Management of diabetes mellitus and its complications zippy,type 2 diabetes guidelines 2014 wisconsin,news about diabetes mellitus quizlet - Plans Download


Type 2 diabetes patients suffer from a sort of exhaustion of their beta cells, which are located in the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. This is bad news for the rest of the body and complications increase as time progresses in untreated or poorly maintained diabetic patients. First-line therapy for early diabetes is the oral antidiabetic medication known as metformin. Metformin works by decreasing glucose production in the liver, increasing the efficiency of insulin already in the blood and decreasing the absorption of glucose from the gut. The reason why I think this drug is so fascinating is because it has many other treatment uses that are seemingly unrelated. The most common side effects of metformin are the gastrointestinal issues, especially nausea. People who have kidney dysfunction need to have their dose renally adjusted or too much metformin can accumulate in the body and cause a potentially fatal condition known as lactic acidosis. There are of course many other metformin side effects that can be experienced and should be reviewed before starting the medication. Beach Babe The Fantasy Girl Collection Cool Cat Angel Man Super Girl A Modern 50 ft Woman Lion Girl Waiting For Mr Right Scorpion Godzilla Girl Pretty Pink Robot Girl Bikini Blonde Pink Dome The Pink Girls Funny Cartoons Funny Cartoons Whipping Girl Night Lover Mermaid Eyes Beautiful Mermaid Colors The Fantasy Girl Collection Does My Bum Look Big?
Even after the fact i read it in one day I continued to re-read it again and again and again since I purchased it. Although this form of diabetes usually disappears after the birth of the baby women who have had gestational diabetes have a 40 to 60% chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 to 10 years.
Diabetes mellitus is a children’s diabetes foundation jobs set of diseases and complications caused by a failure to regulate sugars in the blood (glucose). We ordered this product with some apprehension after reading some of the neutral and negative reviews. The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children usually develop quickly over a period of weeks.
It how do u get diabetes type 2 will be important how much Metformin that you take and the amount will be prescribed by your doctor. The excess insulin eventually leads to an increase in testosterone levels as the body strives to right itself and the reulting There are other issues which can lead to insulin resistance as well. The clinical course of diabetes especially glycemic control is largely influenced by patient self-management. Elite Medical of Mountain View, CA experienced dietitians, insulin educators & insulin pump trainers provide a comprehensive Please visit UpToDate for more information. For years and in many Asian countries, it has been traditionally used as a cure for diabetes mellitus and many other diseases.
Bitter melon is also believed to be very helpful against hypertension, cholera, dyspepsia, constipation, indigestion, fungal infections, liver problems, jaundice, malaria, chickenpox, measles, herpes simplex, dysentery, fever, painful menstruation, burns, scabies, skin problems, and eye problems. A single melon is rich in folate, beta carotene, calcium, carbohydrates, copper, dietary fiber, iron, magnesium, manganese, Pantothenic Acid, phosphorus, potassium, protein, selenium, sodium, Vitamins A, B, C, E, K, and zinc. Technically, bitter melon is a fruit because it is that part of the plant that carries the seeds. Although it does turn yellow when ripe, it is best eaten when still green, crunchy and watery in texture.
In some parts of the world, bitter melon is used to treat chickenpox, measles, herpes simplex, dysentery, fever, painful menstruation, burns, scabies and other skin problems. Other than those who believe in bitter melon health benefits including the ability to treat the many illnesses earlier mentioned, people who have eased into making the bitter melon a part of their regular cuisine actually eat it for its bitterness.
The bitter melon is Asian, and growing it in cold countries such as the United States can be a challenge.
Put up trellis and fencing made from any sturdy material to allow this fast-growing melon to grow up to 2 meters high.
After a week or less than a week, seedlings will begin to appear when planted in warm soil. While bitter melons thrive all year round in frost-free tropical countries, the plant performs only annually in cooler countries.
While scientific research and claims have yet to support some of the traditional healing beliefs surrounding the bitter gourd, modern science is currently looking into the properties of bitter melons to potentially cure cancer and inhibit HIV infection.  Some research is also saying that bitter melon leaf extracts have antibacterial properties that fight off bacteria that cause urinary tract infections and gastrointestinal problems.
The most popular nutritional value of this bitter fruit is that it can lower blood sugar levels. Until modern science approves it, bitter melon extracts and capsules should not be considered as stand-alone medicines. To prepare a soup using bitter melon leaves simply boil the leaves until the water turns green. Prepare the following ingredients: ? cup of ground pork or spare ribs, 2 tablespoons of soy sauce, ? teaspoon of salt, a pinch of ground pepper, one minced garlic clove, and of course, one bitter melon fruit. This soup preparation does not attempt to hide the unique bitterness of the melon but is complemented with the pork and seasoning.
In countries such as China, the Philippines, and Indonesia where bitter melon naturally grows, bitter melon is served cooked or raw.
In Southeast Asia, bitter melon is typically stir-fried, sauteed or simply mixed raw with other vegetables. Bitter melon juice is the most therapeutic juice of all because of the natural contents of the bitter melon fruit. Naturally grown in tropical and subtropical countries, the bitter melon is believed to have the ability to treat a number of illnesses, including breast cancer, cholera, and jaundice. While still best when eaten in its natural state, bitter melon is widely sold in Western countries only in Asian farm markets and online. Dried bitter melon tea is popular in India and other Asian countries for its nutritional value and therapeutic effect.
Through the centuries, the Chinese believed that bitter melon tea promotes metabolism, detoxifies the body, and enhances the immune system. What was traditionally believed about bitter melon in many areas around Asia is now supported by modern medical research. Store the dried bitter melon in a closed container to cool inside the refrigerator and to be used later to make dried bitter melon tea.
While it is easy to prepare, there are all sorts of dried bitter melon varieties that are sold online and in Asian groceries. This tea has been proven by many the world over as a very effective medicinal herbal drink. The bitter melon vine thrives in the tropical and non-tropical climates of China, India, Southeast Asian countries, Africa and the Caribbean. Bitter melon capsules, pills, tablets and supplements are now widely popularized and distributed around the world.  One example is the Solaray bitter melon supplement. Although bitter melon capsules are natural and organic, they should not be taken without first consulting a physician. Bitter melon is an Asian fruit-vegetable that is true to its name, although it is not a melon. Bitter melon tablets and supplements are perfect for people who don’t want the bitterness but are in need of the nutrition.
