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Knowing what normal A1C levels for diabetics is a very important way to determine if you should be worry about your blood sugar test result. For those of you who are familiar with diabetes and the other factors related to diabetes, A1C level is the measurement of how good your body process blood sugar, or glucose, in your system, using its own insulin. As explained above, normal A1C levels for a diabetics differ from country to country, and also differ from people to people.
Recent Commentspatrice thompson on Free Diabetic Supplies – How to Get Them?munnaamalai on Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes ChartJessica I. This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and DKBMed.
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If you want to know the number for normal A1C levels for diabetics, you have come to the right place.
This glycated hemoglobin will exist for around 120 days, that is why usually A1C test is good for 3 months.
Seley is an active speaker and author committed to both patient and professional diabetes education and the advancement of diabetes technology as a tool to assist people living with diabetes and the clinicians that care for them. Dungan currently serves as the Associate director of Clinical Services for the OSU Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism and Director of the Endocrine clinical trials unit.
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The model specifying four trajectory groups failed to converge and the model postulating two underlying trajectory groups had a higher BIC value indicating a poorer fit. If there is a lack of insulin, or your body does not react well to insulin in such a way that its effectiveness in lowering the blood sugar is compromised, then your blood sugar level will remain high. So we have to take all these information with a grain of salt simply because these numbers are only indication. However, whatever your A1C level is, you must know how it works in order for you to understand what you need to do to handle it properly. After that your body will start to regenerate the red blood cells and the new blood cells will have a different A1C measurement since it will have a different level of glycated hemoglobin in it.
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The app was demonstrated and patients’ weekly use of the app was monitored over 8 weeks. It has to be reviewed together with your lifestyle and habits and consulted with your doctor and dietician. So for instance if you have a 6.0 A1C test result, this test result will be good for about 3 months. Weekly use was defined as any record in terms of food entry or exercise workout entry in that week. The reason is because some people who also have problems with their cholesterol and blood pressure, will be at risk for other problems when their A1C test shows a high number.
That is why it is quite common for doctors to suggest A1C test to be done at least twice a year, and more frequently if deemed necessary. Dungan has published a variety of formats on clinical therapeutics of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires patient self-management as well as continual medical care by health care providers. In 2012, at 74%, Singapore was the world’s leading country in smartphone penetration and by 2013, smartphone penetration had increased to 78% [6].


Although the app is intended for use by anyone whether they have diabetes or not, a healthy diet, exercise, and weight loss or healthy weight maintenance are still the mainstay of first-line therapies for managing diabetes [8]. However, research attempting to understand usage patterns of mobile phone-based interventions has been challenging. A few studies have attempted to assess usage patterns, but in a simplistic manner that provided minimal useful information—descriptions, averages, or tabulation of usage data [9,11].
LCGM has been used for some time in criminological and behavioral research, and only more recently in medicine and public health research studies of body mass trajectories in children and adults [14,15].
To our knowledge, LCGM has not been used to analyze app usage patterns in a patient population. It is a typical polyclinic, which managed almost 5000 patients with type 2 diabetes in 2013. Patients attending the diabetes counselling and screening services for eye and foot complications at the polyclinic were approached.
Patients who declined participation, did not feel comfortable using apps, or could not understand English were not recruited (Figure 1). Recruited participants were introduced to the iDAT app and taught how to use it to monitor food intake and physical activity. Personal email addresses were used for app registration, and monitoring of app usage was based on the email address provided.
A questionnaire was administered that included demographic questions, scale-based questions evaluating iDAT app usefulness, current diet and exercise, motivation to improve diet, and motivation to exercise (Figure 2).
The questionnaire also included an 8-question instrument, the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form (DES-SF), developed and validated in a group of 239 African American subjects by the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center (Figure 3) [17].
This instrument is graded on a score of 1 (low self-efficacy) to 5 (high self-efficacy) and allows for an assessment of patients’ diabetes-related self-efficacy [17]. Patients’ clinical data including height, weight, blood pressure, and HbA1cwere also collected. The questionnaire was primarily self-administered, with assistance from the researcher as needed. But due to slow recruitment and to reach our preliminary target of 80 patients, recruitment was expanded, 3 months into the study, to all patients who otherwise satisfied the inclusion criteria.Patient use of the iDAT app was monitored weekly over a period of 2 months post-enrollment. Participants were informed when consent was taken and in the Participant Information Sheet that the email addresses used for iDAT registration would be collected and used to track app usage. View this figureStatistical AnalysisDemographic variables and clinical characteristics at baseline were summarized as mean with standard deviation for continuous variables and counts and percentages for categorical variables. To summarize this data, any record in terms of food entry or exercise workout entry in a week was considered as usage for that week.A statistical analysis software (SAS) macro, PROC TRAJ, was used to apply LCGM to analyze weekly iDAT app usage data and to identify the latent groups characterizing the iDAT app use trajectories for the cohort.
Demographics, clinical and diabetes-related variables, social lifestyle factors, smartphone characteristics, scores for motivation, and DES-SF at baseline are presented in Table 1.



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