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This office space in Hong Kong takes the use of wood in the workspace to a whole other level.
Comodo’s earlier office was predominantly black and white, as is the new one, except for the natural wood used to create platforms, partitions and furnishings. The extensive use of unfinished raw wood board creates a nice balance of function and whimsy, and brings a sense of the outdoors inside. 2015 bmw 4 series gran coupe with m sport package – youtube, The new bmw 4 series gran coupe offers a choice of five engines. 2015 bmw 2 series convertible will flip its lid for $38,850, The bmw 2 series is dropping its top next year in the us with the new 228i and m235i convertible models.. Bmw 2-series coupe receives 1.5-liter 3-cylinder engine, Bmw has introduced a series of improvements for the 2-series coupe model. Knowledge of the development of the teeth and their emergence into the oral cavity is applicable to clinical practice, anthropology, demography, forensics, and paleontology. When observations from clinical and radiographic sources of information are coupled with sufficient knowledge of dental morphology and the chronologies of the human dentition, the clinician has the foundation for the diagnosis and management of most disorders involving the size, shape, number, arrangement, esthetics, and development of the teeth and also problems related to the sequence of tooth eruption and occlusal relationships. The form of every tooth is related to its position and angulation in the dental arch, its contact relations with the teeth in the opposing arch, its proximal contacts with adjacent teeth, and its relationship to the periodontium. It is not enough to know just the “normal” morphology of the teeth; it is also necessary to accept the concept of morphological variability in a functional, esthetic, and statistical sense.
Uncommon variations in the maxillary central incisors, which are shown in Chapter 6 (see Figure 6-12), reflect samples drawn from a population made up largely of EAa. It is necessary to know the chronologies of the primary and permanent dentitions to answer questions about when disturbances in the form, color, arrangement, and structure of the teeth might have occurred.
Patients who have a disturbance such as the ones shown in Figure 2-2 not only want to know what to do about it, they want to know when or how the problem might have happened. In a cleft palate and lip, various associated malformation of the crowns of the teeth of both dentitions occurs.
The chronology of the primary teeth presented in Table 2-1 is based on data derived from Tables 2-3 and 2-4 in the section on Tooth Formation Standards in this chapter.
Emergence of the primary dentition takes place between the sixth and thirtieth months of postnatal life. The emergence of the primary dentition through the alveolar mucous membrane is an important time for the development of oral motor behavior and the acquisition of masticator skills.8 At this time of development, the presence of “teething” problems suggests how the primary dentition can affect the development of future neurobehavioral mechanisms, including jaw movements and mastication.
Enamel organs (Figure 2-5) do not all develop at the same rate; some teeth are completed before others are formed, which results in different times of eruption for different groups of teeth.
Dental development can be considered to have two components: (1) the formation of crowns and roots and (2) the eruption of the teeth.
Further formation of the root is considered to be an active factor in moving the crown toward its final position in the mouth. The human dentitions are usually categorized as being primary, mixed (transitional), and permanent dentitions. The first indication of tooth formation occurs as early as the sixth week of prenatal life when the jaws have assumed their initial shape; however, at this time the jaws are rather small compared with the large brain case and orbits.
Figure 2-6 Neonatal skull showing large brain case and orbits; the neurocranium is larger than the splanchnocranium, which contains the jaws and all the developing teeth.
The predominant sequence of eruption of the primary teeth in the individual jaw is central incisor (A), lateral incisor (B), first molar (D), canine (C), and second molar (E), as seen in Table 2-1.
At about 8 (6 to 10) months of age, the mandibular central incisors emerge through the alveolar gingiva, followed by the other anterior teeth, so that by about 13 to 16 months, all eight primary incisors have erupted (see Table 2-1). Figure 2-7 Section of mandible in a 9-month-old infant cut through an unerupted primary canine and its permanent successor, which lies lingually and apically to it.
The primary maxillary canines erupt at about 19 (16 to 22) months (Figure 2-8), and the mandibular canines erupt at 20 (17 to 23) months. Note that in this animal, there are three molars (the usual number for most mammals, although there are exceptions), and that the frontmost molar, M1, is the largest, M2 is the second largest, and M3, the backmost molar, is the smallest. To answer those questions, we need to look at how the molars develop, which is exactly what Kavanagh et al. The development of a tooth can be observed in vivo and in vitro by the formation of enamel knots. The molar enamel knots develop sequentially, from front to back, so first M1 forms, then M2, and finally M3. Data from 35 species, compiled from measurements of specimens in the Indiana University Zooarchaeology Laboratory, show that Kavanagh and colleagues’ model can largely account for patterns of molar-size proportions in mammals. Most satisfying of all, though, is seeing an aspect of morphology that shows a law-like behavior, following simple predictively useful rules across such a wide range of animal species.