Bitter melon extract, supplements and tablets also treat blood disorders, which include boils and itching. Bitter melon tablets and other herbal supplements are preferred by diabetic patients over traditional medicine primarily because they are natural and organic. Although bitter melon tablets and other medicinal herbs are becoming more popularize from the debates and discussions, those who have eaten raw or cooked bitter melon suggest to eat the real thing or drink bitter melon juice.
Bitter melon or bitter gourd or Ampalaya is one of the most nutritious and medicinally rich vegetables. Preparing bitter melon begins by picking and buying the best pods from the Asian produce markets. In most Asian countries that grow the bitter melon, people eat it raw, mixed with cut onions and tomatoes to make bitter melon “ensalada” (salad). After making thin bitter melon slices, get two eggs and beat them in a bowl with 1 to 2 teaspoons of soy sauce with a dash of ground white pepper. According to Asian traditions and supported by modern scientific research, the bitter melon fruit contains hypoglycemic compound or plant insulin that lowers blood sugar level. Most diabetes supplements that are distributed in the United States are made from bitter melon extract.
The bitter gourd also treats all sorts of blood disorders such as boils, psoriasis, scabies, ringworm and itches.
To treat respiratory disorders, take bitter gourd juice with honey every night for one month. Two teaspoons of bitter melon juice with onion juice, lime juice and 2 capsules of bitter melon supplement are good for treating cholera and diarrhea.  It is also traditionally believed in some regions in Asia that the juice from bitter melon leaves could stop alcohol addiction and remove hangovers.
Extracting or juicing bitter melon and other medicinal plants, is a common practice in China.
According to a number of medical groups, including the American Association of Naturopathic Physician, the most important benefit of bitter melon is that it can lower blood sugar level and can thus be used to treat diabetes. It is also believed to improve human digestion and circulation, and could therefore treat constipation, indigestion, dyspepsia, hypertension, and liver problems as well as purify blood, promote slimming and rejuvenate skin.
Bitter melon is popular for two reasons: its deliciously bitter taste, nutritional, bitter melon health benefits and it’s therapeutic value. Bitter melon, also known as bitter gourd, wild cucumber or balsam pear, has all sorts of vitamins and minerals. Because it improves circulation, bitter melon treats liver problems, boosts the immune system and promotes energy, stamina and good health. Because it rejuvenates the skin, bitter melon treats skin eruptions, burns, scabies, and psoriasis. It purifies blood and treats cholera, hypertension, fungal infections, chickenpox, measles, herpes simplex, dysentery, fever, painful menstruation, hemorrhoids, eye problems, and possibly HIV-AIDS. It is popular in China, India, Southeast Asia and the Caribbean, and in these countries, bitter melon has long been regarded as therapeutic and highly medicinal. People from these countries would recommend eating the bitter melon fruit or leaves over bitter melon pills, tablets or supplements, which are now widely available in Western countries and online.
Buy your bunch of leaves from Asian market groceries (where you can also buy bitter melon tea bags). Other bitter melon health benefits include boosting the immune system, improving digestion and detoxifying blood, which allows the bitter gourd to treat related illnesses such as psoriasis, piles, hemorrhage, indigestion, jaundice, and cholera.
Bitter gourd has long been popular in China, India and Southeast Asia as a medicinal plant. In other parts of the world, the bitter gourd is used to treat chicken pox, measles and herpes simplex.  Other benefits of bitter gourd involve possible help for those suffering from cancer, dysentery, fever, burns, menstrual pains, scabies and other skin problems. While there are so many health advantages of bitter gourd, people should be careful not to ingest its toxic seeds, although some people believe them to be edible. Although superlatively bitter, bitter melon is cooked and prepared in many creative ways to make it easier for people to ingest it.
While this vegetable is not very pretty or delicious, the uses of bitter melon are enough to make it noticed, eaten and studied. There are two varieties of the bitter melon: a longer kind that grows to about 20 cm and the smaller kind that is oval and darker green. The bitter melon benefits and uses convince people to eat it despite its unmatched bitterness.
Juiced, in capsule form, or eaten cooked or raw, bitter melon is also used to reduce hypertension, purify blood, improve blood circulation, improve energy and stamina, boost the immune system and treat a number of illnesses including cholera, fungal infections, constipation, indigestion, eye problems and liver problems.
And as though the above bitter melon uses were not enough, medical researchers are now studying compounds in bitter melon that could treat cancer and inhibit HIV infection.
Aside from the therapeutic bitter melon health benefits, this fruit-vegetable is also used in a number of international dishes. If you have other findings about bitter melon health benefits, post them on the comments area below so people can discuss their experiences as well.
Even without studies and observations, the taste of something very bitter could trigger all sorts of discomfort. Chemical ingredients in bitter melon that aid in lowering glucose are glycosides momordin, charantin, polypeptide P, and vicine. People with diabetes should first consult with their physician before ingesting bitter melon extracts or supplements alongside their prescribed medications.
Another side effect is favism or hemolytic anemia, which is the lack of enzymes in the blood. The person who is taking a bite for the first time is about to find out what bitter really tastes like. A study conducted by Saint Louis University in 2010 reported that bitter melon extracts stunted the growth of breast cancer cells and that the vegetable could someday be used as a chemopreventive agent against breast cancer.
Nothing is final yet as more studies are being conducted, but the odds are looking very good. The second reason in favor of eating it would be in the fact that bitter melon contains compounds that block glucose from overcrowding the blood and produce insulin-like substances. The third reason for supplementing your diet with it is in the effect of the taste itself: you lose appetite. Traditional healing and herbal detoxification suggest the eating of bitter foods to trigger weight loss. Liver failure is often caused by viral infection, too much alcohol, malnutrition, diabetes, and hemochromatosis. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases that influence your body’s utilization of blood sugar.
Dementia is a group of conditions that pertains to language, communication, memory and thinking problems.
Diabetes, which is characterized by faulty insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, has several mechanisms that predispose a person to the development of dementia. As it has been said, diabetes results in a number of complications, including blood vessel damage. The risk of Alzheimer’s Disease, a kind of dementia, is also increased in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, as many researches suggest. Other theories suggest that high levels of glucose can lead to inflammation and oxidation that can damage the brain. Another risk that leads to dementia is mild cognitive impairment, a risk common in elderly with uncontrolled diabetes.
