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Shin splints is the name often given to exercise-induced pain in the lower leg, specifically along the front of the leg between the knee and the ankle - the area known as the shin. Pain on the inside heel and ankle that cause you to limp may be a sign of abductor hallucis muscle dysfunction. The abductor hallucis attaches to one of the bones of the big toe and runs down the inside of the bottom of the foot and connects to the heel. Trigger points and muscle dysfunction in the abductor hallucis muscle can contribute to plantar fascitis and bone spurs. You use the abductor hallucis to move the big toe away from the other toes and to bend the big toe downward. Biofreeze Pain Relieving Gel is a cold therapy gel that provides pain relieve for new injuries and is great as a maintenance treatment for over use injuries.
Sombra Warm Therapy Pain Relieving Gel is a pain relieving gel that I use both personally and professionally in my massage therapy practice.
NOTE: Do not use Sombra Warming Gel when using ice packs or heat packs as there is a risk of blistering the skin. It is important that immediately after an injury you apply cold treatment and compression to reduce pain and swelling. Note that posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a separate condition caused by inflammation or damage to the tendon that reduces its ability to support the arch, often resulting in flat feet.
Use this tool to determine what condition(s) may be causing your foot pain or other symptoms, and which foot-health professionals might help. There are several symptoms that you should know so that you will be aware if you are having this chronic skin disease.
Whenever you are experiences most of these symptoms or even just some, it is best to visit a dermatologist.
Aside from the mentioned information above, this skin problem will show like a rash and it will affect the abdomen, legs, back, arms, and chest. A torn meniscus is a tear to the semi circular cartilage in the knee joint causing pain on the inside of the knee.
It is commonly injured through direct impact in contact sports or twisting but can also occur in older athletes through gradual degeneration. Symptoms include pain on the inside of the knee which may be of sudden onset but can also occur gradually. There will be tenderness along the joint line on the inside of the knee and range of motion is likely to be restricted.
The most common cause of cartilage meniscus injury is twisting the knee with the foot planted to the ground either with or without contact from another player. Immediate first aid is to apply the PRICE principles of protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation. Protect the joint from further injury by wearing a stabilized knee support which has flexible springs in the sides for additional support or for more severe injuries a hinged knee brace with solid metal supports linked by a hinge will help protect the joint from sideways or lateral movement.
Once a cartilage meniscus injury has been diagnosed then the decision to treat it conservatively, meaning without surgery or whether to operate is made. Conservative treatment involves continuing to applying the PRICE principles to reduce pain and swelling and wear a knee support to protect the knee.
After the initial acute stage mobility exercises and isometric quadriceps exercises will help accelerate rehabilitation and prevent re-injury. A hamstring strain or pulled hamstring is felt as a sudden sharp pain at the back of the thigh. Symptoms of a hamstring strain include a sudden sharp pain at the back of the thigh usually whilst sprinting or a fast stretching movement or high kick.
The hamstring muscle group consists of three separate muscles; the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris. During sprinting the hamstring muscles work extremely hard to decelerate the shin bone just before the foot strikes the ground and it is at this point that the hamstring is most likely to tear. Treatment for a hamstring strain can be categorized into immediate first aid and longer term treatment which begins after the initial acute period has passed. Immediate first aid consists of the PRICE principles of protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation and will usually last 3 to 4 days depending on severity.
After the initial acute stage has passed hot and cold can be alternated and during the later stages of treatment heat alone is applied for up to 20 minutes to stimulate blood flow and relax the muscles.
A professional therapist may apply sports massage techniques and use electrotherapy such as ultrasound as well as advise on a full rehabilitation program to include stretching, strengthening and functional exercises.
Performing foam roller exercises for the hamstrings can massage and apply myofascial release to the muscles. Stretching - after the initial acute stage very gentle stretching exercises can begin as long as they are pain free. Strengthening exercises should always be done pain free begin with gentle static or isometric contractions as soon as possible after the initial acute period. Maintaining fitness is important not only to speed up the athletes return to full fitness but to keep them sane! It is almost spring time and many runners will be ramping up their running mileage in preparation for spring and summer running races! Plantar fasciitis is a common running related injury and is often caused by excessive running, wearing the wrong type of shoe while running, wearing shoes that are too old and worn out while running, or building up running mileage too quickly. Pain and tenderness in the sole of the foot, mostly under the heel bone, with standing, running or walking. Particularly noticeable sharp, stabbing pain with the first steps when getting out of bed in the morning or after sitting. Wear appropriate shoes with good arch support during your activity but also during your day to day life.
