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Obesity is a disease in which fat accumulates in the body, to the point where has an adverse effect on health.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australia has been steadily increasing over the past 30 years. Most worryingly, national data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children indicated 17% of 2-16-year-olds were overweight and 6% were obese2.
It is anticipated that at the current rate of increase, by 2020, 75% of the population will be overweight or obese and 65% of young Australians will be overweight or obese.
The expected growth in the prevalence of obesity is the major reason for projections that, by 2023, type 2 diabetes will become the leading cause of disease burden for males and the second leading cause for females. According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the fraction of diabetes which is directly attributable to obesity is 24%4.
New research published in 2010 shows the total direct cost of overweight and obesity in Australia is $21 billion a year, which is double previous estimates5.
Obesity causes serious comorbidities, shortens life expectancy, reduces quality of life, and increases health care costs. It is predicted that overweight and obesity levels in Australia will continue to rise significantly in the next decade. The research that we do at CORE aims to establish better understanding of the disease of obesity and its comorbidities and to identify optimal methods for the safe, cost-effective, long-term management of this disease. A new study by researchers from the University of Copenhagen has revealed a possible common genetic cause between psoriasis, type 2 diabetes and obesity. A new twin study has revealed the potential of a common genetic cause between psoriasis, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) describes as an autoimmune disease that involves the rapid growth of skin cells.
Symptoms of psoriasis include patches of thick, red skin that possess silvery scales that cause pain or itching. Using data from 33,588 Danish twins aged 20 to 71 years old, Ann Lønnberg of the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and her team examined the link between psoriasis and type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Each participant completed a questionnaire about psoriasis that was then compared to type 2 diabetes diagnosis and body mass index (BMI). In a study of 720 sets of twins with type 2 diabetes, only one twin of the pairs had psoriasis, and this twin, on average, had a higher BMI and was more likely to be obese that the twin without psoriasis. The authors believe that psoriasis and obesity could stem from the same genetic cause, although they note that one condition does not necessary cause the other.
You don't have to be a booze hound to enjoy the travel adventures of Jack Maxwell, host of "Booze Traveler" on Travel Channel.
Louise Harrison, the elder sister of George Harrison, had a front-row seat to musical history. Lukas Nelson, the son of Willie Nelson, has released a new album, "Something Real," with his roots rock band Lukas Nelson & Promise of The Real.
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Are there racial or ethnic differences in the percentage of total dietary kilocalories consumed from sugar drinks? Are there income differences in the percentage of total dietary kilocalories consumed from sugar drinks? Non-Hispanic black children and adolescents consume more sugar drinks in relation to their overall diet than their Mexican-American counterparts.
Low-income persons consume more sugar drinks in relation to their overall diet than those with higher income.
Most of the sugar drinks consumed away from home are obtained from stores and not restaurants or schools. Consumption of sugar drinks in the United States has increased over the last 30 years among both children and adults (1a€“3). Overall, males consume an average of 178 kcal from sugar drinks on any given day, while females consume 103 kcal. Approximately one-half of the population aged 2 and older consumes sugar drinks on any given day.
Higher-income persons consume fewer kilocalories from sugar drinks as a percentage of total daily kilocalories than do lower-income individuals. Sugar drinks: For these analyses, sugar drinks include fruit drinks, sodas, energy drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened bottled waters, consistent with definitions reported by the National Cancer Institute (8). Location of sugar-drink consumption: Respondents to the 24-hour dietary recall interview were asked if each reported food was consumed at home or away from home. Source of sugar drinks: Respondents to the 24-hour dietary recall interview were asked where they obtained each food consumed.
Poverty income ratio (PIR): A measure representing the ratio of household income to the poverty threshold after accounting for inflation and family size. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used for these analyses.
The NHANES sample is selected through a complex, multistage design that includes selection of primary sampling units (counties), household segments within the counties, households within segments, and, finally, sample persons from selected households.