While this experiment was done on lab mice, the promising results show the importance of addressing genetic aberrations – as doing so can help lower the risks of developing dementia in diabetic people.
While spiked levels of blood glucose – a hallmark of diabetes – put a person at risk of developing dementia, further studies show that too low levels can have the same effect as well. Researchers believe that this condition – known as hypoglycemia – deprives the brain of energy – thus leading to damages that might cause dementia. According to the statistics, those who were treated in the hospital once for hypoglycemia have a 26% risk of developing dementia, while those treated three or more times have double the risk compared to those with untreated hypoglycemia.
Because of the strong connections between diabetes and dementia, physicians are pushing for effective management of the former. DisclaimerDisclaimer: None of the statements made on this website have been reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration. This is due to the excessive sugar in their blood, making its way from the kidneys to the urine.
These cells produce insulin that allow your body’s cells to gobble up sugar (glucose) out of the blood stream.
In most instances, consistent diet and lifestyle changes are the only things that need to be corrected in order to stave off the nasty health repercussions of type 2 diabetes. All of these help decrease the amount of glucose in the blood and fight the progression of diabetes. Most of these treatment abilities are related to its ability to decrease insulin resistance. When first starting metformin it’s wise to decrease the prescribed dose, wait until that smaller dose is well tolerated and then increase it to the full dose.
Avoid this entire mess of a disease and cut out the candy, sugary foods, white flour, processed food and do something physical that you enjoy that raises your heart rate for 20 minutes every day. Scott McLeod, PharmD is an independent researcher, health advocate and author living in Santa Barbara, CA. Its been a life-long goal of his to reach out and positively impact as many people as possible. This Daily Journal Gives You The Space To Record Blood Glucose Insulin Meal And Exercise Data So You Can Conveniently Manage Your Diabetes Diabetic Urine Smells Like Eggs Therapy. An elevated level diabetic sweet recipes uk of Hemoglobin A1c is suggestive of high insulin level. And my dogs don’t have anything embarrassing (and dangerous) to steal out of the rash. When your body stops producing insulin injections are all that is left – credit i5a flickr.
It is very popular in China, India, Southeast Asia, Africa and the Caribbean, and is now getting much attention in the West for its nutritional and therapeutic uses. Ye and a team of other scientists explained that bitter melon contents activate certain enzymes in the human body that help in transporting glucose into body tissues.
Some scientists believe it can cure breast cancer and inhibit HIV infection, although this requires more research. They are also edible and medicinal but typically not many people eat them because of the intensely bitter taste. It is similar to chayote, cucumber or green bell pepper, except that it defeats all three of these when it comes to overpowering flavor.
It has more beta carotene than broccoli, more calcium than spinach and more potassium than banana.
You can set up a tunnel or arch-type structure that is about 2 meters high and with stakes about 1.5 meters apart.
A seasoned gardener knows just when to harvest the melons – not too large or too bitter (although Asian growers love them when more bitter).
It is so bitter that aphids, caterpillars and insects don’t want to have anything to do with its shoots and leaves. This may not be as succulent to a Westerner’s tongue but with much getting used to, bitter melon becomes deliciously and interestingly bitter. It is best served or packaged in Western countries in the form of tablets, pills, extracts, supplements, teas, juices and, of course, a savory bitter melon soup. Be careful not to include a seed since a single piece could make your juice far too bitter. Also, the extremely bitter flavor could be unpleasantly new to the Western taster’s tongue.


Its alligator-skin-like green exterior makes you wonder if there is something exotically unique about this fruit-vegetable, or some sort of mystery concealed within that forbidding shell. It is considered as one of the most therapeutic herbal teas and is believed to control diabetes and improve digestion. Scientists have identified hypoglycemic and insulin-like compounds in bitter melon that aids in metabolism and the transmission of glucose to cells and tissues.
Dry the slices in the oven for 30 minutes until dark or golden brown, or until completely dried. The bitter melon fruit, leaves, and seeds are also widely sold in Asian groceries and stores when in season. Hot bitter melon tea is used to calm an upset stomach, bloating, heartburn and constipation, but must not be taken by people with ulcer.  When used to control diabetes, the dried bitter melon tea is best taken with an empty stomach. The bitter vegetable is believed to treat diabetes mellitus by stimulating the production of insulin and inhibiting glucose to form or clog in the bloodstream. People in these parts of the world have traditionally consumed bitter melon as a popular vegetable and medicinal food.
A single capsule has bitter melon extract with 75mg 15% charantin, gelatin (capsule) and cellulose.
Bitter melon supplements could lower blood sugar levels and therefore the physician may adjust the prescribed doses of oral insulin. The US Food and Drug Administration labels herbal supplements in such a way that they should not be distributed in order to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease, but simply to “supplement” prescribed medicines. When you say “bitter melon”, people ask “what the heck is that?” Bitter melon is one of the least known vegetables in the West but it is now gaining popularity as more and more bitter melon tablets are being distributed in Western countries and made available online.
Although the bitter melon leaves, shoots and seeds are also edible and nutritional, bitter melon tablets are made from the fruit. Bitter melon is said to also cure cholera, skin problems, eye problems, and respiratory problems, as well as increase one’s stamina, purify blood and boost the immune system. Doctors advise the use of supplements to, well, supplement traditional medicine instead of being used as stand-alone treatments.
Remind yourself that it is eaten more for its overall nutritional value than just the delight on your tongue. For those who are used to eating it, the idea is not to lose or mask the bitterness, but to savor it and thereby preserve all its rich nutritional values.  When preparing bitter melon for the first time, however, people would naturally like to cover the bitterness with all sorts of sumptuous recipes. For now, you may want to hide the bitterness by soaking the melons in water and salt, and freezing them before cooking.
Traditionally, the Chinese believed that the bitterness of a vegetable is an indication of its nutritional and healing value, specifically in controlling diabetes mellitus.
Treat these discomforts by taking a cupful of bitter gourd juice with lime on an empty stomach. This way, people could avoid eating the melon’s green, warty exterior and simply down its juice with all the nutrients.
Although the seeds have medicinal value and may be eaten by some, they contain toxins that may be dangerous to most, especially to children. More and more people are taking bitter melon pills, tablets and supplements, and you should, too.
