry analyzer or analox analyzer.
Type 2 diabetes arises from a combination of insulin resistance and a relative impairment of insulin secretion in response to meal ingestion. The HD-S11-F2 catheter was inserted in the femoral artery and routed to the abdominal aorta (just proximal to the iliac bifurcation and distal to the glucose sensor. The conventional tests of blood glucose are by handheld glucometer, clinical chemistry analyzer or Analox analyzer. While a second frequency allows for social housing and tighter density of research subjects, in this experiment the 18MHz device was paired with a continuous glucose telemetry implant (HD-XG, DSI) in the same animal.
Male and female rats were implanted with glucose telemeters at 11 weeks of age, and allowed 1 week to recover before being placed on receivers. The present study evaluates the use of a novel prototype device (Data Sciences International) for acute and chronic glucose measurements in rats.
The implantable device is 1.4 cc and provides continuous temperature, activity, and arterial blood glucose readings for 4 wks or longer. The animals were maintained on 5008 for 2 weeks and switched to a high-fat diet (Research Diets #D12468) for an additional 2 weeks. Here we tested the hypothesis that acute cervical VNS reduces blood glucose concentration in anesthetized rats.
These methods require periodical blood sampling with potential subject stress and ethical volume limitation, especially during research. The glucose tolerance test (GTT) is vital for the characterization of metabolic syndrome, the natural progression of type 2 diabetes. Ralf Dechend (Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine) presents a method of glucose monitoring in a novel pregnant rat model of type 2 diabetes and shares realized advantages pertaining to this new continuous approach. These methods require sampling blood periodically and may miss some critical information during monitoring.
Implantation of two devices in a single animal allowed us to measure blood pressure, ECG, arterial blood glucose, body temperature and activity in a single rat. It helps to cleanse your body of harmful toxic substances that are found in the environment, foods, and in medications. It is produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of E.coli. The device is 1.4cc and provides temperature, activity, and direct continuous blood glucose readings for 4 weeks or longer. Daily and GTT reference values were recorded with a StatStrip Xpress glucometer (Nova Biomedical). Continuous assessment of blood glucose was performed in 12 Sprague Dawley rats in which diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ).
Animals were then switched to a high-fat diet (Research Diets #D12468) for an additional 2 weeks at which time another OGTT was performed. CG monitoring allowed for visualization of the circadian pattern that was not seen with FI and would not have been detected to the same degree using twice daily blood glucose sampling.
Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with catheters in the left carotid artery, bipolar electrodes on the right cervical vagus nerve, and a novel telemetric glucose sensor (HD-XG, DSI) in the abdominal aorta, that allows for continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration. The rat was then returned to its home cage and remained undisturbed while blood glucose levels were monitored every 10 sec for several hours.
These data validate this platform technology against standard methods of glucose monitoring and demonstrate the utility of this technology in drug discovery and diabetes research. This study investigated HD-XG transmitter, a Data Sciences International implantable device, for continuous monitoring of blood glucose in conscious NHPs.
In metabolic syndrome research, routine glucose measurements, including GTT, are often accomplished using glucometers and test strips. In addition, Christian Schnell (Novartis) discusses the value of continuous glucose data in the application of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics while testing an oncology compound.
After recovery from surgery, data were collected for several days to observe changes in normal circadian rhythm.
This study investigated the changes of blood glucose during circadian, meal, stress procedure and drug exposure monitored continuously by implanted HD-XG transmitter device (Data Sciences International, Inc) in conscious Macaca fascicularis.
Six male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with 2 telemetry implants that each required an arterial site for sensor placement.
Additional rats without telemeter implants were maintained on normal-salt, normal-fat diet for the duration of the experiment. Sensors were calibrated via an interpolated one point calibration method utilizing daily readings. The rise, peak, and duration of the elevation in blood glucose produced by the glucose load were similar after the rat tasted water or saccharin. The glucose sensor was implanted into a femoral artery and the reference electrode plus its device body was implanted subcutaneously nearby. This method has significant limitations, as it is inaccurate, is timeconsuming, requires frequent sampling, and induces animal stress. To demonstrate rapid changes in blood glucose while monitoring blood pressure and heart rate, animals were enrolled in a simple cross-over designed study to compare the response to high carbohydrate (marshmallows and fruit) with low carbohydrate treats (cheese cubes) after a 12 hour fast. The glucose sensor was implanted into the femoral artery and its reference electrode plus the device body was implanted subcutaneously nearby.
