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The Diabetes Symbol Resources include simple text and symbol supported versions of the Alphabet Strategy Diabetes Sheets. People living with diabetes need to learn how to manage their diabetes and much education involves the use of materials which require literacy. The materials comprise laminated A4 sheets each covering specific diabetes issues related to the letters of the alphabet A to G. The symbols were developed in partnership with Warwick University, Warwick Diabetes Care Research User Group and the George Eliot Diabetes Care Team. When first diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, people immediately have questions regarding a list of foods for a diabetic to eat. The body breaks down the sugars and starches to form glucose, which is what fuels the body for its energy. The good news is, and this does surprise most newly diagnosed diabetics, you can pretty much eat anything, as long as you are sensible in your food choices. While a dietician or nutritionist is your best source of advice for helping you with your diabetic diet, the basic information about what foods to eat and which ones to avoid is not so different from what anyone else should eat if they want to follow a healthy diet and prevent many diseases and health problems like heart disease, stroke, cancer, and high blood pressure.
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Recent Commentspatrice thompson on Free Diabetic Supplies – How to Get Them?munnaamalai on Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes ChartJessica I. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that occurs when the sugar levels grow too high in the blood. Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is an atypical disease that develops due to the body’s incapability of regulating water levels.
Diabetes is a chronic condition, which develops due to the increased levels of sugar in the blood. Diabetes is a disease due to either deficiency of insulin or resistance of insulin receptors. Fighting diabetes without a treatment plan, is like entering a battle, without proper strategy. Common complications of type 1 diabetes include cardiovascular problems, neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy.
SIPOC is a concept used in process improvement (aka COPIS) that can be used as a tool that summarizes the inputs and outputs of one or more processes in table form. This free SIPOC diagram comes with a single slide inside the PPT template and you can edit the text inside the shape or customize the SIPOC diagram to match your organizational needs. If you need a professional SIPOC PowerPoint presentation template then you can consider to subscribe to SlideModel and download SIPOC Template. The first step in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis (Figure-1) is the synthesis of Carbamoyl phosphate from bicarbonate and glutamine in a multistep process, requiring the cleavage of two molecules of ATP. Carbamoyl phosphate reacts with aspartate to form Carbamoyl aspartate in a reaction catalyzed by Aspartate Transcarbamoylase (Figure-1).Carbamoyl aspartate cyclizes to form Dihydro orotate, which then gets oxidized by Dihydro orotate dehydrogenase in the presence of NAD+ to form orotate. Orotidylate is then decarboxylated to form uridylate (UMP), a major pyrimidine nucleotide that is a precursor to RNA.
This disorder usually appears in the first year of life and is characterized by growth failure, developmental retardation, megaloblastic anemia, and increased urinary excretion of Orotic acid. The diagnosis of this disorder is suggested by the presence of severe Megaloblastic anemia with normal serum B12 and Folate levels and no evidence of TC-II deficiency (Transcobalamine- II). Uridine treatment is effective because Uridine can easily be converted into UMP by omnipresent tissue kinase, thus allowing UTP, CTP, and TMP to be synthesized and feedback inhibit further Orotic acid production.
Increased excretion of orotic acid, uracil, and uridine accompanies a deficiency in liver mitochondrial ornithine transcarbamoylase (reaction 2, Figure 2). Figure-2- Showing the  block at the level of Ornithine transcarbamoylase that results in diffusion of carbamoyl phosphate to cytoplasm to be utilized in the pathway of pyrimidine bio synthesis causing Orotic aciduria. The orotic aciduria that accompanies Reye syndrome probably is a consequence of the inability of severely damaged mitochondria to utilize carbamoyl phosphate, which then becomes available for cytosolic overproduction of orotic acid. 1) Allopurinol  is an alternative substrate for orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (reaction 5, Figure-1), competes with orotic acid.


