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Send Home Our method Usage examples Index Statistics Advertise with us ContactWe do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Common brand name Antipsychotics include Abilify, Clozaril, Geodon, Invega, Risperdal, Seroquel, Zyprexa, Fanapt. There have been 72 warnings from eight countries (United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and South Africa) warning that antipsychotic drugs cause harmful side effects. There are 97 studies from seventeen countries (United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Netherlands, Australia, Spain, Turkey, Italy, Israel, Ireland, Denmark, New Zealand, China, France, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan) showing that antipsychotic drugs cause harmful side effects.
Top Reactions for All Ages: There have been 117,414 Adverse Drug Reactions in connection with antipsychotics that have been reported to the FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System (MedWatch), between 2004 and 2012.
The FDA estimates that less than 1% of all serious events are ever reported to it, so the actual number of side effects occurring are most certainly higher. Note: Side effects of psychiatric drugs can persist for months, if not years, after stopping them. This brochure is a simple guide that documents the dangerous and deadly side effects of the drugs prescribed to millions of men, women and children diagnosed with bogus mental disorders. Many agents show promise in the laboratory and are undergoing Phase 2 evaluation of clinical efficacy. Repositioning of agents already licensed for use in man avoids major safety and tolerability concerns.
The existence of a wide range of agents, with diverse mechanisms all related to our latest understanding of PD neuro-degeneration, provides hope that one or more of these may translate to a clinically useful therapy.
While neuro-“regeneration” is conceptually distinct from neuro-protection, from the perspective of therapeutic development in Parkinson’s disease, progress indicating any effect in slowing, stopping or reversing neurodegeneration would be warmly welcomed.
Thus far, the clinical trial data in patients with PD shows that the 10mg dose of the drug is well enough tolerated with respect to blood pressure lowering, although the evidence of beneficial effects (~1 point advantage in the total Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS) score after one year) is modest and did not reach statistical significance.6 Whether this effect size is of clinical importance is debatable, however these data have already been considered sufficiently strong to secure $23m funding from NIH to take this agent to a phase 3 trial. In 2003, an open label trial of intra-putaminal GDNF infusion in PD patients reported positive clinical and radiological outcomes, however a subsequent double blind trial could not replicate these beneficial effects.12,13 Prolonged debate followed regarding differences in the methods used to administer the GDNF in the double blind trial that may have explained this discrepancy. Nevertheless, inspired by the original results and long term follow up of patients in the open label trial, the team in Bristol, UK are recruiting further patients to a further double blind trial to revisit and clarify the potential of intra-putaminal administration of GDNF. Exenatide is an agonist for the Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1), the stimulation of which leads to an increase in insulin release and proliferation of pancreatic beta islet cells.23 It is licensed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Pioglitazone is a licensed treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and acts to improve insulin resistance via an action on the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR??) receptor.
As a result of these observations, a phase 2 trial of pioglitazone in 216 patients with PD is underway but as yet there are no efficacy data in humans with PD. Given that we know that excessive levels of (even normal) alpha synuclein are sufficient to cause PD, the concept of using vaccination has arisen, to try and lower these levels.35 The major problem has been identifying whether and how a peripherally administered antibody can access the central nervous system and target a predominantly intracellular protein, and have sufficient selectivity for alpha synuclein and no other synucleins.