A relative absolute difference was calculated for each sensor, on both GTT’s and daily readings.
Daily reference glucose values were measured from tail vein blood samples using the Nova StatStrip Xpress glucometer. CG monitoring allowed for visualization of the circadian pattern that was not seen with FI and would not have been detected using twice daily sampling. However, tasting quinine significantly delayed the return of blood glucose concentrations to their nadir.
However, with newly developed implantable continuous glucose telemetry, we now are able to obtain continuous, real-time, blood glucose measurements in conscious laboratory animals without disturbing them.
The HD-S11-F2 was inserted in the femoral artery and the catheter tip was advanced to the abdominal aorta (just cranial to the iliac bifurcation), not overlapping the glucose sensor.
What’s more, people suffering from osteoporosis should take necessary precautions and consult a physician before consuming.Blood SugarApple cider vinegar can also have an antiglycemic effect on blood sugar, meaning it can lower glucose levels in the bloodstream. Following STZ administration, the rats experienced a transient period of hyperglycemia followed by a hypoglycemic period.
The combination of CG and FI monitoring offers the ability to detect subtle and comprehensive diet-related changes in glycemic level and variability not practical with infrequent manual blood samples. Thus, stimulation of bitter taste receptors can influence blood glucose levels after a glucose load. Blood glucose, body temperature and physical activity were monitored wirelessly and recorded continuously for over a month. The present study evaluates the use and the performance of this system in hyperglycemic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats.
Monitoring hemodynamic parameters in addition to blood glucose allowed us to separate excitement responses due to room entry or offering food, and actual changes in blood glucose due to the composition of the food.


Blood glucose, body temperature and physical activity were simultaneously monitored wirelessly and recorded continuously for more than 6 weeks. This may benefit the management of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance, but people with uncontrolled blood sugar levels could find its use problematic. First thing to know is Lantus should be injected in the less-sensitive layer of fatty tissue just under the skin.
Two of 10 interstitial sensors and 2 of 10 blood monitoring sensors (improperly implanted) failed to perform correctly.
Over the next 24 hrs, blood glucose steadily increased, and hyperglycemia stabilized with a distinct diurnal fluctuation. This work highlights the advantages of the HD-XG glucose sensor, which allows monitoring of blood glucose with 10-sec temporal resolution without the stress of repeated blood draws. Many classical diabetes assays, such as ivGTT, oGTT, ITT, clamp, were tested with this remote method and compared with the conventional glucometer assay (Fig.
Glucose telemetry was implanted in the abdominal aorta and the transmitter body in the peritoneum via an aseptic surgery. Room entry had minimal effect on the blood pressure and heart rate following the 12 hour fast, and no observed effect on blood glucose. After recovery from surgery, animals were enrolled in a cross-over designed study to compare the physiologic effects of offering high carbohydrate or low carbohydrate treats after a 12 hour fast. A similar increase in blood glucose concentration was observed with efferent VNS after sectioning the vagus nerve cranial to the stimulation electrode. The system enabled monitoring of disease progression over time as well as repeatedly glucose tolerance test on same animal. Addition of a food offering caused an immediate increase in blood glucose that was related to the carbohydrate load offered by the food. Their blood glucose levels showed circadian oscillations and kept at low levels during 12 am to 9 am (housing light circle = 7pm off to 7am on). These devices hold great potential for comparing physiologic processes associated with glucose regulation in normal and disease condition rats; monitoring diabetes progression and developing preventive treatments for type II diabetes. In summary, acute cervical VNS at an intensity that reduces heart rate elicits a glucogenic effect in anesthetized rats. Our data demonstrate the 1st success of remote, continuous monitoring of blood glucose in conscious, stress-free NHPs and its potential advantages bringing to diabetes research and drug discovery.
Two weeks after postsurgical recovery, detectable differences of treatment effects on prandial and fasting blood glucose levels were evident.