Sample weights, which account for the differential probabilities of selection, nonresponse, and noncoverage, were incorporated into the estimation process. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Diabetes is a long-term condition in which the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too high so that the body’s cells cannot use glucose properly. Type 1, which occurs mostly in childhood and young adulthood and is due to the failure of the pancreas to secrete insulin (the hormone which allow the cells to use glucose) and nearly always has to be treated with insulin injections. Type 2 occurs when the body cannot make enough insulin or when the insulin cannot work properly. Diabetes leads to significant damage to the lining of blood vessels throughout the body leading to a variety of problems such as kidney failure, blindness, gangrene, loss of sensation and ulceration of the feet (see note 1), and to an increased risk of heart attack and an increased risk of dying from heart attack. As diabetes can be asymptomatic it is difficult to estimate an exact prevalence in the borough.
The proportion of people with diabetes has risen over the years and is higher in Enfield than in London or England (Quality and Outcomes Framework, QOF). Comparisons between the predicted and recorded number of people living with diabetes in Enfield indicates that the gap between the diagnosed and estimated levels of diabetes may equate to as many as 2,688 undiagnosed cases of diabetes (14% of all expected cases).
The proportion of people in Enfield with diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed) is predicted to rise by about 30% (5,700 people) by the year 2030 (Yorkshire and Humberside Public Health Observatory). Death rates from diabetes have been falling, with death rates in Enfield being similar to those in London and in England (Health and Social Care Information Centre).


When diabetes is uncontrolled, the person may go into a diabetic coma and need emergency admission to hospital. Lack of physical activity - it is estimated that if all the adult population met recommended levels of physical activity prevalence of diabetes in Enfield would be 14% less (1822 cases) (Health Impact of Physical Inactivity; Association of Public Health Observatories). A substantial number of the Enfield population are in higher-risk age bands (some 13,900 people aged 55-64 years, some 9,500 people aged 65-74 years and some 7,400 people aged 75 years and over). Many of the complications of diabetes can be prevented by a regime of treatment which keeps the blood sugar at the level it should be. People with diabetes can play a large part in looking after themselves and making decisions about their own care.
A National Diabetes Audit helps to monitor quality of diabetes care, and 22 out of 53 Enfield practices (41.5%) participate in this audit. The rate of complications of diabetes in Enfield is higher than that for people with diabetes in England and Wales overall and this suggests that diabetes control is not as good as it might be. In a large number of patients in Enfield, diabetic control was good as shown by blood glucose (indicated by HbA1C), cholesterol and blood pressure. Data for all people with diabetes in Enfield (including patients of practices not taking part in the National Diabetes Audit) is available from Quality Outcome Framework (QOF) (see note 17). In Enfield there is a specialist nurse diabetes team, which supports patients with diabetes and helps general practices to deliver diabetes care. There is a marked gap between observed and expected prevalence of diabetes; there is likely to be a group of residents currently undiagnosed and therefore would not benefit from advice and treatment.
Diabetes is a common condition currently affecting about 19,000 people in Enfield of whom over 3,100 may be undiagnosed and are thus not being treated. The risk of developing diabetes increases with age, and above the age of 64 years, 1 in 7 people are likely to have diabetes. The complication rate for people with diabetes in Enfield is similar to the overall complication rate for England. General medical practice plays a very large part in management of people with diabetes and this is often shared with hospital care. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has issued a very wide range of guidance on that management of diabetes over the years, including nine checks which should be carried out regularly on all patients with diabetes (NICE Guidance). The proportion of people with diabetes who are well controlled in Enfield is similar to the proportion nationally. Encourage and enable people to eat healthily and to have adequate levels of physical activity. Continue to improve and support diabetes care in general practice and in hospitals in order to increase the proportion of people receiving all nine recommended checks each year.
