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National Diabetes Week (July 10-16) is about tackling Australia’s fastest growing chronic disease type 2 diabetes.
Around 1.7 million Australians currently live with diabetes and a further 275 Australians develop diabetes every day.
It is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors and also has strong genetic and family related risk factors. Usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups including children, adolescents and young adults. Is managed with a combination of regular physical activity, healthy eating and weight reduction.
As this over production of insulin occurs over a very long period of time, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin wear themselves out, so that by the time someone is told that they have type 2 diabetes, they have lost 50 ? 70% of those cells that produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes can often initially be managed with healthy eating and regular physical activity.
Diabetes runs in the family, if you have a family member with diabetes, you have a genetic disposition to have diabetes. While there is no single cause of type 2 diabetes, there are well-established risk factors. In some cases, by the time type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the complications of diabetes may already be present.
While there is currently no cure for type 2 diabetes, the condition can be managed through lifestyle modifications and medication. When a patient chooses a diabetes medication, it is important to look at the side effects of the drugs to find the safest option.
The drug metformin, also known by its name brands of Glucophage and Glumetza, is one option to help regulate blood glucose levels. Acarbose—a drug that falls under the category of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor—prevents high blood sugar by blocking the body from breaking down starches.
Another option for managing one’s diabetes through medication is the drug glipizide, which goes by the brand name Glucotrol. Please note the kidneysteps information is for educational purposes only, is not a rendering of medical advice, and is not intended as a substitute for professional care from your own health care provider. Type 2 diabetes: What is it?Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to convert sugar into energy. To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements. Medwatch safety alerts for human medical products, Your fda gateway for finding clinically important safety information and reporting serious problems with human medical products.. Healthcare business news, research, data and events from, Healthcare hiring boom will bypass hospitals by melanie evans and rachel landen the healthcare sector will be hiring at a. Australian organic – organic and bio-dynamic, When choosing certified organic you’re making healthy, environmental and ethical choices.. Hgb a1c conversion to blood sugars, The hgb a1c blood test (or glycated hemoglobin) done in people with diabetes does not equal the values you see on your home blood glucose monitor.. Measuring your hemoglobin a1c for average blood sugar, Your average blood sugar can be measured by a hemoglobin a1c test. A1c chart & calculator using the dcct formula, A1c chart has a1c to bs conversion using dcct formula. All about the hemoglobin a1c test – medical information, All about the hemoglobin a1c test . Hemoglobin a1c the key to long term health in diabetes, Age-management medicine ¦ for a lifetime of health st. Diabetes affects 7 per cent of the population - over 35,000 in East and North Hertfordshire alone and we are finding that self-care is now becoming exceptionally important for wellbeing and avoiding complications in the condition.
The groups are very relaxed and informal and cover different topics and provide support as, and when, needed. If you’re interested in volunteering or joining a group, please fill out the form which you can download here and return it to the Diabetes UK coordinator for this area. In a study of over 25,000 adults with detailed information about their eating habits, people with a greater diversity of foods in their diet showed a 30% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes over a ten-year period. Although dietary guidelines have for a long time recommended eating a variety of foods, scientists are not sure exactly what it is about eating a varied diet that might promote health. For example, there are no studies on whether a diet containing foods from all five food groups reduces a person’s risk of type 2 diabetes. To do this, we used data collected from middle and older-aged British adults who reported their lifestyles, including their eating habits, when they entered the study and were followed for about ten years. Most epidemiological studies don’t have information about consumer food costs, but our study did because we linked the dietary data to retail food prices. So, while diverse diets may help prevent chronic diseases, health policymakers will need to acknowledge that the adoption of more varied diets, particularly those containing the most variety of vegetables and fruits, may be substantially more costly and may worsen existing socioeconomic inequalities in diet. Financial incentives can improve food choices and some local authorities are experimenting with taxes on unhealthy foods, including on sugar-sweetened beverages. Tweaking food prices may just be fiddling around the edges if governments don’t also deal with systemic issues such as agricultural policies that are out-of-sync with the dietary priorities most governments advocate. The government, the private sector and civil society need to bring policy coherence across the food system, including agriculture, business and health. During this period of time insulin resistance starts, this is where the insulin is increasingly ineffective at managing the blood glucose levels.