Kavanagh KD, Evans AR, Jernvall J (2007) Predicting evolutionary patterns of mammalian teeth from development. I am sure in the case of bears and horses, it must be the designer acting directly, changing their tooth sizes(it is supposed to fill the gaps, remember?). Out of curiosity, what (if anything) does this say about the “vestigial” teeth in mammals like bears and martens? The differences in developmental patterns across mammals are not only closely tied to adaptive responses, but also, IMHO, determine larger scale adaptive possibilities. I had understood that systematists preferred to use anatomical features without major functional importance (such as the palate) because they are less subject to misleading convergent evolution. I’m amazed how anyone can actually believe that all these complex systems can actually arise spontaneously!
Yes, Open truth, I’d be amazed if anyone believed these complex systems arose spontaneously too. Paul, has anyone done any neat (pictorial) simulations of growth fields generating tooth formation? Also, the very plasticity of tooth shape indicates that one had better be very careful using them for phylogenetic diagnosis.
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Most of the parts of the teeth that are hidden by the gingiva can be visualized radiographically.

For example, in Figure 2-1, A, the gingival tissues are excellent; however, the form of the maxillary incisors and interdental spacing might be considered to be an esthetic problem by a patient. Note the difference in the shapes of the teeth in A and B, as well as the interdental spacing, and the presence and location of interproximal tooth contacts.
An appreciation for the esthetics of tooth form and coloration is a requirement for the successful practitioner. Most of the data on tooth morphology are derived from studies of samples of population of European-American ancestry (EAa), and, for example, as indicated in the section on Tooth Formation Standards in this chapter, a variety of sequences in eruption of the teeth exist depending on the population sampled. It is possible to accept the incisors shown as being representative of this population, or perhaps “normal” for the EAa population at the time sampled. Dental anomalies are seen most often with third molars, maxillary lateral incisors, and mandibular second premolars.
B, Defect in tooth structure caused by trauma to the primary predecessor during development of the permanent central incisor. The coronal malformations are not limited to the region of the cleft but involve posterior teeth as well.6 A number of congenital malformations involving the teeth are evident, with some the result of endogenous factors and others the result of exogenous agents. It takes from 2 to 3 years for the primary dentition to be completed, beginning with the initial calcification of the primary central incisor to the completion of the roots of the primary second molar (see Figure 2-3).
During these periods before and after birth, disorders in shape, pigmentation, mineralization, and structure sometimes occur (fluorosis is considered later in this chapter). At the cervical border of the enamel (the cervix of the crown), cementum starts to form as a root covering of the dentin.
The process of eruption of the tooth is completed when most of the crown is in evidence and when it has made contact with its antagonist or antagonists in the opposing jaw. Usually at birth, no teeth are visible in the mouth; however, occasionally, infants are born with erupted mandibular incisors. Variations in that order may be the result of reversals of central and lateral incisors or first molar and lateral incisor, or eruption of two teeth at the same time.13 This subject is considered in more detail in the section on Tooth Formation Standards in this chapter and in Chapter 16, which addresses development of the primary occlusion. Then the first primary molars emerge by about 16 months of age and make contact with opposing teeth several months later, before the canines have fully erupted. The primary second mandibular molar erupts at a mean age of 27 (23 to 31, boys) (24 to 30, girls) months, and the primary maxillary second molar follows at a mean age of 29 (25 to 33 ± 1SD) months. Teeth have long been a useful tool in systematics—especially in mammals, they are diverse, they have important functional roles, and they preserve well. Enamel knots are small clumps of tissue that condense at the site of each developing tooth, and they are both spots where the tooth enamel will be secreted, and signaling centers: they secrete molecular signals that both recruit and repel the formation of new enamel knots, one for each cusp of the tooth. If the little scrap of jaw tissue is snipped out and put in a dish to grow in vitro, something different happens: M1 forms, but M2 is greatly delayed. Like the in vitro intact experiment, culture the fragment of jaw in a dish … but cut it carefully to separate that tail of tooth tissue from M1.
These mice were marked with a green fluorescent protein attached to the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) promoter — any cell that turns on the Shh gene glows green. There is an activator molecule which promotes growth of the enamel knots, and which is secreted from the surrounding tissue.