Further develop and encourage shared care between hospital diabetologists and primary care. Monitor diabetes prevalence in Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups for which data is currently inadequately available with a view to identifying other high-risk groups. Note 1: Larger blood vessels have their own blood supply, that is small blood vessels that supply their walls and linings. Enfield Council uses cookies to improve your experience of our websites.To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our cookie policy. Between 1990 and 2005, the number of overweight and obese Australian adults increased by 2.8 million1. These increases are expected to occur across all age groups and affect approximately two-thirds of the population6. Additionally, we seek to identify preventive strategies that can be implemented in the community. Type 2 Diabetes Costs in Australia - the potential impact of changes in diet, physical activity and levels of obesity. It affects two to three percent of white people around the world and has been linked to obesity and diabetes.
Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American adults consume more than non-Hispanic white adults.
Sugar drinks have been linked to poor diet quality, weight gain, obesity, and, in adults, type 2 diabetes (4,5). Mean consumption of sugar drinks is higher in males than females at all ages except among 2- to 5-year-olds. Among adult women, the percentage is lower, with 40% consuming sugar drinks on any given day, while among boys aged 2a€“19, 70% consume sugar drinks on any given day (Figure 2). Of these sugar-drink kilocalories, the vast majority is purchased in stores (92%), and just over 6% is purchased in restaurants or fast-food establishments. For example, males consume more than females, and teenagers and young adults consume more than other age groups. Most sugar drinks consumed away from home are obtained from stores, but more than one-third are obtained in restaurants or fast-food establishments.
Sugar drinks do not include diet drinks, 100% fruit juice, sweetened teas, and flavored milks.
To determine source of food, respondents were offered 26 options, categorized for this brief as store, restaurant (including fast-food), school or child care, and other. In 2008, a PIR of 350% was equivalent to approximately $77,000 for a family of four; a PIR of 130% was equivalent to approximately $29,000 for a family of four. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S.
The sample design includes oversampling to obtain reliable estimates of health and nutritional measures for population subgroups. The standard errors of the percentages were estimated using Taylor Series Linearization, a method that incorporates the sample weights and sample design.
Trends in food and nutrient intakes by adults: NFCS 1977a€“78, CSFII 1989-91, and CSFII 1994-95.
Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: The American Heart Association's strategic impact goal through 2020 and beyond. Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States.
It used to be called ‘maturity-onset diabetes’ because it was normally only seen in people in their late 50s and 60s. The predicted rise in Enfield is greater than that for England overall because the proportion of older people in the general population of Enfield is rising, as well as the number of people in ethnic groups with higher diabetes risk. Mortality rates fluctuate widely due to the small number of deaths and differences are not statistically significant.


As stated above these include heart disease, stroke, blindness, peripheral neuropathy and kidney disease, each of which has significant health and financial implications.
Other non-modifiable risk factors include ethnicity (Black African, Asian) and some medical conditions such as pituitary disease. National data suggests that the prevalence of diabetes is about three times higher in people from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and the Caribbean (Health Survey for England, 2004). In addition, a sizable proportion of the population come from ethnic groups with an increased risk of diabetes.
Most hospital care for people with diabetes in Enfield is provided by the North Middlesex University Hospital NHS Trust or Barnet and Chase Farm Hospitals NHS Trust. In Enfield, just over half of patients with diabetes (51.4%) cared for by practices participating in the National Diabetes Audit, had eight checks that they should have had in the past 15 months. The percentage of patients with good control was similar to that for the country generally. These results appear slightly better than those recorded by the National Diabetes Audit, but these QOF data must be regarded as less reliable as practices that take part in the National Diabetes Audit may have better management of long-term conditions that those that do not. Enfield Diabetes Support Group, a branch of Diabetes UK, holds regular meetings for people with diabetes and their relatives at Chase Farm Hospital. The risk of developing diabetes is also higher in people from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh as well as in Black Caribbean populations. The figures relate to health care costs such as hospitalisation, medical care and medications. Prepared by Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Preventative Health National Research Flagship and the University of South Australia. Furthermore, those with psoriasis had an average BMI of 25, which was higher on average than those without (24.4). Consumption of sugar drinks increases until ages 12a€“19 years and then decreases with age. Among adults, non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American persons consume more than non-Hispanic white persons, and low-income individuals consume more sugar drinks in relation to their total diet than higher-income individuals.
