Modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus,january calendar uk,diabetes and eye treatment reviews - How to DIY


Changes in human behavior and lifestyle associated with globalization have resulted in a dramatic increase in the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes globally. If anyone had predicted 30 years ago that diabetes mellitus would be one of the biggest public health problems facing the human race in 2010, they would not have been taken seriously.
In an earlier review article on the global epidemiology of diabetes published in Medicographia in 1987,5 I pointed out that the mounting problems of chronic noncommunicable disease, and in particular diabetes, raised the important challenge of noncommunicable disease prevention, a 21st-century parallel to the prevention of infectious disease at the turn of the 19th century.
The most recent global predictions by the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute for the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) suggest that currently there are 285 million people with diabetes worldwide.6 This is set to escalate to 438 million by 2030, a 54% increase.
Table I illustrates the dramatic rises in diabetes prevalence in several Asian nations compared to the prevalence in the USA.
We, and others, have reviewed the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes in great detail elsewhere.9,10 Rather than provide a repeat of these earlier papers, this review focuses on more recent studies which underline the dramatic escalation in the number of cases of diabetes in both developed and developing nations. A similar large secular increase in diabetes has occurred in India and, indeed, other Asian nations.6,11,14 India once led the world with the largest number of diabetic subjects.
There is now a major emerging global phenomenon that reveals a new perspective of the global diabetes epidemic. The risk determinants for type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents are similar to those seen in adults, with obesity almost always being present.29 In-utero exposure to hyperglycemia now appears to be an additional risk factor to having a family history of diabetes,30 and suggests that better management of diabetes in pregnancy and prevention of gestational diabetes may reduce the risk of diabetes developing in the offspring. Type 2 diabetes is common and serious, but often asymptomatic in the early stages, which sometimes last up to five years or more. Screening programs should begin with simple tools that are effective in identifying those at highest risk, but which can be used by the general public.33 Those found to be at high risk should undergo further screening and diagnostic blood glucose testing to accurately characterize their glucose tolerance status, and these people should commence a lifestyle intervention program (relevant whether they have diabetes or are at risk of it in the future). The authors used person-specific data from a representative sample of the US population to create a simulated population of 325 000 people aged 30 years without diabetes. When looking for an opportunity to prevent type 2 diabetes, risk factors should be viewed in terms of being either modifiable, eg, sedentary behavior, or nonmodifiable, eg, genetic, age, or gender (Table III). An important new area becoming the focus of more attention is the intrauterine environment. Diabetes is a chronic disease that through its complications can seriously impact the quality of life of individuals and their families through premature illness and death.
Type 2 diabetes mostly starts in middle or old age when your body restricts to respond to insulin. Uncontrollable type-2 diabetes risk factors are factors that are not modifiable with your efforts. Controllable type-2 diabetes risk factors are factors that are modifiable with your consistent effort. Ethnic – Asian, particularly Indian (world's largest diabetes population), Middle East, Oceania and the Caribbean, African American, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans, all have high rates of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes risk factors, which are changeable with your consistent effort, are controllable diabetes risk factors. If you are having controllable diabetes risk factors, you can avoid having diabetes by lifestyle modification with your consistent effort. Being overweight is a risk factor for diabetes; however, other risk factor combination also plays a role. A study has found people who are consistently under mental or psychological stress are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes in the future. A large UK survey found that people with higher levels of psychological distress were 33 percent more likely to develop the metabolic condition compared to those with low distress levels. Helping patients select an appropriate blood pressure monitor and ensuring that they are comfortable using it are crucial for heart health.
One of the most valuable tools that an individual with hypertension can employ to control his or her blood pressure (BP) is a reliable at-home BP monitor. Pharmacists are likely to encounter patients seeking guidance regarding the selection of BP monitors. Certain risk factors, which can be categorized as modifiable or nonmodifiable, may augment an individual’s risk for developing hypertension. Aneroid and digital monitors are commonly used for at-home BP monitoring.2,10 Factors to consider when selecting a monitor may include cost, cuff size, ease of use, patient preference, memory features, large digital display, reliability, and accuracy.
Some monitors have self-inflating and -deflating cuffs, but manual BP monitors are still available.
Patients electing to use aneroid meters should be informed that when the cuff is completely deflated and lying on a table, the needle of the gauge should rest in the box.
Digital monitors are typically the most popular type of BP monitor because they are easy to use. When assisting patients in the selection of BP monitors, pharmacists should always stress the importance of regularly monitoring BP to ensure that prescribed therapy is effective or to ascertain whether therapy changes are warranted. Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, treatments and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Subscribe to Heart Insight magazine and monthly e-newsletterOur digital magazine delivers helpful articles and the latest news on keeping your heart healthy. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 4 What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure?
