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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. This ppt covers recently FDA approved treatment of DM and other drugs that are in clinical pipelines or still under consideration.
Once people are diagnosed, the primary goals of type 2 diabetes treatments are to control glucose levels and to reduce other conditions that put patients at risk for major complications. Some people find changes to diet and exercise sufficient treatments for type 2 diabetes, but many others require medication and insulin therapy. For a long time, scientists have sought to take islet cells from people or even from pigs and place them inside another person. The mice were given white blood cells from a rat’s spleen, which is part of the immune system. Generally, the goal is to keep one's blood sugar stable and doctors may set levels specific to each person. While there is no one diabetes diet, patients are encouraged to eat nutritious, low-calorie foods.
Medication regimes are individual, based on each person's medical history, other diseases, and individual factors. They have successfully placed insulin-producing islet cells from one animal species into another without using anti-rejection medicines. Insulin exchanges from human remains have proved difficult, while animal-to-human transplants have been almost impossible.

Researchers at Northwestern University have carried out an islet cell transplant from rats to mice without the use of anti-rejection medicines. They were bathed in chemicals that put the cells into a sleeping condition known as programmed cell death. They entered the spleen and liver of the mice, but soon after, they were destroyed by cells called macrophages. In that process, small pieces of the rat spleen cell ended up on the surface of the macrophages. She also wants to use what is almost an unlimited supply of pig islet cells for transplants into patients with type 1 diabetes. Treatments for type 2 diabetes are life-long – there is no pill to cure this chronic disease. Yet metformin (Glucophage) is often prescribed; this diabetes medication lowers glucose production in the liver.
There are many different types of insulin and doctors may prescribe a mixture based on individual factors. Doctors may recommend regular exercise, limiting alcohol, the cessation of smoking, among others. In the future, the transplant operation could provide an unlimited supply of tissue to treat people whose bodies cannot produce insulin. Xunrong Luo is the head of the Northwestern medical school’s human islet cell transplantation program.

This taught the mouse’s immune-system T cells to accept islet cells, which researchers transplanted seven days later.
Doctors may have people check their blood sugar daily or several times a week; it varies by individual. They may also prescribe certain medications like ACE inhibitors and diuretics to lower blood pressure, statins and fibrates to lower cholesterol, or aspirin and clopidogrel to control clotting.
American scientists are turning their attention to all the information it has gathered over the past four years.
In most patients, the immune system attacks and destroys the islet cells that produce insulin. Some people can manage their diabetes with changes to diet and exercise, while others require medication.
If patients are conscientious, they can still enjoy active, healthy lives, even with the disease.
Always consult a doctor before beginning an exercise regime, but for most people, 30 minutes of aerobic exercise combined with strength training, most days of the week, is ideal.

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