Percentage of daily kilocalories from sugar drinks is the percentage of total daily energy obtained from sugar drinks.
Population estimates of sugar-drink kilocalories are based on data from one in-person, 24-hour dietary recall interview.
But it is now seen in people of all ages and, most worryingly, in an increasing number of children.
A further 3,100 (roughly1% of the registered population) may have undiagnosed diabetes equating to an overall prevalence of 8.6%. Whilst there has been a general downward trend in the mortality rate from diabetes in Enfield, it should be remembered that the DSR is based on diabetes as the underlying cause of death. The rate of complications of diabetes in Enfield is higher than that for people with diabetes in England and Wales overall and statistically significant differences were found for both angina and renal replacement therapy.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has also published detailed guidance on different aspects of diabetes care for Type 1 diabetes (CG15), Type 2 diabetes (CG66), diabetic foot care (CG119), patient education models (TA60) and prevention (PH35) (NICE). The proportion of patients with diabetes receiving each check was similar to national figures. The group has also published a handbook “Living with Diabetes” (Enfield Diabetes Support Group, 2008), available at GP surgeries in Enfield in four languages (English, Turkish, Somali, Bengali). Principally, because obesity is more common amongst people living in deprived areas, so too is diabetes.
Canberra: Australian Food and Nutrition Monitoring Unit, Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care. Consumption of sugar drinks is lowest among the oldest females (42 kcal per day) and highest among males aged 12a€“19 (273 kcal per day) (Figure 1). Over 20% of sugar-drink kilocalories consumed away from home are obtained in other places such as vending machines, cafeterias, street vendors, and community food programs, among others (Figure 6). Census Bureau data (9).The cut point for participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program is 130% of the poverty level.
The survey consists of interviews conducted in participants' homes, standardized physical examinations in mobile examination centers, and laboratory tests utilizing blood and urine specimens provided by participants during the physical examination. In 2007a€“2008, African-American and overall Latino subgroups were oversampled, with sufficient sample sizes for separate analysis of the Mexican-American subgroup.
Carroll are with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.
Its principal cause is overweight and obesity and this is significant: as an increasing number of people become overweight and subsequently obese, we can expect an increasing number of people to develop diabetes.
However, diabetes would have been an indirect cause in many more deaths by increasing the risk of other conditions such as heart attack, stroke and kidney failure.
There is a mass of evidence that good diabetic care with good control of blood glucose levels better enables people with diabetes to live a normal enjoyable life and to avoid the serious complications of the disease. Damage caused to the vasa nervorum, because of diabetes, itself damages peripheral nerves, especially in the feet.
Moreover, the American Heart Association has recommended a consumption goal of no more than 450 kilocalories (kcal) of sugar-sweetened beveragesa€”or fewer than three 12-oz cans of carbonated colaa€”per week (7). The age patterns of percentage of total daily kilocalories from sugar drinks (not shown) are similar to those for kilocalories from sugar drinks.
Dietary information for this analysis was obtained via an in-person, 24-hour dietary recall interview in the mobile examination center. Sohyun Park is with CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Unfortunately, this is not achieved in a high proportion of diabetic populations leading to increased risk of complications. With, for example, a consequential loss of pain sensation minor damage to the feet goes unnoticed.
This brief presents the most recent national data on sugar-drink consumption in the United States.
Each year of data collection is based on a representative sample covering all ages of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population. And because the blood supply to the feet is compromised by the effect of diabetes on blood vessels supplying the skin and underlying tissues, small areas of damage heal poorly, if at all, leading to ulceration and further tissue damage including ‘dry’ gangrene where large areas of tissues, such as whole toes, literally die and become black and mummified.
Unfortunately, because the blood supply to the feet is damaged, this surgical procedure runs the risk of leading to poor healing and ulceration and it is often necessary to make an amputation at a relatively high level to ensure an adequate blood supply to ensure adequate healing.



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