In (a) below, the effect of removing inhibition (by cutting the tissue to isolate M1) is measured: reduced inhibition leads to more equal sized posterior molars. Tooth morphologies where M1 is much larger than the other two would be plotted on the bottom left of the chart, and as the M2 and M3 molars get closer in size to M1, the points would rise … and this would correspond to decreasing the inhibitor.
This formula predicts that M2 will always have an area equal to one third the total molar area. We’re looking directly at the laws of correlation in the development and evolution of this one feature. The white region is consistent with their model; the broken line is the relationship they predicted. It explains most of the data, and suggests relatively simple generalizable regulatory mechanisms, and at the same time, it opens interesting new questions. Pattern becomes a consequence of clean mathematical rules of form, an idea that a Cuvier could appreciate, and at the same time, we can see exactly where genetic variation and selection can step in to generate and stabilize particular patterns, with the regulation of just a few developmentally significant processes. Next thing you’ll be telling me that this simple two-factor model can explain PYGMIES + DWARFS. That’s why phylogenetic analyses use at least 300 characters these days, often 350 or more, and why most use at least 3 times as many characters as species or whatever, both tendencies rising.
We might not know entirely how these networks emerged at present, but that doesn’t give evidence for them appearing magically fully formed either.
My histology class is about to consider tooth histology and development, and this is certainly worth including as a small diversion to bring in the evo-devo angle. I used to wonder how paleontologists could determine that tiny fossil jawbones were from mammals. The normal (original) condition is actually to have three in a straight row, and that goes back much farther than mammals.
The Business Class M2 106 offers exceptional visibility and get-around like the M2 100 but in a bigger, stronger package. More and more fleet and owner operators are turning to the Columbia for features like a large chrome grille that not only looks great, but keeps things cool under the hood more efficiently. This can also be done by using a periodontal probe to locate the depth of normal or pathologically deepened gingival crevices or a dental explorer to sense the surfaces of the teeth within the gingival crevice apical to the free gingival margin as far as the epithelial attachment of the gingiva to the enamel.
To accept the patient’s concern that a cosmetic problem is present and needs correction requires that the practitioner be able to transform the patient’s idea of esthetics into reality by orthodontics and cosmetic restorative dentistry.
Consider the contours of the roots (A), the occlusal contacts of the incisor, canine, and premolar teeth), and the gingiva of the maxillary right central incisor, and the esthetics presented in both A and B.
A shovel-shaped incisor trait is found in a Caucasoid population only infrequently (fewer than 5%); however, it is one of the characteristics found in patients with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and normally in Chinese and Japanese individuals, Mongolians, and Eskimos. Abnormally shaped crowns such as peg laterals and mandibular second premolars with two lingual cusps present restorative and space problems, respectively. Enamel hypoplasia is a general term referring to all quantitative defects of enamel thickness.
The pictorial charts (Figures 2-3 and 2-4) are not intended to be used as ideal standards of normal development. Primary tooth crown formation takes only some 2 to 3 years from initial calcification to root completion. The cementum is similar in some ways to bone tissue and covers the root of the tooth in a thin layer. The root formation is not finished when the tooth emerges; however, the formation of root dentin and cementum continues after the tooth is in use. Thus of importance for the practitioner are the interactions between the morphogenesis of the teeth, development of the dentition, and growth of the craniofacial complex.
The mandibular arch is larger than the maxillary arch, and the vertical dimensions of the jaws are but little developed. Development of both primary and permanent teeth continues in this period, and jaw growth follows the need for additional space posteriorly for additional teeth.
They also show distinct morphological patterns, with incisors, canines, premolars, and molars arranged along the jaw, and species-specific variations within each of those tooth types.

By day 16, the tail of tooth tissue has developed into an independent tooth of its own, M2. This suggests that there is an activating signal from the tooth environment (the small blue arrows in the cartoons) that promotes tooth formation. There is also an inhibitor molecule that is secreted by the enamel knots and suppresses the formation of adjacent knots.
The interesting thing about the developmental data plotted there is that the data all falls on a straight line.
In contrast, increasing inhibition (day 14 explants) leads to smaller posterior molars and eventually the lack of M3. David Polly sees this simple relationship reported in mice, and charges into the collections at the Indiana University Zooarchaeology Laboratory, and starts measuring relative tooth sizes in species other than mice. Horses are also odd in having a smaller M2 than either M1 or M3, a circumstance that is not yet explained. I never thought when I got up this morning that I would be learning evo-devo of mammalian molars today! Then I learned about the three common traits of all mammals: hair somewhere, lactation, and four bumps on the molars.
