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We hope the research gathered below is useful in aiding you in writing about the phenomena of teenage pregnancy. Emotional abuse: psychological maltreatment, when a parents or caregivers prevent the child's emotional, psychological and cognitive development.
As per Table.3, young women who had a sister who had had a teenage birth and those who had both a sister and a mother who had had a teenage birth had higher odds of experiencing a pregnancy than young women who had no family history of teenage births.
The article discusses endless statistics from studies where most, if not all, support the idea that having a sister and a mother who had had a teenage birth are each associated with increased risk of pregnancy.
It is very important to understand the effect and consequences that adolescence pregnancy and childbearing has for the family. This article examines the relationship between teenage pregnancy and childhood maltreatment through a study conducted on 249 teenage women. This dissertation discusses the connection between childhood physical and sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy and feelings of person control. This article investigates how childhood abuse and neglect heightens an individual’s risk for promiscuity, prostitution and teenage pregnancy.
The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy was investigated and results found that sexual abuse was not an indicator for teenage pregnancy alone. This study, an integrative research review, aimed to find to a link between childhood sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. This articles indicates how some teenagers wish they would have waited longer for having sex. Television may pose a risk of increasing teen pregnancy by stimulating the young minds with sexual content in television shows. Our society is hypocritical in which the media promotes sex by using sexual themes, sexual comments, and innuendos, while it refuses to promote or educate their audience about contraceptives. This article states how teenagers who become pregnant are less likely to finish high school, 75% of Hispanic female teens who become pregnant will not finish school.
Boys will be boys and girls better be prepared: An analysis of the rare sexual health messages in young adolescents' media.
Quantitative analysis was used to determine the amount of sexual content in television, magazines, music, and movies, which was popular between adolescents in the ages of 12-14.
The following are ways to prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and to reduce their adverse effects as according to Fullerton, Dickson, Eastwood, & Sheldon (1997). Definitions and various sources illustrating what psychosocial factors, particularly, family history of pregnancy, abuse and media have on teenage pregnancy. Childhood sexual abuseis sexual contact between a child and an adult, like child pornography, molestation and rape.
East (1999) did a study consisting of 189 mothers from three types of families; families in which all teenage daughter had never been pregnant, families in which only one teenager was currently pregnant, and families in which only one teenager had delivered a baby within the previous 6 months. It was determined that teenagers who experienced maltreatment in their childhood have a higher risk for pregnancy.
It is suggested that a relationship exists between the development of a female’s control and adolescent pregnancy and childhood abuse. The control group of this experiment consisted of individuals that were not abused, and an experiment group, a group of individuals that were abused as children. It was further investigated whether there were other factors involved in sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. There are have various studies done on this relationship, however there has been conflicting evidence about the relationship between the two.
A study was done to see if there was a link between exposure to sexual content on television and teenage pregnancy. The census bureau showed that teenagers watch nearly 30 hours of television each week and listen to the radio 20 hours of week. And before the age of 18, on average 18% of females would have had 4 or more partners and males would have more than 5. They will experience difficulties in delivering, being in poverty and there is a high chance of the child being abused.
The results showed that the four types of media contained very little information about sexual health content. If a high school was to be examined, it would be no surprise several students are pregnant. When an adolescent bears a child at that young age, it is reasonable to believe that it will have an effect on the adolescent’s family. The study concluded that sisters of adolescent mothers are at an increased risk of teen parenthood mainly because of the exposure to a pregnant sister which normalizes the idea of premature parenthood and make it acceptable for the rest of the family.
There have been other studies that have made linkages between sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy that also found that teenage mothers did not experience only sexual abuse but other forms of maltreatment as well such as emotional abuse, physical abuse and neglect. Teenage pregnancy and its relationship to childhood physical and sexual abuse: Feelings of personal control. The results demonstrated that even though women who were sexually abused as children were much more likely than their non-abused counterparts to become teenage mothers, sexual abuse itself is not a major factor influencing the phenomena. The effect of childhood sexual abuse on adolescent pregnancy: An integrative research review.
The American Academy of Pediatrics indicates that exposure of sex on television leads to early sexual behaviour.