It is rich in iron and contains magnesium, folate, zinc, manganese, phosphorous, dietary fiber and vitamins C, B1, B2, and B3.  It has two times more potassium than banana, more beta-carotene than broccoli, and more calcium than spinach. Scientists and researchers from Garvan Institute of Medical Research reported that bitter melon inhibits the growth of cancer cells and eventually kills them. The most popular cuisine in Japan, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand and India include bitter melon. Its bitterness is so distinct that you would know it is what you are eating even with your eyes closed.
To the trained tongue, the more bitter the concoction, the better, especially for the Chinese who believe that bitter foods are healthy foods. It is also believed to treat hypertension, breast cancer, and, recently, has been under research for its ability to possibly stop the spread of HIV-AIDS.
The Chinese believe that a vegetable is more nutritious when more bitter, so it is not short of fans in China, specifically. Children and pregnant women should avoid eating bitter melon seeds and too much of its fruits. There are so many health benefits of bitter melon that people should try to eat it at least once. Also called bitter gourd, balsam pear or wild cucumber, bitter melon is not that popular in the West primarily due to its taste and availability.
They cannot survive cold weather, which is why they thrive only in Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. Because bitter melon contains hypoglycemic compound or plant insulin, it is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Users and researchers observe that there are side effects to the consumption of the bitter gourd, especially when too much is ingested.  What then are the side effects of bitter melon? While one of its nutritional benefits is that it aids the digestive system, it seems that one of its major side effects also involves digestion. Eating too many bitter melon fruits or leaves could be discomforting to a first-time eater.  Gastrointestinal discomfort or digestive problems include diarrhea, heartburn, stomachache and bloating.
While it helps control diabetes by producing hypoglycemic and natural insulin compounds, the bitter gourd could cause hypoglycemia coma, or glucose (sugar) deficiency in the blood. Little children should take it easy on bitter melon as there have been a number of reported cases of convulsions in children.
People suffering from favism experience headache, fever, abdominal pains and, possibly, coma. People eating bitter melon for the first time could accidentally ingest the seeds since they look delectable compared to the fruit’s warty skin. Bitter melon induces menstruation, which is why it can alleviate menstrual pains, but this could inadvertently cause abortion. After a few bites, however, the palate adjusts and the warty vegetable becomes deliciously bitter.
For people who are interested in bitter melon and weight loss, here are three reasons why eating bitter melon leads to a good healthy figure. These do not only treat diabetes, but also make losing weight easy.  As we ingest food, we build up glucose (sugar) in our blood and too much of it would block our arteries.
While number two reason explained what’s going on in our blood cells as we eat bitter melon, up in our palate, the third reason translates to not wanting to eat more food because of the bitter taste we just ingested. Traditional Indian medicine suggests the following foods: ginger, papaya, mango, pineapple, and bitter melon fruit and its leaves. It is so bitter that people ignore it despite its so many nutritional benefits, which is a shame considering how many of these there are.
If liver problems were detected early, its effects can be reversed, and many of the traditional therapies involve bitter melon extract. Since bitter melon is believed by tradition and supported by science to control diabetes, in a way it helps make the liver healthy. Advanced liver failure shows drastic changes in the body and makes the patient unable to walk, talk or move. IntroductionCardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Known to have two types – 1 (insulin-dependent) and 2 (non-insulin dependent), both categories are characterized by excessive levels of blood sugar. The risk of developing dementia is gradually increased in the elderly, although it is not considered a normal aspect of healthy aging.
This predisposes an individual to vascular dementia, a damage caused by obstructed or limited blood flow to the brain.
One such study is that conducted by researchers from the Karolinska Institutet of Stockholm, Sweden. In this, elderly people suffer from more memory and thinking problems that are not exhibited by others in the same age group. Unfortunately, this faulty gene can also come with other erratic genes – some of which can increase dementia risk in diabetic patients.
Rallying this claim is a 2009 study printed in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
While these researchers are lobbying for a less-aggressive approach on diabetic treatment, many physicians are calling for more studies before the revision of current therapeutic protocols. After all, many studies show that patients who were treated for their diabetes exhibit better mental functions and lesser cognitive declines, compared to those who abdicated from treatment.
An increased body mass index can increase your chances of developing diabetes, and consequently, dementia.
As such, if you want to live a longer, dementia-free life, then it is a must that you control your diabetes before it wreaks havoc in your brain. The products and supplements mentioned on this site are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, alleviate or prevent any diseases. A prolonged diet full of simple sugars overwork the beta cells to the point where they can’t make enough insulin to meet the demands of the body and excess sugar remains in the bloodstream. When a doctor screens a patient’s blood sugar levels and they are higher than the normal but not so high that it requires insulin, typically these patients are prescribed an oral antidiabetic medication. Many other oral antidiabetic drugs have been created and released after it but none of them stack up to the tried and true metformin.
For instance, metformin is sometimes used in infertility cases, where a potential mother is having problems conceiving a child.
This allows the body to adjust to the drug more easily and without the severity of side effects.
For more information about Scott and Doctor Scott Health please visit the 'About' section, here.
A platform where a modern medicine background with a holistic health leaning could provide a balanced source of health education and strategies. Different types of insulin preparations are distinguished by the speed at which the injected insulin is absorbed from the layer under the skin into the blood (onset of The insulin crystals must be homogenised (mixed) evenly before each injection. Unlike children with type 1 diabetes those with type 2 usually don’t need insulin shots to control their blood sugar levels.
This comes in handy as some are quite tricky and it is a challenge (at least for me) to get to the save point. I have been taking two (or three when I’m on my period) daily preferably on an empty stomach.
During the days I’m not going to the gym and food storage diabetics exercise your that create acidic toxins including the carcinogens mutagens and free-radicals associated with diseases like diabetes certified diabetes educator jobs in kentucky arthritis Aumente su consumo de vitaminas y minerales por parte de la carga en un puado de hojas verdes zanahoria thats exactly how i wound up naked that one friday Yeah her number is 3 piece meal.
There is no poison in your foods, air, home or genetics that irreversibly disposes you to suffer endlessly from insulin resistance.
The bitter melon is called many other names such as bitter gourd, balsam pear, ampalaya or wild cucumber.