Make stretching and flexibility exercises part of your daily running routine concentrating on the bottom of the foot, calf, and hamstring. Give yourself plenty of time to warm up and stretch your calf and foot before beginning your activity.


Maintain a healthy weight – this will help  to decrease the stress placed on the plantar fascia. Plantar Fasciitis is typically treated with rest, anti-inflammatory medications, and physical therapy. A partial achilles tendon rupture can occur in athletes from all sports but particularly running, jumping, throwing and racket sports. Often the athlete will not feel the achilles tendon rupture at the time but will become aware of it later when the tendon has cooled down. Correctly diagnose the injury - Thompson's test is one way of assessing the achilles tendon. A full achilles tendon rupture rehabilitation program is required which will include stretching as well as strengthening exercises.
The exact cause of shin splints is not certain but they tend to be as a result of overuse and typically occur in runners. Cold therapy should be used on new and recent injuries instead of heat as it cools the area much like ice and does not promote swelling.
For the most effective treatment, apply after using heat to prolong the treatment and pain relief. Tendinitis is simply inflammation of a tendon, but it can create pain and tenderness near joints. You should be aware that whenever you delay the treatment for this skin condition, it becomes severe and symptoms are severe also. However, there are some individuals who are experiencing this and they age from 10-35 years old. The only thing is, you need to have it moderately since over doing it will result to sunburn. A doctor or sports injury professional can confirm the diagnosis with the aid of specific assessment tests including McMurrays test and Apley's test and may refer for an MRI scan.
A cartilage injury often occurs in conjunction with injury to other structures in the knee such as an anterior cruciate ligament injury or a medial collateral ligament sprain. These lie on the inside and outside of the upper surface of the tibia or shin bone and act as shock absorbers for the knee. A Doctor may prescribe NSAID's or anti inflammatory drugs such as Ibuprofen in the early stages to help with pain and swelling.
Treatment involves immediate first aid of rest, ice and compression followed by a full rehabilitation and exercise program.
They originate from the lower part of the pelvis and insert into the back of the shin bone. Stretch related injuries usually occur higher at the back of the thigh in the tendon of the semimembranosus muscle. A cold therapy and compression wrap should be applied immediately for 10-15 minutes and repeat this every hour for the first day.
Pressure is applied from just above the knee upwards following the direction of blood flow.
Our four strand hamstring strain rehabilitation program includes gradually progressive exercises which the patient can work through until fully fit.
Initially simple static stretching exercises should be done with leg both straight and slightly bent in order to target different parts of the muscle.
The patient will gradually progress through a serious of more dynamic and functional exercises involving movement. After the acute stage stationary exercise machines such as rowing machines and cross trainers are used. Take a couple of minutes to read this blog post to learn about ways to prevent a painful and irritating condition called plantar fasciitis. Plantar fasciitis involves pain and inflammation of a thick band of tissue, called the plantar fascia, that runs across the bottom of your foot and connects your heel bone to your toes. Place a frozen water bottle or tennis ball under your foot and roll it back and forth for several minutes. Mason is an assistant professor in the Orthopaedics and Family Medicine departments at Emory University.
Mason is a member of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, the America Road Racing Medical Society, and the USA Track and Field Sports Medicine and Science Committee. Calis is a doctor of podiatric medicine (DPM) in the Department of Orthopaedics at Emory Healthcare.
Also, Emory Healthcare does not endorse or recommend any specific commercial product or service.
Sometimes though, the athlete may not feel pain at the time of the tear but later on or the next day when the tendon has cooled down and stiffened up. Because of the strong lever system in the foot and ankle huge forces go through the tendon when running and jumping. A doctor may also prescribe anti-inflammatory medication such as ibuprofen or if the tear is particularly bad it may be immobilized in a plaster cast for 4 to 6 weeks. A recent study showed that Biofreeze decreased pain 2 times more than ice and the pain relief lasts 9 – 10 longer. It works well for post injury pain and stiffness as well as chronic arthritis pain as it can be applied several times a day. You may have heard of the skin problem rosacea but you are not fully aware what causes it and its symptoms. This chronic skin problem can cause you to become blind which you definitely don’t want to happen. There may be swelling present but not always and the patient may also complain of the knee locking or giving way.