This means that type 2 diabetes is a combination of ineffective insulin and not enough insulin. However, over time most people with type 2 diabetes will also need tablets and many will also need insulin.
You inherit a predisposition to the condition and then something in your environment triggers it. Type 2 diabetes is progressive and needs to be managed effectively to prevent complications.

Issues with the cardiovascular system are just one type of problem that occurs in patients who do not control their diabetes. Although insulin was never considered to treat type 2 diabetes in the past, it is now a safe treatment option that is sometimes given in correlation with other medications, in particular oral diabetes medications. It may cause a variety of side effects, both severe and mild, but it does not have the severe side effects of some diabetes medications.
This drug is a safe option that classifies as a sulfonylurea, meaning that it works by stimulating cells within the pancreas to produce more insulin. This allows sugar levels to build up in the blood, which can lead to heart disease, blindness and other serious complications. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
Unfortunately, the diets with more variety were 18% more expensive than the less-varied ones.
Type 2 diabetes affects around 415m adults globally; a figure that is expected to rise to 643m by 2040, mostly in low- and middle-income countries.
There has been research on how the variety of foods relate to the nutritional quality of a person’s diet, but little is known about whether the diversity of the diet is related to risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes.
We also don’t know whether the variety of foods within each of the five food groups is important for health. For example, one person’s diet might consist mainly of meat and grains while another person’s might contain dairy, vegetables and fruit. We found that people who routinely ate from all five food groups had a 30% lower risk of type 2 diabetes than people who only ate three food groups or fewer. The price gap between more and less healthy foods is growing in the UK and higher food costs may prevent people from eating a healthier diet, particularly those on low incomes. We found that diets containing all five food groups were on average 18% more costly than diets containing three food groups or fewer.
And our neighbourhood environments, supermarket shelves and portion sizes may be promoting overconsumption of primarily processed, energy-dense foods.
Easy, affordable access to a varied diet will benefit everyone’s health now and in the future. As a result of this insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater and greater amounts of insulin, to try and achieve some degree of management of the blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition and the progression is with the ongoing destruction of the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.
It is important to note that this is just the natural progression of the condition, and taking tablets or insulin as soon as they are required can result in fewer complications in the long-term. In many cases of diabetes, a patient must take diabetes medication to further assist with keeping hyperglycemia under control. These issues include atherosclerosis or narrowing of the arteries, hypertension, stroke, heart attack and coronary artery disease (CAD). Although drinking orange juice is a method to counteract low blood glucose levels, it will not work when the patient has hypoglycemia due to this drug. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. The theory goes that consuming a variety of foods ensures that a person receives all the necessary vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals that are needed for the body to function and stay healthy. Also, people eating the widest variety of fruits and vegetables and dairy products also greatly reduced their risk of diabetes compared with people who had a less varied diet. And diets with more variety within each of the five food groups were more costly than diets that contained less variety within each food group. It is imperative that patients discuss their options with their physician to find the correct drug or combination of drugs to deal with the condition. Uncontrolled diabetes is also associated with nerve damage, and in severe cases may cause a complete loss of feeling in the affected limb or limbs. Diabetes UK estimates that over 600,000 people with type 2 diabetes don't know they have it. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. We were interested in analysing whether the recommendation to consume a wide range of different foods within each food group would have an impact on the risk of developing diabetes.
These results could not be explained by other potential risk factors, such as body weight, occupation, income and education, as we took these factors into account in our analysis.
Another complication is kidney damage, which can eventually turn into kidney failure or end-stage renal disease, requiring a kidney transplant or dialysis.
Filing an Actos lawsuit is becoming a common theme for the patients severely affected by this drug. According to the American Diabetes Association, diarrhea and gas may occur from taking this drug. Diabetes may not have symptomsIn most cases type 2 diabetes doesn't cause any symptoms, or the symptoms are mild, which is why many people have it for years without knowing it, and why it's important to get tested. Warning sign: ThirstOne of the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be an increase in thirst. This is often accompanied by additional problems, including dry mouth, increased appetite, frequent urination – sometimes as often as every hour -- and unusual weight loss or gain.