Jiming Ye of the Garvan Institute of Medical Research, “Practitioners of Chinese medicine have used (bitter melon fruit) for hundreds of years to good effect.” It contains hypoglycemic compound or plant insulin, charantin, insulin-like peptides, and alkaloids that lower the body’s blood sugar level. Patients of Type 2 diabetes are unable to do this because they don’t produce enough insulin in their bodies.
The Chinese, in particular, believe that the more bitter the vegetable, the more nutritious it is. Also called bitter gourd and scientifically named “momordica charantia”, the bitter melon is Asian and may not be easily liked by the Western tongue. What is bitter melon, then, but a curious product of nature, to be enjoyed and marveled at alike for its balance of good (the amazing nutrition within it) and bad (the wicked bitterness of its flavor)? Anyone wanting to culture this green and warty fruit can purchase seeds from Asian grocery stores or the Internet. In its natural humid habitat, the bitter melon easily grows in backyard gardens after direct seeding as would grasses and weeds.
A bitter melon is marketable both as vegetable and medicinal plant when its exterior has turned light green, thick and juicy, and when the seeds inside are soft and white. Charantin is a hypoglycemin agent that increases glucose uptake and the synthesis of glycogen in liver, muscle and adipose tissue cells.
Without breaking the melon’s green exterior, carefully push out the seeds and the white fluffy lining.
Bitter gourd seeds may cause nausea and diarrhea, since the flavor is concentrated in them. It triggers enzymes that activate muscle cells and tissues, which are rather weak due to diabetes. Modern scientific research is now studying the potential of bitter gourd to inhibit HIV infection. This is why there are ready-made packs of bitter melon juice available online, as well as tea, capsule and other supplements.
The bitter melon fruit, leaves, and seeds may all be dried separately or in combination to make a tea. It is found to be helpful in maintaining both Type-1 and Type-2 cases of diabetes mellitus. It has twice the beta carotene found in broccoli, twice the calcium in spinach and twice the phosphorous in banana. Bitter melon contains charantin, a hypoglycemic compound, and polypeptide P, an insulin-like compound, which both help lower blood sugar level.
Leaves are boiled in broths and soups, while the melons are cooked in different types of dishes or sometimes eaten raw with onions and tomatoes.
Also known as bitter gourd, balsam pear, or wild cucumber, it is a green elongated vegetable that looks like its cousin, the cucumber, except that its exterior is distinctively warty and bumpy. Modern research is studying the possibility of inhibiting HIV infection using the contents of bitter gourd. The debate, however, stands over the fact that modern medicines are processed and may contain toxins and other unnatural elements.
Traditional Chinese belief says that the more bitter the vegetable, the more nutritious it is.  Whether this part of the melon’s efficacy may be attributed to placebo or not, it surely cannot hurt to try it. The seasoned cook can pick out the best tasting kind of bitter melon.  The best ones are colored green, pale green or greenish yellow. Sprinkle not more than 1 tablespoon of soy sauce and continue to saute for a minute more or two, or until the melon slices have turned soft. Other recipes you might want to research on and try in your own kitchen are the Bitter Melon Curried in Mustard Sauce, Bitter Melon Stir-fry, or Stir-fried Lamb with Bitter Melon and Black Beans. Several studies, including one from the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians, prove that this bitter fruit lowers blood sugar level just as insulin does. Pour the liquefied bitter melon cubes into a piece of cheesecloth to strain out tiny solid bits.
Keep in mind, though that it is just a supplement and should not stand alone in curing your diseases. It is a guarantee, though, that bitter melon leaves are free from aphids, caterpillars and other insects as they seem to avoid the bitter taste. The bitter taste of this unique Asian vegetable is what makes it an effective digestive aid. While this has also been a traditional belief in the Caribbean for centuries, it is just now recently confirmed by laboratory research that bitter melon has anti-malarial contents. It is the most bitter of all fruits or vegetables, and only grows in winter-free countries. It is no use when it begins to look more mouth-watering in yellowish orange color because this is the time when is bitterness it at the zenith. Several studies, including one from the American Association of Naturopathic Physician, prove that this bitter fruit lowers blood sugar level just like insulin.
With bitter melon, once you learn to love it for its medicinal use, you would soon learn to savor its delicious bitterness and eat it for its taste.
This is primarily due to its bitter taste, which is due to the presence of quinine, a natural crystalline alkaloid. Although edible and nutritional, the seeds are more bitter than the melons and leaves, and could induce vomiting and diarrhea.
This is most dangerous to younger women who may be pregnant for the first time, so pregnant women are advised to avoid this medicinal herb. Bitter melon and cancer might just cancel each other out, and we see the vegetable getting the upper hand.
Bitter melon and weight loss go hand in hand regardless of how the bitter vegetable is packaged, prepared and ingested. It aids digestion and circulation and treats many common ailments such as menstrual pains, indigestion, constipation, psoriasis and hypertension. In most parts in Asia where the bitter vegetable thrives, bitter melon is traditionally used for body detoxification, thereby cleansing the liver and other organs.
Except for hemochromatosis, the other causes of liver failure may be corrected as well before the liver begins to fail. DM is considered as a coronary artery disease equivalent for future risk of vascular events. Gresele, et al.1997Diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension but not vascular disease per se are associated with persistent platelet activation in vivo.
People with uncontrolled diabetes usually suffer from a variety of complications, such as cardiovascular problems, nerve damage, kidney damage and eye damage, to name a few. Usually precipitated by small series of strokes, vascular dementia can develop almost immediately. The paper, which was published in the June 2009 issue of “Diabetologia,” showed the strong correlation between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease.
According to research, many diabetic patients show brain patterns that are characteristic of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Their study, published in the 2013 edition of the journal “Diabetes,” showed that the altered genomic regulation of expression of key synaptic proteins played a role in the development of dementia in people with diabetes.
Studies show that losing roughly 5-7 percent of your body weight can gradually decrease your risks of suffering from diabetes.
All articles on this website are the opinions of their respective authors who do not claim or profess to be medical professionals providing medical advice. In these conditions your cells also start to resist taking up the insulin you do have, which acts as gateways for glucose to enter your cells. Many of the other oral antidiabetic medications will even create spin-off versions that combine metformin with it to increase the effectiveness of their product. It’s also being used more and more as a treatment for PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome). Now you should understand that the recommended diet for gestational diabetes is the first step of controlling it before using any drugs. A bitter melon seed turns red and even bitterer when ripe, which is why many are cautioned against eating the seeds.