The GBA gene encodes the enzyme glucosylceramidase (GCase), and homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in this gene are the cause of Gaucher’s disease.
Ongoing work to develop more useful animal models of PD neurodegeneration, and to develop a reliable biomarker that can be used to judge effects in humans with PD will be enormously helpful. These issues and further work to understand PD pathogenesis remain of vital importance, but from a pragmatic perspective there is an urgency to efficiently confirm or exclude beneficial effects of those agents with the strongest supportive data without undue delay.
This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. Any mechanism through which an agent may protect against neuronal degeneration, might similarly allow endogenous repair processes to resume, therefore there is no attempt to distinguish between these concepts here. Creatine, Coenzyme Q10 and Cogane all showed promise as potential disease modifying agents in PD but all failed when formally evaluated in large phase 2 trials. Overall, the difference in the rate of worsening based on change in total UPDRS score per year indicated only a very slight advantage (~1 point) in the higher dose inosine treated group only, and careful consideration must be taken to decide whether this magnitude of signal of effect justifies the major further investment currently being sought.
After cessation of the drug, all patients slowly deteriorated but again those individuals treated earlier had a modest advantage at all subsequent time points over the next two years. However, as yet none have emerged with robust double blind data to demonstrate a major neuroprotective effect in patients with PD.
Furthermore, while it is hoped that the identification of a disease modifying agent in PD will be of use in individuals with established disease, other initiatives are underway to try and identify “at-risk” populations who might be more responsive to treatments that require a relatively intact cellular architecture. To this end, there are considerable efforts to streamline and “de-risk” this process through the linked clinical trials initiative.42 The challenges are great but with the breadth and depth of the efforts being made to overcome these challenges, it is reasonable to be optimistic.
The L-type channel antagonist isradipine is neuroprotective in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Pathological ?-synuclein transmission initiates Parkinson-like neurodegeneration in nontransgenic mice. Phase II safety, tolerability, and dose selection study of isradipine as a potential disease-modifying intervention in early Parkinson’s disease (STEADY-PD).
Inosine to Increase Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Urate in Parkinson Disease.   JAMA Neurol.
Randomized controlled trial of intraputamenal glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor infusion in Parkinson disease.
Six-month continuous intraputamenal infusion toxicity study of recombinant methionyl human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (r-metHuGDNF in rhesus monkeys.
GM1 ganglioside rescues substantia nigra pars compacta neurons and increases dopamine synthesis in residual nigrostriatal do- paminergic neurons in MPTP-treated mice. A randomized, controlled, delayed start trial of GM1 ganglioside in treated Parkinson’s disease patients.


Redistribution of accumulated cell iron: a modality of chelation with therapeutic implications. Discovery and development of exenatide: the first antidiabetic agent to leverage the multiple benefits of the incretin hormone, GLP-1.
A novel neurotrophic property of glucagon-like peptide 1: a promoter of nerve growth factor-mediated differentiation in PC12 cells. Protection and reversal of excitotoxic neuronal damage by glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4. Peptide hormone exendin-4 stimulates subventricular zone neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain and induces recovery in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Exendin-4 protects dopaminergic neurons by inhibition of microglial activation and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Exendin-4 reverses biochemical and behavioral deficits in a pre-motor rodent model of Parkinson’s disease with combined noradrenergic and serotonergic lesions. Modulating microglia activity with PPAR-? agonists: a promising therapy for Parkinson’s disease? The PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone modulates inflammation and induces neuroprotection in parkinsonian monkeys.
Passive immunization reduces behavioral and neuropathological deficits in an alpha-synuclein transgenic model of Lewy body disease.
The glucocerebrosidase E326 K variant predisposes to Parkinson’s disease, but does not cause Gaucher’s disease.
Ambroxol improves lysosomal biochemistry in glucocerebrosidase mutation-linked Parkinson disease cells.
Our enthusiasm for the next generation of candidates must thus be tempered by these disappointments and necessitates closer scrutiny of the evidence supporting potential efficacy before the major financial investment is made to embark on further very expensive, large scale trials. There is therefore ongoing interest in the potential of GM1 as both a symptomatic as well as a potential neuroprotective drug in PD. Similar attempts are underway to try and lower beta amyloid levels as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Ambroxol hydrochloride is a small molecule that protects GCase from thermal denaturation and boosts the function of GCase through upregulation of the transcription factor TFEB.40 It is licensed for use in humans and is present in many cough syrups as it also has a role as a mucolytic. It can cross the blood brain barrier.41 Laboratory data therefore lend strong support to taking this agent into phase 1 clinical trial in PD patients.



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