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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Aim of the review To systematically analyze the efficacy and safety of liraglutide for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in comparison to other mono- and combination therapies. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist that helps the pancreas release more insulin after a meal to keep a person’s blood sugar levels under control. Method PubMed (any date) and EMBASE (all years) search was conducted with liraglutide as a search term. Liraglutide, a long-acting human glucagon-like peptide 1 analog, improves glucose homeostasis in marginal mass islet transplantation in mice. The medication is currently available as a once-daily injection (VictozaPen), but an oral form of Victoza is undergoing testing.Victoza stimulates the production of insulin as needed, based on the body’s blood glucose level to decrease post-meal hyperglycemia. The medication is active for 12 hours after the injection to provide benefits through all of the patient’s mealtimes.Victoza is made by a company called Novo Nordisk, which is one of the largest and broadest-reaching pharmaceutical companies that produce medications for diabetic patients in the world. Results Eight Phase III clinical studies compared the efficacy and safety of liraglutide to other monotherapies or combinations. Its generic name is liraglutide, but the generic counterpart of this medication has not yet been approved for sale.
Liraglutide as monotherapy in doses of 0.9 mg or above showed a significantly superior reduction in HbA1C compared to monotherapies with glimepiride or glyburide. Molecular, pharmacological and clinical aspects of liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analogue. It is a newer medication when compared with some of the other treatments available to patients with type 2 diabetes and it should not be used to treat any other form of diabetes or hypoglycemia. When liraglutide was used as add-on therapy to glimepiride in doses of 1.2 mg or above, the reduction of HbA1C was greater than that in the combination therapy of glimepiride and rosiglitazone. Liraglutide should be used with other therapies for diabetes treatment, including exercise and healthy eating habits.Victoza UsesAt this time, Victoza is used as part of a complete treatment and prevention plan for patients with type 2 diabetes. However, liraglutide as add-on therapy to metformin failed to show benefit over combination of metformin and glimepiride. Individuals with this condition do not produce enough insulin on their own to control the levels of glucose, or sugar, in their blood.
Triple therapy of using liraglutide in addition to metformin plus either glimepiride or rosiglitazone resulted in additional benefit in HbA1C reduction. Molecular modeling of the three-dimensional structure of GLP-1R and its interactions with several agonists.

Most common adverse events were gastrointestinal disturbance such as nausea, vomit, diarrhea, and constipation. During the eight clinical studies, six cases of pancreatitis and five cases of cancer were reported in liraglutide arm, whereas there was one case of each of pancreatitis in exenatide and glimepiride arms, respectively, and one case of cancer in metformin plus sitagliptin arm. Victoza works with the pancreas and digestive system to prevent either of these potentially life-threatening conditions from occurring. Conclusion Liraglutide is a new therapeutic option to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Effects of the long-acting human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide on beta-cell function in normal living conditions. Because Victoza is still a new medication, other possible uses, as well as side effects are still unknown. However, the present lack of evidence of durability of efficacy and long-term safety appear to limit its utility in the general treatment of type 2 diabetes at this time. This medication also slows the time it takes for food to leave the stomach, thereby helping to keep patients’ appetites under control and sometimes even helping them to lose weight. Patients should not be concerned with hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, because the medication is specially designed to respond only to high levels of sugar in the blood.Victoza is taken once daily at the same time each day by injection and is 97% similar to the naturally occurring hormone in the body that signals natural insulin production. Stimulation of pancreatic beta-cell replication by incretins involves transcriptional induction of cyclin D1 via multiple signalling pathways.
It is not recommended to be the first medication used to fight type 2 diabetes, but it is a wonderful alternative for patients who do not respond to more conventional therapies. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the once-daily human GLP-1 analog liraglutide in Japanese healthy subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-escalation study. Metabolism and excretion of the once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in healthy male subjects and its in vitro degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV and neutral endopeptidase.
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of liraglutide, a long-acting, potent glucagon-like peptide-1 analog. Differentiating incretin therapies based on structure, activity, and metabolism: focus on liraglutide. Incorporating incretin-based therapies into clinical practice: differences between glucagon-like Peptide 1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors. Liraglutide: a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analog and insulin combination therapy in the management of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus: current status and future prospects.

Liraglutide versus glimepiride monotherapy for type 2 diabetes (LEAD-3 Mono): a randomised, 52-week, phase III, double-blind, parallel-treatment trial. Liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, provides sustained improvements in glycaemic control and weight for 2 years as monotherapy compared with glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes. Efficacy and safety of the once-daily human GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, vs glibenclamide monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analogue, added to a sulphonylurea over 26 weeks produces greater improvements in glycaemic and weight control compared with adding rosiglitazone or placebo in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (LEAD-1 SU). Efficacy and safety comparison of liraglutide, glimepiride, and placebo, all in combination with metformin, in type 2 diabetes: the LEAD (liraglutide effect and action in diabetes)-2 study.
Liraglutide versus sitagliptin for patients with type 2 diabetes who did not have adequate glycaemic control with metformin: a 26-week, randomised, parallel-group, open-label trial. One year of liraglutide treatment offers sustained and more effective glycaemic control and weight reduction compared with sitagliptin, both in combination with metformin, in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, parallel-group, open-label trial. Liraglutide once a day versus exenatide twice a day for type 2 diabetes: a 26-week randomised, parallel-group, multinational, open-label trial (LEAD-6).
Efficacy and safety of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in combination with metformin and thiazolidinedione in patients with type 2 diabetes (LEAD-4 Met + TZD).
Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met + SU): a randomised controlled trial.
A biomarker concept for assessment of insulin resistance, beta-cell function and chronic systemic inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Achievement of American Diabetes Association clinical practice recommendations among US adults with diabetes, 1999–2002: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Improvement in A1C levels and diabetes self-management activities following a nutrition and diabetes education program in older adults. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, tolerability, and safety of exenatide in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists activate rodent thyroid C-cells causing calcitonin release and C-cell proliferation.

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