In some Southeast Asian countries, bitter melon leaves are mixed with onions and tomatoes for a bitter, green vegetable salad. The fruit’s high concentration of quinine makes it taste that way, almost inedible in some cases. Although requiring more studies and scientific proof, bitter melon may be used to inhibit cancer and HIV infection. Although planting bitter melon in any type of soil is fine, it is best done in a well-drained sandy loam soil that is rich in organic matter. In cooler countries, direct seeding is best done inside a greenhouse to ensure good germination. Cut the tip of the runner to stimulate cropping, and leave just 4 to 6 lateral branches to allow the vine to hold on to the trellis. Before pouring into a container, strain the liquefied melons using cheesecloth to take away tiny solid bits. It is rich in folate, iron, zinc, magnesium, phosphorous, dietary fiber and vitamins C, B1, B2, and B3. There’s nothing in this vegetable’s immediate presentation that would make you desire to consume it. Squeeze the cloth to make sure you get all the juice into the container, without the solid residues. Make sure to consume it within a week and definitely not more than three months.  To get the full bitter melon health benefits, it is best to juice only the amount that you can consume immediately because raw juices can oxidize and lose most of their nutritional value in just 10 minutes.
Consult your physician and take the bitter melon juice along with your prescribed medicines.
Ray said, “Our findings suggest that bitter melon extract modulates several signal transduction pathways, which induces breast cancer cell death.”   Another expert, Dr.
The Okinawa cuisine in Japan is said to promote long life since people in Okinawa have long lives.
It has hypoglycemic compounds and natural insulin-like substances which are much needed by people with diabetes.
It is very popular in China, India and Southeast Asia.  The Chinese, in particular, believe that the bitter the food, the more nutritious it is. Eating too many seeds could cause fever and headache.  Some even believe that the red parts of the bitter melon seed are toxic. But if you put these two in boxing ring, fortunately, it is the bitter melon that is more likely to win. Asians and people who are used to eating bitter gourd prefer eating it in its natural form to get the most of its nutrients rather than simply taking bitter melon supplements in capsule or tablet form. However, as we eat too many sugary foods and our system produces too much insulin in response to the glucose, we could become insulin resistant.
Nowadays, it is has also been linked with higher risks of dementia, even Alzheimer’s disease. Vascular dementia can remain constant for a small period of time, and then things can take a turn for the worst.
According to the study, diabetic complications lead to brain damage, which then leads to the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. It is also believed that increased severity and a longer duration of diabetes can further increase the risk of developing dementia.
This alteration then leads to protein-induced impairments in the hippocampus, the area of the brain responsible for memory and thinking. Bayer Diabetes Care is devoted to making diabetes management easier for patients of all ages. Once enjoyed both as medicine and nutritious food, you won’t regret all the work you’ve put into growing bitter melon in your part of the world.
Squeeze the cloth to get more juice into your container or pitcher; store in the refrigerator for a few minutes or until cold to your liking. To make the most of its nutritional value, bitter melon is prepared, packaged and consumed in many different ways and one of them is the dried bitter melon tea.
To treat piles using bitter melon supplements, take 3 teaspoons of bitter melon juice or bitter melon leaf extract mixed with buttermilk every morning for a month or until the disease is cured.
Juicing bitter melon and regularly taking it is very helpful but should not substitute for traditional medications.
This melon is actually a fruit, not a vegetable, because it is seed-bearing.  The tip of the bitter melon vine and young leaves are as edible as the fruit, nutritious and bitter.
This condition characterizes the diabetes mellitus disease.  Adding bitter melon to your diet helps you body effectively balance blood sugar levels, so losing weight becomes easier since you won’t be craving for more food.
In addition, the bitter melon is believed to treat liver problems, which is why a number of studies have focused on bitter melon and liver.
Halushka, 2002Why are some individuals resistant to the cardioprotective effects of aspirin? A person might appear well for a short period of time, only to get worse after another wave of small strokes in the brain. Four years after, however, roughly 1,800 participants or 11% of the population have been diagnosed with dementia.
You should consult with your doctor or another qualified health care professional before you start taking any dietary supplements or engage in mental health programs. It is also because of its extremely bitter taste that it is regarded as medicinal in many countries around the world.
But with a bitter melon capsule, the problem is solved.  Bitter melon capsules and supplements provide all the nutrients and therapeutic benefits of bitter melon without the bitterness.
It is so bitter that a person tasting it for the first time is sure to spit it out in a second. In 2007, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the AmericanHeart Association (AHA) jointly recommended primary prevention strategy in those with diabetes, and that was modified by The U.S. This website is supported by different affiliates and we receive a paid commission on certain products from our advertisers. However, if you give this ugly vegetable a chance and learn how to eat bitter melon, you could end up having a healthier body and training your palate to appreciate exotic cuisine.
Any and all trademarks, logos brand names and service marks displayed on this website are the registered or unregistered Trademarks of their respective owners. Any suggestions for a book with simple recipes and basic info on how to get going with this eating plan and reversing mayo clinic diabetes meal plan diabetes. Despite a decline in mortality from CVD over the past decade, DM remains a key risk factor for CVD. Individuals with diabetes are at a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with age- and sex-matched individuals without diabetes. In diabetic patients over the age of 65 years, 68% of deaths are from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 16% are from stroke.(Pignone, Alberts et al. 2010) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest thatdeclines in all-cause mortality have occurred among men withDM but not women. Mortality rates among individuals with DM remain approximately 2-fold higher compared to individuals without DM.(Preis, Hwang et al. AspirinAspirin is one of the most important therapeutic agents used in the prevention of CVD (both primary and secondary) in patients with diabetes.
Long-term aspirin administration in patients at high risk of occlusive vascular events reduced up to 34% of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), 25% of nonfatal stroke, and 18% of all-cause mortality. 2006) Lower bioavailability of these preparations and poor absorption from the higher pH environment of the small intestine may result in inadequate platelet inhibition, particularly in heavier patients.(Cox, Maree et al. Aspirin as a primary prevention strategy in diabetes mellitusThe Japanese Primary Prevention of Atherosclerosis With Aspirin for Diabetes (JPAD) trial (Ogawa, Nakayama et al.
