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Objective: To determine number and type of medication administration errors made by nursing students, and to explore the rate of reportings, emotions after the errors and the causes of errors. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the two schools of nursing, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey, in February 2009, and comprised students having worked in hospital settings for a minimum of one semester and who had been involved in administering medications.
Conclusions: The error rate among nursing students was high whereas reporting of errors was low. Keywords: Contributing factors, Errors, Medication errors, Nursing education, Nursing students. It is observed that number of errors and distribution of errors might vary in different settings.
Besides, 10-18% of all reported hospital injuries have been attributed to medication errors. Another study reported change in healthcare education as necessary for moving toward a patient safety culture,9 and another suggested that a change in medical curriculum would promote culture of safety among undergraduate medical students.10 There is limited discussion in Turkey related to the promotion of patient safety culture during the training phase of healthcare professionals. The current study was planned to determine the number and type of medication errors committed by nursing students, and to explore the rate of reportings, emotions of the students after errors and the causes of errors. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Antalya School of Nursing and Akseki School of Nursing in Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey, during the 2008-09 academic year. All students who had worked in hospital settings for a minimum of one semester and had been involved in administering medications were included. The questionnaire was similar to those used in other countries in order to facilitate global comparisons.
The study was approved by the ethical committee of the university, and necessary written approval was obtained from the directors of the two schools. The total errors reported in the questionnaire were 402, and 155 (38,6%) of them were detected and corrected by academic nurses. The study is one of the limited number of researches related to patient-safety approach to practice by nursing students in Turkey, and identifies the frequency of medication administration errors in this group as well as the causes of errors, emotions of students after errors and error reportings. Our study shows that errors of students that caused harm to patients were found to be 1.9% of all errors. It is determined that errors causing harm to 5 of 8 patients were done by students practising under the supervision of a registered nurse. The second important finding in this category is that emotions of students after an error might vary from person to person. Similar to findings of our study, common causes of errors are reported as performance deficit, knowledge deficit and communication deficit. Our study showed that documentation deficit is one of the leading causes of medication errors. Nursing students indicated that more than half of the factors that contributed to medication errors was workload increase (55.2%).
Our study shows that stress, fatigue and overload of patient circulation were among the factors that contributed to medication errors. However, the strength of the study was its large sample size which gave a good representation of the target group. The findings of the current study suggest that undergraduate nursing students are at risk of making errors when administering medications to patients in a clinical setting. Based on the findings, the study underlines the need of a planned and coordinated training regimen of nurses in order to avoid errors during medication administration. This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics. ABCD sponsors treatment for those in need regardless of gender, race or creed, helping them to reach their full potential, to live life with dignity and to take their rightful place in their community.