Animals offered marshmallows and fruit had an immediate increase in blood glucose while those offered cheese had a blunted glucose response. There was no obvious postprandial hyperglycemia after morning feeding, but blood glucose increased by 20 to 30% after afternoon feeding. Marshmallows and mangos were offered as high carbohydrate treats while cheese cubes were offered as the low carbohydrate treat. Baseline blood glucose levels in male and female DSS measured by HD-XG were comparable (109±2 vs. If you have type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance, talk to your doctor before taking apple cider vinegar in any amount.Tooth EnamelAn excessive amount of apple cider vinegar can erode tooth enamel.
The implanted glucose sensors provided unprecedented time resolution of the glucose response for each insulin dose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which acute and potentially also chronic cervical VNS may increase blood glucose. Telemetry glucose monitoring data, in parallel with measurements of food intake, body weight, and locomotor activity validated this platform technology as a refinement in aiding our understanding of anti-diabetic therapeutic agents. However, 1 hour after the treats were offered, the normal rat chow was restored to the feeders.
Grabbing out a monkey from its housing cage for sitting in a monkey chair caused a transient increase in blood glucose by 30 to 40% in both normoglycemic and diabetic monkeys, but took 30 min for returning to its baseline in normoglycemic animals and almost 2 hrs in diabetic monkeys. Approximately 1 hour after the treat offering, the standard rat chow was restored to the cage feeders. The acetic acid can harm the enamel on your teeth, generating them additional susceptible to tooth decay. These prototype devices provide a promising alternative for chronic preclinical continuous glucose monitoring in a free roaming type 1 rat model. These profiles will provide a reference against which to compare novel drugs under development. When the normal rat chow was restored, the rats in the marshmallow and fruit group showed little additional increase in blood glucose, while the cheese group had an immediate increase in blood glucose that was even greater than the group that had received the marshmallows and fruit.
The stress-induced hyperglycemia by oral gavage was similar to grabbing monkey from hosing cage.
The excitement from the technician opening the cage was evident in HR and BP changes associated with that activity. Diluting the vinegar before use can help, but it’s sensible to talk with your dentist before you decide to use apple cider vinegar for your detox or adding it to your daily routine.Evere ItchingSome have reported that taking apple cider vinegar for a few days has caused itching all over.
Additionally, average weekly glucose for both sexes were statistically identical whether analyzed over 24 hour periods or limited to only the light or dark periods. This may be a sign of an allergy, so it may be necessary to stop using the vinegar until the itching subsides, then return to consuming the vinegar.
These experiments demonstrate the value of using two implants to get a more complete picture of whole animal metabolic and cardiovascular physiology. From this study we can conclude the following: 1) glucose telemeters are a reliable methods to obtain continuous measurements of blood glucose in male and female rats, 2) there are no sex differences in blood glucose following a 4 week HF diet in DSS, and 3) DSS are able to tolerate a HF diet with minimal alterations in body weight or blood glucose. What are Lantus equivalent names?Lantus patent expired last 2010, however the company had an extension, thus there is noIf you want to know more how to use Lantus, click video below This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 Australia License. The results demonstrate that compared with nighttime, blood glucose during daytime is higher in the experimental monkeys. Apple Cider VinegarNauseaIf you aren’t used to consuming vinegar in any form, Apple Cider Vinegar can be harmful to a sensitive stomach. It is interesting that housed monkeys only showed afternoon post-prandial hyperglycemia after feeding. These experiments demonstrate a successful surgical approach using two implants to get a more comprehensive picture of whole animal cardiovascular and metabolic physiology. This doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t consume Apple Cider Vinegar, but it does mean that you shouldn’t take it first thing in the morning or on an empty stomach.Drug ReactionsSince it’s acidic in nature, can easily react with some drugs like laxatives, diuretics and insulin. Stress-related hormones, such as norepinephrine and angiotensin, can also cause hyperglycemia.
Since has a direct effect on insulin level and blood sugar, it may prove to be highly hazardous when taken with blood pressure and diabetes medications.
Therefore, remote and continuous monitor of blood glucose via telemetry device in conscious NHPs may provide a sophisticated approach to investigate neurological regulation of blood glucose due to behavior and hormonal changes. If you’re suffering from any health disorder and want to avoid any drastic reaction, consider consulting your doctor before consuming.Change of Bone DensityApple cider vinegar is not recommended for those with osteoporosis as it has been known to lower bone density. Before you use apple cider vinegar to detoxify the body, speak to your doctor to ensure that it will not negatively interact with any medications you are using to help manage your bone health.



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