2008) was the first prospectively designed trial to evaluate the use of aspirin (81 mg or 100 mg) in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 2,539) aged 30–85 years in Japan, and reported that aspirin use was associated with a 32% reduction in the risk of the primary end point at 4.7 years of follow up. The ongoing trials that will provide insights into the appropriateness of aspirin usage in diabetic patients include the Aspirin and Simvastatin Combination for Cardiovascular Events Prevention Trial in Diabetes (ACCEPT-D).(De Berardis, Sacco et al. 2007) Results of the Prevention Of Progression of Arterial Disease And Diabetes (POPADAD) trial have been reported, with no benefit with aspirin or antioxidants in primary prevention of cardiovascular events.(Belch, MacCuish et al. 2008) ADA recommends enteric-coated aspirin at a dosage of 81–325 mg to be used as a preventive strategy in high-risk diabetic individuals.(Pignone, Alberts et al. 2010) An important consideration is that patients may acquire additional risk factors over time, which would necessitate a reassessment of their overall risk profile. Several meta-analyses have explored the benefit of aspirin therapy in the primary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) among patients with diabetes.(Baigent, Blackwell et al.
Aspirin as a secondary prevention strategy in diabetes mellitusTwo large meta-analyses of major secondary prevention trials by the Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration (ATC) showed oral aspirin to be protective in patients at high risk for CVD, including those with diabetes (1994; 2002). The meta-analyses included 287 secondary prevention trials involving 212,000 high-risk patients with acute or prior vascular disease or another condition that increased their risk of vascular disease. Aspirin resistanceAspirin resistance, defined as failure of suppression of thromboxane generation, increases the risk of cardiovascular events in a high-risk population.(Eikelboom, Hirsh et al. 2002)Causes of aspirin resistance include concurrent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen that may compete with aspirin at the COX-1 receptor site,(Catella-Lawson, Reilly et al.
2009)The lack of agreement on a standardized definition for “aspirin resistance” has contributed to the disparity in reports of its incidence among different studies.
Diabetes and aspirin resistanceThe benefit of aspirin in diabetic patients has been consistently documented in several trials. 2008)a low dose of aspirin in primary prevention did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular events at 4 years in diabetic patients. Other studies in secondary prevention similarly suggested that aspirin might be less effective in T2DM, especially in patients with poor metabolic control, than in non-DM patients, the underlying mechanism being still debated. Since platelets play a key role in the development of atherothrombotic events, the dysfunctional status of platelets in DM patients may contribute to the enhanced atherothrombotic risk of these patients. It has been proposed that reduced sensitivity to aspirin in diabetic patients might be owing to accelerated thrombopoiesis, (Di Minno, Silver et al. 1986) or to reduced platelet permeability to aspirin caused by membrane glycosylation.(Winocour, Watala et al.
1992)The mechanisms that lead to increased platelet reactivity observed in patients with DM can be grouped together into the following aetiopathogenic categories: a) hyperglycaemia, b) insulin deficiency and resistance, c) associated metabolic conditions, and d) other cellular abnormalities (as shown in Figure 2). Poor glucose control and body weight are also proposed to contribute to aspirin resistance. Platelets are essential for primary hemostasis and repair of the endothelium, but they also play a key role in the development of acute coronary syndromes and contribute to cerebrovascular events.
Platelet adhesion is an essential function in response to vascular injury and is generally viewed as the first step during which single platelets bind through specific membrane receptors to cellular and extracellular matrix constituents of the vessel wall and tissues. Beyond acute activation as a consequence of vascular injury, circulating platelets are actively involved in all phases of the atherogenetic process, from atherosclerotic plaque formation to plaque inflammation and rupture.
Acute hyperglycemia as well as poor control of diabetes is associated with increased platelet reactivity.
Comparative studies of patients with good glycemic control show they have better response to aspirin compared to the patients with poor glycemic control. Although this might implicate that better glucose control leads to less incidence of aspirin non-responsiveness, the clinical significance of such findings should be carefully inspected, since in 2 of the largest trials assessing the role of aspirin on primary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes, low-dose aspirin did not decrease the risk of cardiovascular events when compared to placebo.
The clinical determinants that help identify aspirin resistance in diabetes are suggested to be CVD, microalbuminuria, poor diabetes control, and increased waist circumference.(Yassine, Davis-Gorman et al.
1981)Increase in platelet-dependent thrombin generation.Increased expression of platelet surface adhesion molecules such as CD31, CD49b, CD62P, and CD63, leading to increased platelet activation. 2003)Reduced vascular synthesis of the anti-aggregants PGI2 and NO, shifting balance towards aggregation and vasoconstriction.Disordered calcium homeostasis that affects platelet shape change, secretion, aggregation, and thromboxane formation (Halushka, Mayfield et al.
2008) The dysfunctional status of platelets in patients with DM may contribute to the enhanced atherothrombotic risk of these patients. Platelets obtained from diabetic patients show increased adhesiveness, hyperfunction both spontaneous as well as in response to agonists. These observed hyperfunctions are attributed to increased expression, activation or abundance of surface membrane receptors for agonists as well as cell matrix components, increased binding of fibrinogen, altered membrane fluidity, changes in activation mechanisms and signaling pathways. These changes translate to impaired PGI2 stimulation of cAMP and blindness to the inhibitory actions of both PGI2 and NO. Platelet dysfunction coupled with decreased endothelial production of these antiaggregatory agents conspire to amplify the risk of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes.(Vinik, Erbas et al. 2001)Metabolic control and platelet reactivityIn the early 1960s Bridges et al showed that both in vitro as well as in vivo administration of glucose increased platelet stickiness.(Bridges, Dalby et al. 1999) Of note, T2DM platelets are characterized by enhanced thromboxane biosynthesis and tight metabolic control, shown to lead to a reduction of thromboxane levels.(Davi, Catalano et al. 1990)Acute, short-term hyperglycemia induces an increased activation of platelets exposed to high shear stress conditions in vitro (filtration method) or in vivo (bleeding time). In vivo platelet activation is reflected by an increased urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TxB (2).(Gresele, Guglielmini et al. 2010)LDL, a circulating complex of lipids and proteins that is increased in hypercholesterolemia, enhances platelet function and sensitizes platelets via binding of apoB-100 to a receptor on the platelet membrane and via transfer of lipids to the platelet membrane.(Relou, Hackeng et al. Platelet aggregation was increased in ITDM (n = 68) compared with NITDM (n = 133) patients after P2Y12-specific stimuli. Platelet function profiles were similar between ITDM and NITDM using assays non-specific to the P2Y12 pathway. Platelet dysfunction was independent of glycemic control and inflammatory status.(Angiolillo, Bernardo et al.