They turn to the Columbia for aerodynamic design that not only offers a better-handling truck, but improved fuel economy. In addition, in pathologically deepened crevices, tooth surfaces can be sensed as far as the attachment of the periodontal ligament to the cementum. The situation in Figure 2-1, B demonstrates a periodontal problem (localized gingivitis of the gingival margin of the right central incisor), which is in part a result of the inadequate proximal contact relations of the incisors, leading to food impaction and accumulation of dental plaque and some calculus. Statistically then, the shovel-shaped trait might be considered to be abnormal in the Caucasoid population but not so in the Mongoloid populations. They range from single or multiple pits to small furrows and wide troughs to entirely missing enamel. Their use is directed toward showing patients the general aspects of development rather than providing precise guidance for clinical procedures. However, mineralization of the permanent dentition is entirely postnatal, and the formation of each tooth takes about 8 to 12 years.
In the absence of a succeeding permanent tooth, the root of the primary tooth may only partially resorb. When the jaws close at this stage in the development of the dentition, they make contact with the tongue, which in turn makes contact with the cheeks.
In addition the alveolar bone height increases to accommodate the increasing length of the teeth. What rules regulate the relative size of the various molars, and are there any consistent rules that operate across different species? What this tells you is that M1 is secreting an inhibitor (the orange bar in the diagram) to suppress the formation of an adjacent tooth. The photos below show two explanted embryonic jaws; the top row is intact, and the second row has been cut to isolate M1 and its inhibitory effect.
By adjusting the relative potency of these two molecules, the organism can achieve a range of relative tooth sizes. The formula for tooth size of all three molars seems to be simply described by the relative effective concentrations of two factors, a, the activator, and i, the inhibitor. These observations suggest that all mice have the same two knobs controlling a and i, the same underlying developmental mechanisms, but the morphological variation is induced by turning the two knobs to different values. The authors speculate a bit about known signaling molecules and inhibitors expressed in the developing teeth: BMPs, Activin A, and ectodysplasin.
Perhaps the simplest example of clinical observation is the assignment of dental age or the assessment of dental development by looking into a child’s mouth to note the teeth that have emerged through the gingiva.
Even so, for the individual child, considerable variation in the times of emergence of the primary dentition may occur. When root resorption does not follow the usual pattern, the permanent tooth cannot emerge or is otherwise kept out of its normal place.
Additional formation of cementum may occur in response to tooth movement or further eruption of the teeth. The shape of the prenatal head varies considerably, but the relative difference between the brain case, orbits, and lower face height remains the same. However, growth of the anterior parts of the jaws is limited after about the first year of postnatal life.
Look at the different kinds of teeth, and in particular, look at the differences within just the molars. We suggest that this delay is due to a decrease in mesenchymally secreted activators (blue arrows), whereas M1 continues to inhibit M2 normally. The growth of both M2 and M3 were accelerated when M1 was cut away, as shown in the graphs that illustrate the frequency of appearance of the second and third molars in cut and uncut explants. If the activator effectiveness is increased while the inhibitor is held constant, we’d expect the teeth to get larger and in particular, for M2 and M3 to become relatively larger. We note the lack of M3 when M2 is about half the size of M1, in both the experimental and the macroevolutionary data.
We can see how evolution has tweaked and fine-tuned and diddled with these two parameters to produced the different arrangements of teeth in different species of mice. Most conservative correction relates to removal of the irritants and daily tooth brushing and dental flossing, especially of the interproximal areas of the central incisors. The primary dentition is completely formed by about age 3 and functions for a relatively short period of time before it is lost completely at about age 11. In addition, the failure of the root to resorb may bring about prolonged retention of the primary tooth.
If the activator is held constant and the inhibitor is strengthened, M1 will stay the same size, but M2 and M3 will become increasingly smaller in proportion. Look at that — almost everything falls into the white area where the general morphology can be explained by a simple two factor model.
How did such different mammals as bears and horses modify the general rule, and is there a specific functional advantage to their differences? Although mandibular teeth do not begin to move occlusally until crown formation is complete, their eruption rate does not closely correlate with root elongation. The covering of cementum of the permanent teeth is much thicker than that of the primary teeth. If the form of a tooth is not consistent with its functions in the dental arches, then it is highly probable that nonfunctional positions of interproximal contacts will lead to the problems indicated in Figure 2-1, B. After the crown and part of the root are formed, the tooth penetrates the alveolar gingiva and makes its entry (emergence) into the mouth. You’d be able to generate a wide range of tooth morphologies with just two regulators.

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