A survey was conducted on teens between the ages of 12-17 and their results were compared to the people between the ages of 15-20 years. However, the teenagers will seek advice about sex only after they have had experienced sexual intercourse. The reason as to why you do not see a lot of teenage parents in high school is because chances are they cannot handle bearing a child and successfully attend school. The studies mentioned are adolescent females whom were studied regularly from early adolescence (age 12-14) to late adolescence (ages 18-20) (East, Reyes, & Horn, 2007). The First Teenage Pregnancy in the Family: Does if Affect Mothers’ Parenting, Attitudes, or Mother-Adolescent Communication?.
East (1999), states that the younger siblings of teenage mothers have an increased rate of early parenthood.
As according to the article, another study by Boyer and Fine reported that 36% of pregnant teenagers had suffered from emotional abuse and 64% and suffered from physical abuse and neglect. This discusses the theories of adolescent development and pregnancy, which focus on the implication that societal factors are the cause of pregnancy, rather than blaming the adolescent. The results illustrated that although childhood physical abuse and neglect was a major contributing factor of prostitution for females, it was not a major contributing factor to teenage pregnancy or teenage promiscuity. Other factors, such as socio-demographic factors play a role as well and should be looked over as well.
The results of this study portrayed that the majority of studies established a link between sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy.
This study conducted a national longitudinal telephone survey of 1792 adolescences , 12-17 years of age. The data collected from the survey was used to assess whether exposure to sexual content on television could be a variable in predicting pregnancy for girls, or responsibility taken in pregnancy for boys. There is not much information on why this is occurring however, media is the suspected cause. On television prime-time programs, it was seen that for boys, sex is considered a form of masculinity. The main focus of the study was to address the risk of teenage pregnancy between teenage girls who have a mother who had a teenage birth, a sister who had a teenage birth, or both, among those who have neither. Teenage pregnancy becomes acceptable in the family and results indicate that compared with mothers of never-pregnant teens, the mothers of teen parents monitor their children less. Furthermore, the article’s results indicated that 62% of the 35 maltreated participants became pregnant, while only 40% of the non-maltreated group became pregnant. It’s a combination of multiple factors like abuse, acceptance of early sexual behaviour, socioeconomic background, or family influences that result in teenage pregnancy. These results do not illustrate similar findings reported in other studies; this may be due to the addition of a control group. However, a few who did not a substantial link, did find a strong link between childhood abuse and sexually risky behaviour.
During the first year they asked questions such as how many hours of television do you watch? The Guttmacher Report found that the teenage pregnancy rate in United States was two to five times higher than other developed countries and one of the main reasons is because of the inappropriate portray of sexuality in the American media.
In magazines sex was described as very pleasurable, with little information about sexual health. About half of teenage mothers drop out of high school, and more than half end up living in poverty or even below poverty line. It is also discussed that a teenager’s pregnancy might just reduce the mother’s achievement expectation for the other children thus making sexual activity at an early age seem normal. The article includes several other statistics and confidence intervals which further support the hypothesis.
However, the higher percentage could be also a result of the combined associated with maltreatment, like a negative self-image, and poor relationships with others causing earlier sexual activity. Widom and Kuhns concludes the teenagers with low economic background have an increased risk of pregnancy rather than those who experienced physical abuse. Childhood physical or emotional abuse did not have a strong correlation with teenage pregnancy and different types of abuse have different effect on adolescent development. In the three years of measuring, it was seen that the teens who were had a higher exposure to sexual content on television had double the chance of becoming pregnant than those who had low exposure. The reason is because American media depicts on average about 14000 sexual references and only about 165 will talk about birth control, self control, abstinence and the consequences of unprotected sex. To expand on that, the purpose of this study is to show how media influences the teens behaviour. Children born to teenage mothers are more likely to have health issues, neglect and be a victim of abuse.
All equations of having both a mother and a sister who had had a teenage birth; a mother with a teenage birth, or neither, were controlled for the teenager’s age, race and ethnicity. Mothers of pregnant teens showed considerable amount of decreased monitoring and communication, and increased acceptance of teenage sexuality. Hence, in order to prevent pregnancy among maltreated teenagers, intervention with their families must occur. The developmental stage during adolescence, where the individual must positively solve the task of identity vs.