2006)NF-kB is a transcription factor that stimulates numerous genes and activates inflammatory responses related to insulin resistance. This inhibition was shown to be associated with a significant decrease in IL-6 and TNF-? release, mediated through inhibition of IKK? activity. Platelet activity measuresA major urinary metabolite of thromboxane A2 synthesized from extra renal sources is 11-dehydro thromboxane B2. A major portion of this metabolite is believed to come from the platelet, but there are additional cellular sources. In the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial, patients whose urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 levels were in the highest quartile had an odds ratio of 2 for having a myocardial infarction and an odds ratio of 3.5 for a risk of having a cardiovascular-related death compared to those patients in the lowest quartile. Serum aspirin esterase (AE) activity may account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics and has been proposed as one source of variation in aspirin effectiveness.(Adebayo, Williams et al.
2007)Elevated MPV values are associated with a shortened bleeding time and increased thromboxane B2 plasma levels. 2009)Diabetic patients with coronary heart disease have significantly higher MPV values compared to control patients.(Tavil, Sen et al. 2010)Methods that directly measure the capacity of platelets to synthesize TxA2 are certainly preferable. Of these, the urinary levels of the TxB2 metabolite, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, represent a time-integrated index of TxA2 biosynthesis in vivo.(Patrono, Ciabattoni et al. Detection in the urine of this metabolite, which is not formed in the kidney, reflects systemic TxA2 formation, which largely, albeit not exclusively, occurs in the platelets. 1986) Urinary 11-dehydro- TxB2 concentration is affected by renal production of this substance. However, measurement of this metabolite is still commonly used in trials assessing aspirin resistance, due to its low cost and ease of measurement.(Eikelboom, Hirsh et al. 2002)In aspirin-treated patients, elevated urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2levels identify patients who are relatively resistant to aspirinand who may benefit from additional antiplatelet therapies ortreatments that more effectively block in vivo thromboxane productionor activity.(Eikelboom, Hirsh et al.
2002)Clinical implicationsThe clinical implication of aspirin resistance as measured in vitro by the inability of aspirin to reduce platelet activation and aggregation by failure to suppress the platelet production of TXA has not yet been elucidated via prospective trials that have controlled for confounders, such as hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Large meta-analyses have found low-dose aspirin to be as effective as high-dose aspirin in preventing vascular events, making a dose-dependent improvement in laboratory response clinically irrelevant.
Causes of aspirin resistance include poor compliance, inadequate dose, drug interactions, genetic polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase-1, increased platelet turnover, and upregulation of nonplatelet pathways of thromboxane production. At present, there is no standardized approach to the diagnosis and no proven effective treatment for aspirin resistance.
Further research exploring the mechanisms of aspirin resistance is needed in order to better define aspirin resistance, as well as to develop a standardized laboratory test that is specific and reliable, and can correlate with the clinical risk of vascular events. ManagementFactors that need to be considered in the approach to patients with suspected treatment failure include: compliance with aspirin use, ensure the optimal dose and drug form (avoid use of enteric-coated aspirin formulations), evaluate concomitant infections or inflammatory conditions, and assess possible drug–drug interactions. Several approaches have been evaluated for treatment failure and some of these approaches are based on laboratory testing for evidence of resistance.
Management strategies are currently limited to dosing alteration and introduction of other anti platelet agents.
2007)Laboratory and genetic inconsistency, as well as dose dependence, is seen when agonists other than arachidonic acid (the most specific in assessing aspirin resistance), such as ADP, collagen, and epinephrine, are used for in vitro assessment of platelet inhibition by aspirin.(McCabe, Harrison et al. The Clopidogrel vs Aspirin in Patients at Risk of Ischaemic Events (CAPRIE) trial compared the efficacy for secondary prevention of clopidogrel (75 mg daily) versus aspirin (325 mg daily) in a high-risk population (n = 19,185) consisting of patients with a history of recent MI, recent ischaemic stroke, or established peripheral artery disease.(Diener, Bogousslavsky et al. The absolute reduction in events was highest among diabetic patients requiring insulin therapy.(Diener, Bogousslavsky et al. Clopidogrel, a thienopyridine, works by irreversibly inhibiting ADP binding to the P2Y12 receptors on the platelet surface, and ultimately interfering with platelet-fibrinogen binding. 2010) In the subgroup of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) within 7 days after the last study drug intake, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel was associated with a substantial reduction in total and cardiovascular mortality without excess risk of CABG-related bleeding.(Held, Asenblad et al. 2011) Addition of dipyridamole to aspirin can lead to significant platelet inhibition in aspirin-resistant patients.
The addition of dipyridamole to aspirin appears to be more effective than aspirin alone in the prevention of secondary vascular events in stroke patients and does not cause an increase in haemorrhagic events compared to aspirin alone in an identical dose.(Diener, Darius et al. 2001) There is also a suggestion that dipyridamole may partially compensate for aspirin resistance in patients with ischaemic stroke via an alternative antithrombotic mechanism.(Serebruany, Malinin et al. 2006) In a study to determine whether treatment with dipyridamole or clopidogrel, in addition to aspirin, is more effective at reducing embolization and transient ischemic attacks, King and associates have shown that both dipyridamole and clopidogrel reduced embolization to a similar extent.(King, Bath et al. 2011)Other antiplatelet agents that may be more potent via alternative pathways are under investigation. Statins to improve aspirin resistance: There is evidence that statins may be useful in treating aspirin resistance.
2009) Tekten and his colleagues have shown that statins reduced platelet aggregation.(Tekten, Ceyhan et al.
2004)Another recommendation is that because saturated fat ingestion increases in vivo thromboxane production despite aspirin therapy, diabetic patients on ASA therapy should have low dietary saturated fat intake and aggressive lipid management.(Yassine, Davis-Gorman et al.
ConclusionAspirin is recommended for primary prevention and secondary prevention of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further studies are required to answer the question, will improving glycemic control in patients with poor glycemic control cause a change in responsiveness to aspirin? The relationship of the adipokines TNF-alfa and IL-6 to aspirin non-responsiveness needs further evaluation.



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