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Having type 2 diabetes greatly increases your risk of having a heart attack or stroke as well as other health complications.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition in which either insulin levels become too low than necessary level to maintain a normal blood sugar level or body cells cannot respond to insulin and do not absorb glucose. A person can have higher chances of becoming type 2 diabetic, if any or more of the close family members have it.
Apart from the genetic factors, some modifiable risk factors like physical inactivity and obesity are also strongly associated risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Until recently, there was a strong emphasis on genetic susceptibility, and on environmental and behavioral factors such as a sedentary lifestyle, overly rich nutrition, and obesity (particularly central adiposity).


Yet, in 1977, when we published the prevalence of diabetes in the Pacific island nation of Nauru,1 the writing was on the wall. Prevention of diabetes is a major challenge that faces nearly every nation and it is now being recognized by the international community. Figure 1 shows these data from the 2009 IDF Diabetes Atlas6 with the expected increases in the next 20 years to 2030 by geographic region and the global total. Its multiethnic population of some 1.3 million inhabitants predominantly comprises Asian Indians, Creoles (mainly African), and Chinese.
Consequently, the results from this small island population have suggested that modernization could have a very serious impact on diabetes rates in both India and China, in terms of the impact on both health as well as on the national economy.8 Indeed, this has turned out to be the case.
It had earned the dubious distinction of being the world “capital” for diabetes, a title that now more appropriately belongs to China! Interventions are available that reduce morbidity and mortality, as well as the risk of developing diabetes,31,32 a compelling argument for screening the population for those at highest risk. Nevertheless, it should be recognized that absolute evidence for the benefit of screening is not yet available.
A very recent study from the USA34 used a mathematical model (the Archimedes model) to estimate the cost-effectiveness of several screening strategies. They found that compared with no screening, all simulated screening strategies reduced the incidence of myocardial infarction (3-9 events prevented per 1000 people screened) and diabetes-related microvascular complications (3-9 events prevented per 1000 people).
Use of a preliminary screening tool such as FINDRISK (FINnish Diabetes RISK score)35 or AUSDRISK (AUStralian type 2 Diabetes RISK assessment tool)36 (Table II, page 19). All those identified as being at high risk should enter a lifestyle intervention program and have blood glucose testing. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is the initial blood glucose screening test for those at high risk, according to the preliminary screening tool. Because diabetes now affects much of the workforce, it has a major effect on both individual health and national productivity. Wenying Y, Juming L, Jianping W, et al; China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study Group.
Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Kapur A, et al; Diabetes Epidemiology Study Group in India (DESI).
Alberti KGMM, Zimmet P, Shaw J, Bloomgarden Z, Kaufman F, Silink M; Consensus Workshop Group. Type 2 diabetes risk factors are classifying into two, they are uncontrollable type-2 diabetes risk factors and controllable type-2 diabetes risk factors. Moreover, be performed more often if have high diabetes risk factors either controllable or uncontrollable. Most overweight individuals never develop diabetes type 2; furthermore, many with type 2 diabetes are at their normal weight. Pharmacists can assist patients in selecting a monitor that best suits individual needs and can ensure that patients are properly educated and comfortable using the device. Patients with a history of hypertension or those at risk for hypertension should be encouraged to discuss their risk factors and BP levels with their primary health care provider.
Many monitors can store several readings, have large display screens for easy reading, allow printing of results, and can detect irregular heartbeats as well as pressure rating. During counseling, patients should also be reminded about the serious consequences associated with uncontrolled BP and the critical nature of adhering to their therapy, possibly including weight loss, reduced salt intake, smoking cessation, and regular exercising, when warranted.
Watch an animation of how a blood pressure test works.A single high reading does not necessarily mean that you have high blood pressure.
High blood pressure can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure, vision loss, kidney disease and more. The reason is that genetic susceptibility of an individual is strongly correlated with the condition because the genes responsible for protecting or predisposing a person to diabetes are carried genetically from the family members. When a person adapts a sedentary lifestyle or doesn’t engage in regular physical activity, or gains more weight with a high body mass index (BMI), the person may eventually develop insulin resistance.
More recently, focus has shifted to the potential contribution of the maternal environment and the impact of in-utero influences, ie, the role of epigenetics.
This United Nations resolution recognized that tackling diabetes is likely to be one of the most important challenges for the global public health community in the 21st century.
Many of these cases of diabetes will remain undiagnosed, and indeed untreated, particularly in developing nations (Figure 1).
This distribution of ethnic groups in Mauritius reflects approximately two-thirds of the world population,4 providing a microcosm of the global picture. This, evidence that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes doubled in Singaporean Chinese between 1984 and 1992,16 and the high prevalence of diabetes in Taiwan17 have provided alarming indicators of the size of a potential future epidemic in the People’s Republic of China. In an urban national study reported in 2001, the age standardized prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 12.1%.
