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This entry was posted in Bacteriology, Microbiology and tagged catalase-positive, colony-picture, gram-positive, sepsis, Staphaurex-positive, Staphylococcus, UTI.
Research has found in a new study that the bacteria which cause strep throat might remain for a much longer period of time on inorganic objects than earlier laboratory tests have shown, stated University of Buffalo investigators. Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is the main cause of respiratory tract and ear infections in youngsters, and Streptococcus pyogenes, which is the bacterial perpetrator behind both skin infections and also strep throat, was found to stay on surface area such as toys, books and even inside cribs for several hours after the items had been cleaned, stated a report that was published on Friday in the journal Infection and Immunity. The usual ideas believed about these two bacteria were that they died swiftly once they were outside of a human host. These findings should make individuals much more cautious about the bacteria which are in the environment, stated Anders Hakansson, who is a University of Buffalo School of Medicine microbiologist. Hakansson stated that he believed that some objects are able to serve as basins where the bacteria are able to live for as long as quite a few months.
Investigators based the majority of their findings on tests which were found on articles that were in a day care center. The university research team showed that bacteria growing on human skin are able to create stubborn forms that are much harder to kill than other bacteria types.
By knowing how hard to kill these bacteria types can be, Hakansson and some associates wanted to test whether orthodox methods of determining bacterial survival, using cultures which have been grown in a lab, correctly depicted the formula of the germs inside many day care centers and home nurseries. The researchers were also able to show that certain types of bacteria, which were about a month old, were taken from tainted objects, could readily sicken mice.
The scientists stated that it was uncertain just how much human infection with strep bacteria is due to the bacteria reservoirs on inert objects. Even though strep infections tend to be not much more than a painful problem in the developed world, in areas where there is not access to antibiotics, good nutrition, or even sufficient water, these infections end up killing many children each year, through sepsis, respiratory tract infections and pneumonia.
This 2005 photograph depicted a cutaneous abscess on the knee of a prison inmate, which had been caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, referred to by the acronym MRSA. It was also believed the principal cause of infection came by direct human contact or through expelled droplets from sneezing or coughing.
However, they advised that cleaning procedures in day cares and homes probably need to change.
Canine skin samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for microbiological culture and sensitivity between January 2007 and June 2010, from which Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, were selected for this investigation. The various testing sessions were done in the early morning hours before the center had a chance to open to the public, and had been a long while since anything had experienced any human contact. In general, antimicrobial resistance was low and very few methicillin-resistant isolates were detected.
Temporal trends were not noted, except for ampicillin, with isolates becoming more susceptible, and potentiated sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole), with isolates becoming more resistant. In general, both the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration tests yielded similar results for the antimicrobial agents tested.


The main difference was evident in the over-estimation of resistance by the Kirby-Bauer test for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, penicillin and doxycycline.
Knowledge of trends in bacterial resistance is important for veterinarians when presented with canine pyoderma.
They are mostly harmless commensals of the skin and mucous membranes, but are potentially pathogenic to humans and many other animal species (Vanni et al.
Nearly all cases of pyoderma in dogs are caused by Staphylococcus intermedius (DeBoer 2006).
The name Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is now given to the canine-specific strain of S.
Reservoir sites include the oral and nasal cavities as well as the perineum and anus (Hartmann et al.
Antimicrobial resistance is of increasing concern in both veterinary and human medicine as it has led to treatment failures and hence increased morbidity, mortality and treatment costs (Pellerin et al. Antimicrobial resistance is, however, complex and involves various bacterial species, resistance mechanisms, transfer mechanisms and reservoirs (Guardabassi et al. Moreover, increases in resistance to antimicrobial classes that are important in human medicine may result in the withdrawal of previously available antibacterial agents from veterinary use (Loeffler et al. Susceptibility testing is controlled with regard to medium, atmosphere and temperature conditions and incubation duration (Blondeau 2009) to facilitate suitable incubation conditions. Dilution methods offer flexibility in the sense that standard media used to test for frequently encountered organisms can be supplemented or replaced with alternative media to allow for accurate testing of fastidious bacteria, which may otherwise not be reliably surveyed by disc diffusion. The flexibility of dilution testing is also evident in the reporting formats that may be used. The strains showing intermediate results were classified as sensitive or resistant depending on whether the reading was closer to the sensitive or the resistant cut-off.
Temporal trends were not noted, except for ampicillin, with isolates becoming more susceptible, and potentiated sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole), with isolates becoming more resistant. There is, however, little useful information on antimicrobial resistance and hence optimal usage in companion animals (Prescott et al. The main difference between the two tests was evident in the over-estimation of resistance by the Kirby-Bauer test for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, penicillin and doxycycline.
Inoculum densities may also have played a role, with denser inocula producing smaller zone sizes for the drugs tested. The test provides qualitative results that categorise isolates as susceptible, intermediate or resistant.
However, low-volume veterinary-specific agents may be available only from the pharmaceutical manufacturer.
Smaller veterinary laboratories may experience difficulties standardising the inoculum used in this method; however, commercial systems are available for this purpose (Aarestrup 2006).


Of the isolates tested, 2% - 40% showed some level of resistance to the following antimicrobials: erythromycin, penicillin, ampicillin, enrofloxacin, clindamycin and marbofloxacin.
The genes that confer erythromycin resistance in canine staphylococci are almost exclusively ermB genes.
The increase in resistance to the lincosamides, lincomycin, clindamycin and erythromycin may be attributed to the increased use of these drugs in the last decade(Pellerin et al. This method can be used either to provide a quantitative result or to categorise the organism as susceptible or resistant.
The MIC method is preferred for use in surveillance or epidemiological investigations as it allows for calculation of summary statistics. Of the various MIC formats used, the broth microdilution method is most widely used and is available in a variety of commercial systems as either dry or frozen panels. However, these MIC panels can be inflexible and using custom panels could incur additional cost for a laboratory. Furthermore, not all veterinary-specific antimicrobial agents are available on all panels.
Laboratories involved in surveillance programmes or epidemiological studies usually prefer to test a smaller number of antimicrobial agents for an extended number of dilutions. Breakpoint panels allow the laboratory to test a larger number of compounds with dilution ranges spanning the interpretive criteria or breakpoints for each agent (Aarestrup 2006). The bacterial resistance dilemma in human medicine has highlighted the rapid emergence of community-acquired resistance.
Data on antimicrobial resistance and trends in antimicrobial use in companion animal practice are still relatively limited. Advice to veterinarians on antimicrobial use needs to be agreed on and continuously monitored and revised. Owing to the limited data available it is imperative that veterinary clinical microbiologists agree on standards for reporting and monitoring resistance and the relationship with trends in antimicrobial use. Antimicrobial resistance in canine bacterial pathogens is possibly of less concern than in human pathogens as pets are exposed to antimicrobial agents for shorter periods and less frequently. Euthanasia is often a preferred option in chronically ill pets and financial constraints restrict the use of agents such as imipenem (Prescott et al. It is the opinion of the authors that antimicrobial resistance is not yet at a critical stage but should be monitored carefully. More information is needed on antimicrobial resistance and its molecular basis in canine medicine.




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