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Of course, your liver begins breaking down ethanol through a normal metabolic pathway as soon as it shows up.
Your neurons, like other cells in your body, rely on receptor proteins embedded in the cell membrane to help them respond to conditions in the body. While alcohol is classified as a central nervous system depressant, it activates and suppresses several types of receptors. The more alcohol is consumed, the more the nervous system is depressed, and that can take things from pleasant to dangerous.
The next time you have a couple beverages and your senses begin to blur and the world seems a little less scary, reflect on the intricate molecular dance going on in your brain that makes it all happen. When we talk about the kind of alcohol humans drink, or the alcohol content of a bottle of whisky, we’re talking about ethanol. That’s why you can drink a beer and find no difference in the concentration of alcohol at different points in the bottle.


An enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase (seen below) breaks ethanol down to acetaldehyde, which does not cause intoxication, but is actually toxic.
The receptors that handle a neurotransmitter called GABA are strongly activated by ethanol molecules sticking to them. For most people a blood alcohol content of 0.1% is where nervous system impairment becomes┬ásevere enough to affect motor control and speech. Consuming alcohol does a lot of things, some good and some not so good, but the most prominent short-term effect is that it gets us drunk. When you guzzle that drink, the ethanol diffuses through the stomach and into the water in your bloodstream, ending up literally everywhere in your body. Acetaldehyde and other byproducts of alcohol metabolism are partially responsible for hangovers, but ethanol itself is cleared more slowly than it is absorbed. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, so the activation of this receptor slows the brain down — it makes you feel calm and relaxed.


With the receptor blocked, it can’t do its job, which is to increase neuronal activity and control memory function.
More commonly, the gag reflex disappears, making it possible for a person to aspirate on their own vomit and die. So the concentration of alcohol inevitably goes up and it finds its way to the brain through blood vessels.
Ethanol at high enough concentrations will stick to receptors non-specifically, and this is what’s going on in your brain as you drink.
This contributes to the sluggishness we feel while drunk, and also the memory issues excessive drinking can cause.



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