2) 6-Azauridine, following conversion to 6-azauridylate, also competitively inhibits orotidylate decarboxylase (reaction 6, Figure-1), enhancing excretion of orotic acid and orotidine. 3) The anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil is also phosphoribosylated by orotate phosphoribosyl transferase. Gluconeogenesis is the process of converting non carbohydrate precursors to glucose or glycogen.
These noncarbohydrate precursors of glucose are first converted into pyruvate or enter the pathway at later intermediates such as oxaloacetate and Dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Gluconeogenesis meets the needs of the body for glucose when sufficient carbohydrate is not available from the diet or glycogen reserves. In glycolysis, glucose is converted into pyruvate; in gluconeogenesis, pyruvate is converted into glucose.
Reversal of the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase in glycolysis involves two endothermic reactions. Mitochondrial pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an ATP-requiring reaction in which the vitamin biotin is the coenzyme. Pyruvate carboxylase is a mitochondrial enzyme, whereas the other enzymes of gluconeogenesis are cytoplasmic. Oxaloacetate, the product of the pyruvate carboxylase reaction, is reduced to malate inside the mitochondrion for transport to the cytosol (Figure-2). A second enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, catalyzes the decarboxylation and phosphorylation of oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate using GTP as the phosphate donor. On formation, phosphoenolpyruvate is metabolized by the enzymes of glycolysis but in the reverse direction. Its presence determines whether a tissue is capable of synthesizing glucose (or glycogen) not only from pyruvate, but also from triose phosphates. The fructose 6-phosphate generated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase is readily converted into glucose 6-phosphate (Figure-3). Second, the enzyme is present only in tissues whose metabolic duty is to maintain blood-glucose homeostasis, tissues that release glucose into the blood. Figure- The glucose 6-phosphatase enzyme is stabilized by the Ca2+-binding protein SP.After the cleavage, a set of transporters, T2 and T3, return the products orthophosphate and glucose back into the cytosol. The use of symbols has found to be effective, particularly for those with learning, literacy or language difficulties.A There are people with diabetes in all these groups. In Type 2 diabetes, the body either produces too little insulin, or the insulin that is produced is ignored by the body's cells. Sweet potatoes are loaded with vitamin A and fiber, and they are easily to bake, or boil in water and mash for a delicious sweet potato casserole. Diabetes education is an opportunity to partner with both patients and their families with the goal of teaching diabetes self management. It is a free design and editable template that you can download to make six sigma presentations in PowerPoint. The acronym SIPOC stands for suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, and customers which form the columns of the table. You can also download other TQM PowerPoint templates including the continuous improvement PowerPoint template.
The usual form of hereditary Orotic aciduria is the buildup of Orotic acid due to the deficiency in one or both of enzymes that convert it to UMP.
This reaction is catalyzed by Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase -II (CPS-II). Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-II  primarily uses glutamine as a source of ammonia.
At this stage, orotate couples to ribose, in the form of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a form of ribose activated to accept nucleotide bases.
All of these end products normally act in some way to feedback inhibit the initial reactions of pyrimidine synthesis. Excess carbamoyl phosphate exits to the cytosol, where it stimulates pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis.
Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (reaction 5, Figure 1) converts the drug allopurinol  to a nucleotide (Oxypurinol ribonucleotide). Phosphoenolpyruvate is formed from pyruvate by way of oxaloacetate through the action of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase.


Biotin binds CO2 from bicarbonate as carboxybiotin prior to the addition of the CO2 to pyruvate. In liver and kidney, the reaction of succinate thiokinase in the citric acid cycle produces GTP (rather than ATP as in other tissues), and this GTP is used for the reaction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, thus providing a link between citric acid cycle activity and gluconeogenesis, to prevent excessive removal of oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis, which would impair citric acid cycle activity. These reactions are near equilibrium under intracellular conditions; so, when conditions favor gluconeogenesis, the reverse reactions will take place until the next irreversible step is reached.
It is present in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle, but is probably absent from heart and smooth muscle.
These tissues are the liver and to a lesser extent the kidney the enzyme is absent in muscle and adipose tissue, which therefore, cannot export glucose into the bloodstream. Rather, glucose 6-phosphate is transported into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is hydrolyzed to glucose by glucose 6-phosphatase, which is bound to the membrane (Figure-3) .An associated Ca2+-binding stabilizing protein is essential for phosphatase activity.
We have developed symbols for concepts and words related to diabetes, in order that diabetes materials might be presented using symbols, for the benefit of people who live with diabetes but have difficulties in reading.
If the glucose is allowed to accumulate in the blood rather than going into the cells, then that is when complications from diabetes come into the picture.
Place non-fat vanilla yogurt in a parfait glass alternating from bottom to top with yogurt and your choice of berries; mix different types of berries for more color and variety. Teaching a patient how to manage her diabetes is one of the most important things that your can do for her.
It was in use at least as early as the Total Quality Management programs of the late 1980 and continues to be used today in Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing.
Either orotate phosphoribosyl transferase and orotidylate decarboxylase both are defective, or the decarboxylase alone is defective. A different enzyme mitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate synthase I catalyzes the first step of urea synthesis (Figure-2). Orotate reacts with PRPP to form orotidylate (Orotate mono phosphate), a pyrimidine nucleotide. Specially, the lack of CTP inhibition allows Aspartate Transcarbamoylase to remain highly active.
Confirmation of the diagnosis, however, requires assay of the Transferase and decarboxylase enzymes in the patient’s erythrocytes .
Pyruvate carboxylase, Phospho enol pyruvate carboxy kinase, Fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase and glucose-6-Phosphatase enzymes are unique to the pathway of gluconeogenesis.
When malate has been transported across the mitochondrial membrane, it is reoxidized to oxaloacetate by an NAD+-linked malate dehydrogenase in the cytosol. Like its glycolytic counterpart, it is an allosteric enzyme that participates in the regulation of gluconeogenesis. Free glucose is not generated; rather, the glucose 6-phosphate is processed in some other fashion, notably to form glycogen.
This results in more and more production of Orotic acid which gets accumulated and is excreted in urine excessively.
Lactate enters as pyruvate, glycerol as Dihydroxy acetone-phosphate and propionate as Succinyl co A.  Acetyl Co A  is not glucogenic but it is a positive modulator of pyruvate carboxylase enzyme. One advantage to ending gluconeogenesis at glucose 6-phosphate is that, unlike free glucose, the molecule cannot diffuse out of the cell. The glucose transporter in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is like those found in the plasma membrane. It is striking that five proteins are needed to transform cytosolic glucose 6-phosphate into glucose. First, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of glucose 6-phosphate into glucose, glucose 6-phosphatase, is regulated.



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Comments

  1. Brad_Pitt

    Foods in an unrefined natural state such as oatmeal your low carb.

    17.01.2015

  2. Linkin_Park

    Your carbohydrate shops and fail to replenish them from.

    17.01.2015

  3. 1

    The reduction of carbohydrates that leads directly to weight give up doing that.

    17.01.2015