Warning sign: Blurred visionAs blood sugar levels become more abnormal, additional symptoms may include headaches, blurred vision and fatigue. Warning sign: InfectionsIn most cases, type 2 diabetes is not discovered until it takes a noticeable toll on health.
Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerve endings in the genitals, leading to a loss of feeling and making orgasm difficult. Risk factors you can controlYour habits and lifestyle can affect your odds of developing type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for womenHaving gestational diabetes when you're pregnant puts you seven times at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on.

Having a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also cause insulin resistance that can lead to diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes in childrenAlthough older people have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes, the condition is affecting more young people. Diabetes UK says around 35,000 children and young people in the UK have diabetes, with around 700 of these having type 2 diabetes.
The leading risk factor for children is being overweight, often connected with an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Once children are overweight, their chances of developing type 2 diabetes more than doubles. Often a urine test is carried out first, and if it contains glucose, or a person is at risk of diabetes, one or more blood tests to check levels of glucose in the blood are performed. How does insulin work?In healthy people, after a meal, food is broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body. Cells use the hormone insulin, made in the pancreas, to help them process blood glucose into energy. People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in the muscles, liver and fat cannot use insulin properly, called insulin resistance.
Type 2 Diabetes: Metabolism mishapsIn type 2 diabetes, the cells cannot absorb glucose properly. If you've developed a condition called insulin resistance, the body makes insulin, but the muscle, liver and fat cells cannot use insulin, or do not respond to the insulin, properly. With long-standing, uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, the pancreas will reduce the amount of insulin it produces.
Managing diabetes: DietFortunately, people with type 2 diabetes can significantly reduce the risk of damage to their bodies, including damage to the heart, kidneys, eyes and feet.
People with type 2 diabetes should carefully monitor carbohydrate consumption, as well as total fat and protein intake and reduce calories.
Managing diabetes: ExerciseModerate exercise, such as strength training or walking, improves the body's use of insulin and can lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Being active also helps reduce body fat, lower blood pressure and protect against heart disease.
Try to do at least 150 minutes of exercise a week, with some exercise on most days of the week. It can also increase glucose levels in your blood as part of your "fight or flight" response.
Instead of letting stress take its toll, try relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation or just talking to a friend or relative. Managing diabetes: MedicationWhen people with type 2 diabetes are unable to control blood sugar sufficiently with diet and exercise, medication can help. There are many types of diabetes medicines available and they are often used in combination.
Some work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin, while others improve the effectiveness of insulin, or reduce the liver's production of glucose, or block the digestion of starches. Managing diabetes: InsulinMany people with type 2 diabetes eventually develop 'beta-cell failure'. This means the cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin in response to high blood sugar levels. In this case, insulin therapy – injections or an insulin pump – must become part of the daily routine. Whereas insulin pulls glucose into the cells, these medications cause the body to release insulin to control blood sugar levels.
Glucose testingTesting your blood glucose level will let you know how controlled your blood sugars are and if you need to take action to change your treatment plan. How often and when you test will be based on how controlled your diabetes is, the type of therapy used to control your diabetes and whether you are experiencing symptoms of fluctuating sugars.
Your diabetes team will suggest how often you should use a glucose meter to check your blood sugar.
Common testing times are first thing in the morning, before and after meals and exercise and before bedtime. Long-term damage: ArteriesOver time, untreated type 2 diabetes can damage many of the body's systems. People with diabetes are likely to develop plaque in their arteries, which reduces blood flow and increases the risk of clots. People with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke. Long-term damage: KidneysThe longer you have untreated diabetes, the greater the risk of developing kidney disease or kidney failure. Long-term damage: EyesHigh blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of the eye. This is known as diabetic retinopathy and it can cause progressive, irreversible vision loss. People with diabetes are up to 20 times more likely to go blind than those without diabetes. Long-Term Damage: Nerve PainOver time, uncontrolled diabetes and elevated blood sugars create a very real risk of nerve damage.
Symptoms can include tingling, numbness, pain and a pins and needles sensation -- often in the fingers, hands, toes or feet. Preventing type 2 diabetesOne of the most astonishing things about type 2 diabetes is that such a life-altering condition is often preventable.

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