ABCD works through local Palestinian partners, the Bethlehem Arab Society for Rehabilitation (BASR) based in Beit Jala, The Sheepfold in Beit Sahour and two UNWRA Refugee Camps in Jalazone and Nour Shams.
Funding is constantly needed for new projects and to update and refurbish existing facilities. Overall, 402 medication administration errors had been reported of which 155 (38.6%) were detected and corrected by academic nurses.
It has been reported that experts believe at least one medication error occurs per hospital patient every day.3 The consequences for the patient might also vary according to the nature of error.
The sample size was not calculated as the target was to reach all students in the two schools. We modified the questionnaire after pilot-testing with five students, and used the final version between February 20 and 26, 2009.
Error rates between students from different semesters were compared using Pearson chi-square statistics. There was no statistically significant difference in error rates (p=0.797) among students from different semesters. No statistically significant difference was found in error rates between students from different semesters. Fortunately, the vast majority of medication errors (98.1%) did not result in patient harm. More than half of the nursing students (56.3%) reported their errors to the registered nurse, whereas reports to academic nurse was only 8%. Most of the feelings when students commit an error are found to be fear, anxiety, guilt and sadness.
Lack of knowledge and lack of communication are also suggested as most common causes of errors in various studies.18,21,22,25 Many medication errors arise from miscommunication among health professionals.
Lack of a good recording system and careful follow-ups might cause such errors and correction of this deficiency might prevent a huge amount of errors in practice. The survey was conducted by an academic nurse who was not responsible for the students' behaviour. Adequate supervision is an essential component for safe medication administration Not only this is important for quality of learning experiences of students, but it has significant implications for the delivery of safe and effective healthcare. This study received external funding from Akdeniz University Scientific Research Projects Management Unit.
Gundogmus UN, Ozkara E, Mete S, Nursing and Midwifery Malpractice in Turkey Based on the Higher Health Council Records. Errors of nursing students that caused harm to patients were reported as 3% by one study.11 In our study one-third of errors were detected and corrected by academic nurses in the process of drug preparation. This situation may lead to very serious mistakes and may put both the student and registered nurse in a difficult legal responsibility.
In the institution where this study is held, the evaluation of nursing students is made by academic nurses.
These findings are similar to those of other studies.3,19 Unwanted feelings may cause an increase in the errors of nurses and decrease their career satisfaction. However, the students were assured of confidentiality of their answers and they would have gained no advantage or disadvantage by giving untrue answers. Further research to investigate the extent to which these findings are indicative of a more widespread problem is recommended. Agiz Yolu ile Ilac Verilmesine Iliskin Hemsirelerin Bilgi ve Uygulamalari (Nurses information and application related to the administration of oral medication).
Shifting supervision: implications for safe administration of medication by nursing students.


The Canadian Adverse Events Study: the incidence of adverse events among hospital patients in Canada. Characteristics of Medication Errors Made by Students during the Administration Phase: A Descriptive Study. The ethics and practical importance of defining, distinguishing and disclosing nursing errors: a discussion paper. Enhancing patient safety: The importance of direct supervision for avoiding medication errors and near misses by undergraduate nursing students. Supervising medication administration by undergraduate nursing students: influencing factors.
Nursing Students Administering Medication: Appreciating and Seeking Appropriate Supervision.
Medication errors: experience of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) MEDMARX reporting system.
Reporting Medical Errors to Improve Patient Safety A Survey of Physicians in Teaching Hospitals. Medication errors in intravenous drug preparation and administration: a multicentre audit in the UK, Germany and France.
Literature review of the individual and systems factors that contribute to medication errors in nursing practice. Factors predicative of intravenous fluid administration errors in Australian surgical care wards. The attitudes and beliefs of healthcare professionals on the causes and reporting of medication errors in a UK Intensive care unit.
Voluntary electronic reporting of medical errors and adverse events an analysis of 92,547 reports from 26 acute care hospitals.
Medication error rates in semesters were calculated by Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Second, the survey was basically voluntary self-reports that have several disadvantages,25 the biggest of them being serious under-reporting.
In addition, nurse academics and educators need to consider the extent to which high-quality supervision is provided in their programmes and to introduce strategies to ensure the required standards are met. Another reason for low reporting might be the fact that the errors did not cause a permanent disability or death, or patients and their relatives did not complain about it. Third, there was no database where one could have contact details of all nursing students in Turkey.
Medication errors declared by students were grouped by MEDMARX category which is an error reporting system administered by US Pharmacopeia Hospitals. So a selection of participants that would reflect the practice all over the country could not be taken. Health systems can subscribe annually to MEDMARX and voluntarily report and track adverse drug reactions and medication errors. A multi-centre study has not been possible due to limited time, funding and human resources. Group 2011 Corporate Responsibility Report 4 Who We Serve Canadian Personal and Commercial Banking Canada Trust provides banking services to more than Featuring Canada Trust online banking. Browse nearby Restaurants, Nightlife, English (United States) Espa?ol (Argentina) Espa?ol (Chile) Espa?ol CarQuest - Grand, Maintains store retail display area, including pricing, fronting shelves, and building displays.



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