Type 2 diabetes has already been reported in children from Japan and other Asian nations, the USA, the Pacific Islands, Hong Kong, Australia, and the United Kingdom.4 In Japan, type 2 diabetes is already more common in children than type 1 diabetes. They concluded that in the USA population, screening for type 2 diabetes is cost effective when started between the ages of 30 years and 45 years, with screening repeated every 3-5 years. The socioeconomic consequences of diabetes are likely to significantly impact the economies of many developing nations in addition to their devastating impact on the economies of developed nations, such as the USA, UK, and Australia. High prevalence of NIDDM and impaired glucose tolerance in Indian, Creole, and Chinese Mauritians. High incidence of type 2 diabetes and increasing conversion rates from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in Mauritius. The rising prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. High prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in Pehghu Islets, Taiwan: evidence of a rapidly emerging epidemic?


Epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation in a Chinese adult population: the Shanghai Diabetes Studies, a cross-sectional 3-year follow-up study in Shanghai urban communities.
Risk factors associated with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes in the adult Chinese population in Qingdao, China. High prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in India: National Urban Diabetes Survey. High prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors associated with urbanization in India.
Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and its risk factors in a population-based study of Qatar. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications in a population-based sample in Al Ain, UAE.
Birth weight, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance in Pima Indian children and young adults. Increased incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus among Japanese school children correlates with an increased intake of animal protein and fat. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Age at initiation and frequency of screening to detect type 2 diabetes: a cost-effectiveness analysis. AUSDRISK: an Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool based on demographic, lifestyle and simple anthropometric measures. If parents and grandparents have diabetes, then you are likely to develop diabetes at an early age, may be at your 20 to 25 years.
In addition, patients should be encouraged to discuss any concerns about their BP with their primary health care provider. Your blood pressure rises with each heartbeat and falls when your heart relaxes between beats. However, many people with type 2 diabetes are not aware they have the disease and may already have developed various health complications associated with it.Non-Modifiable Risk Factors for Type 2 DiabetesThere are a number of risk factors that increase a person's risk for developing prediabetes and, ultimately, type 2 diabetes. Multiple factors can influence the development of type 2 diabetes – especially genetic and environmental.
This may be an important factor in the very high prevalences of type 2 diabetes now being seen in nations such as India and China, two countries that numerically bear the main brunt of the epidemic. In age- and sex-adjusted models, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was a predictor of diabetes in the whole population, in those with normoglycemia and in those with IGT or IFG at baseline. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 80 percent of cases of diabetes in childhood in that country.28 This is certainly an emerging public health problem of significant proportions as the fall in the age of onset of type 2 diabetes is an important factor influencing the future burden of the disease. With diabetes being one of the greatest threats to public health in the 21st century, the rationale for strengthening efforts to prevent and control this menacing chronic disease is surely impelling. Some of these characteristics are beyond a person's control, such as:Family historyIf you have a blood relative with diabetes, your risk for developing it is significantly increased. Exact reasons for type 2 diabetes development are less understood, but there has been evidence showing some common factors that are likely to increase risk for type 2 diabetes. The term refers to a state where the body becomes less responsive to insulin, especially, muscle, liver and fat tissues.
Type 2 diabetes is appearing increasingly in children and adolescents, and the frequency of diagnosis of pediatric type 2 diabetes is outstripping that of type 1 diabetes in some countries already. The incidence of diabetes was 10-20 times greater in those with IGT or IFG than in those with normoglycemia at baseline. It was higher, at 25%, in citizens from the United Arab Emirates than in expatriates (with a prevalence of 13%-19%, depending on their original country of origin). If the reading is still at or above that level, you should seek immediate emergency medical treatment for a hypertensive crisis.
The cells gradually lose their ability to absorb glucose, thus retaining more sugar in blood itself. The prevention of diabetes and control of its micro- and macrovascular complications will require a major integrated approach directed at societal and individual behavioral change if we are to see significant reduction in the huge premature morbidity and mortality it causes. The AUSDIAB data reflect, in general, the status of diabetes in developed nations with a predominantly white population.
The authors stated that prompt action would be needed in order to avert a major public health crisis.
To maintain a normal sugar level, compensating the sugar, pancreas produces high amounts of insulin.
What is also noteworthy is the more pronounced earlier age of onset of type 2 diabetes in the AUSDIAB cohort. The results indicate that diabetes has become a major public health problem in China and that strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes are needed. But due to many factors, production of insulin decreases, leading to the conditions pre-diabetes and diabetes. This is likely to be a significant understatement of the profound impact this will have on their health system, especially as modernization and industrialization gather pace.
Losing five to seven percent of your body weight can cut your risk of developing prediabetes in half, and your risk decreases even more as you lose more weight.



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