According to the research review, there are many risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy, for example, substance abuse or family conflict.
So to prevent unwanted pregnancy, teenagers must have discussions about sexual decisions with the family and a critical view on how to make pro-sexual choices such as protection or abstinence. This has a social cognitive theory aspect because it shows how teenagers think about their experiences and how these thoughts and experiences impact their behavior, so if on television they see casual sex with no consequences then there is a likely chance teenagers will expect the same result. Most children of adolescent parents, or siblings of adolescent parents are normalized with the idea that adolescent parenting is okay and they have an increased risk of teen parenthood. This “creates a prime context for younger siblings to engage in delinquent or sexual behavior” (East, 1999, p. Francisco et al., concludes that sexual abuse may lead to early sexual activity and consequently, teenage pregnancy.
In another form of media, the radio stations play many songs that contain sexual words and connotations that are being heard by a young audience. This article did a good job connecting to why the teenage pregnancy rate is high with media by showing the statistics of what kind of media is portrayed. The media has become a tool for adolescents to learn more about sex, due to parents finding it difficult to talk about sex and schools reverting to teaching about abstinence. There is endless psychological, social, economic factors that influence the rate of teenage pregnancy however we will focus on three main factors; family history, abuse and media. 18), which makes the younger siblings of teen parents vulnerable to follow in their footsteps as teen parents. Abused or neglected adolescents feel as they do not have a control over their environment, therefore may not have control over their lives. This gave a baseline of how much sexual activity they participated, in the first year 17% had intercourse. There was a study done in relation to the use of condoms and exposure to music videos with sexual themes. Teenagers are constantly surrounded by messages of sexually related themes; the promotion of it has caused the higher rate of teenage pregnancy. However, it focused on the sexual content of MTV and Soap-Operas instead of being a little more broad aspect of media.
Their response was that media is where they learned about sex and sexual behaviour, and that media was the cause of them engaging in intercourse. How do previous teenage pregnancies in the family affect the rest of adolescents in the family? So the experimenters made a list of programs for the teenagers to watch with specific type of sexual behaviour, such as flirting, kissing, sex talk, actual sex, the risk of sex and the responsibilities. The results exhibited that the more exposure they had to sexual music videos, the less likely they were to use a condom during sex. Through the help of the media teenagers are thought about how sex is amazing and how good it feels. This article is interpretive since it's based on personal experience and interpretation of the teenagers. What are the chances that previous abuse experiences resulted in psychological damage and if that made an impact on the resulting teenage pregnancy? Prevention of abuse must occur in order to encourage healthy development in female adolescents and thus decreasing the risk for pregnancy at an earlier age. They made a hypothesis that if they were exposed to more of these type of content then their will be a rise of sexual activities.
Additionally, it does a great job at connecting how media influence sexual activity and how the rates of teen pregnancy increase. Last but not least, in what aspects does the media affect the rate of sexual behaviour leading to teenage pregnancy? A year later the survey was taken again, they discovered that there was 12% increase of intercourse amongst the adolescences.
This leads to teenagers being informed about the concept of sex, but no concept on how to protect themselves and avoid pregnancy.
However, it only focuses on the Hispanic teenagers and not any other ethnicity, even though it might be a micro projection of what is happening in the world, there is still going to be difference amongst other cultures. The amount of print and social media we are exposed to has exponentially increased throughout the years.
This study concluded that if there is more sexual content present then the teenagers will exhibit early behaviour leading to teenage pregnancy and STD's.
We hope that the gathering of these articles brings an insight to this psychological phenomenon and clarifies some of the grey areas that society has tried to blur. The article suggested to prevent the effect of media on the children, then the parents can control what the child watches, or have the parents watch it with them, or even have a serious sex talk explaining the consequences of sex. This article did a great job from looking at it from a casual theory perspective, leading to concrete results of what caused the sexual behaviour and what is resulted in.
However, this article did not do a very good job focusing on the teenage pregnancy rate, it just made an assumption that if the sexual rate increases then the teenage pregnancy will increase as well.



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