They can also come on gradually over time through degeneration, especially in the older patient. Apply ice wrapped in a wet tea towel to avoide ice burns on the skin or better still a specialist cold compression wrap will apply both cold and compression to the knee joint.


A minor tear or small degenerative condition with no restriction of motion or locking will be treated conservatively or without surgery.
Electrotherapy including ultrasound, laser therapy and TENS may also be beneficial in reducing swelling.
A grade 1 injury may only be a slight twinge whilst a grade 3 can result in the athlete being unable walk with swelling and bruising developing soon after.
Sprinting related hamstring injuries often feel worse but recover more quickly, whereas stretch related hamstring strains can take longer to heel as the injury is more likely to the tendon where blood flow is lower.
Exercises should begin as soon as possible after the acute stage but always be done pain free. In the later stages of rehabilitation more dynamic and functional (sports specific) stretching exercises should be done. Eventually sports specific exercises and drills should be performed before returning to full competition or training. He is board certified in Sports Medicine with a special interest in track and field, running injuries and exercise testing. He has been invited to be a resident physician at the US Olympic Training Center, a Sports Medicine consultant in his homeland of Jamaica and the Chief Medical Officer at multiple USA Track and Field international competitions. He specializes in foot and ankle injuries and conditions including arthritis, diabetic foot, plantar fasciitis, ulcer, wound care, custom orthotics, and foot and ankle biomechanics. This Web site is provided solely for personal and private use of individuals accessing this information, and no part of it may be used for any other purpose. When returning to exercise after a short period of rest, there may be a sharp pain which disappears when warmed up only to return when stopped. Shock-absorbent insoles in your training shoes, graduated running programmes and regularly replacing your training footwear may help in prevention.
For abductor hallucis pain, rub Biofreeze on the bottom of the inside foot, from the arch including the heel and up into the ankle . Apply Sombra to the bottom of the foot including the heel up toward the inside ankle for abductor hallucis muscle pain. The posterior tibial tendon is one of the key supporting structures of the foot, helping it to function while walking.
There are different ways in which the cartilage can tear including longitudinal, bucket handle tears, radial tear and degenerative.
A doctor may order an MRI scan which can help determine the exact location and extent of the injury which can give a more accurate prognosis and estimate of recovery time. Acute or sudden hamstring strains usually happen in two ways, either sprinting related or stretch related for example in martial arts, gymnastics or dancing. A compression bandage or thigh support can be worn to minimize bleeding in the muscle and help control swelling.
He has been trained in diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound, and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection.
He has also been a frequently featured guest CNN’s fit nation commenting on a wide variety of topics related to athletics and running injuries.
His other sports interests include soccer, college basketball and football, and the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA). Stiffness in achilles tendon first thing in the morning may be felt as well as a small swelling in the tendon. The wrap without the inserts can be worn for both support and compression in the early injury phase. It attaches the calf muscles to the bones on the inside of the mid foot and runs down the leg and into the foot just inside the ankle bone. Fair skinned people would always complain about this type of skin problem and there are millions of them who are suffering from it. Rest as much as possible with the leg elevated to hel to help drain away swelling and tissue fluids.
If the rupture is a complete achilles tendon rupture then immediate surgery is usually indicated. Mason is Team Physician for USA Track and Field and the National Scholastic Sports Foundation Track and Field and Cross Country meets, Tucker High School, and Georgia Tech Track and Field.
Shin splints are really a symptom rather than a specific diagnosis because they are probably caused by a number of different problems.
The doctor may also prescribe a heel lift insert for the shoe to prevent future overstretching of the Achilles tendon.
Shin splints are one of the most common problems in the lower leg in people who exercise or play sports.
Pain felt over the lateral (outer) part of your shin may not be due to shin splints and may be due to a compartment syndrome in your leg.
Over-pronation is where the foot rolls inward more than normal.) Some experts suggest that shin splints are caused by small tears in the structure of the membrane between the two bones of the leg below the knee (the tibia and fibula). Others suggest that they may also be caused by inflammation of tendons (tendonitis), muscle sprains, or inflammation of the membrane surrounding the tibia and fibula bones (periostitis).
Tiny fractures (microfractures) in the surface of the tibia have also been suggested as a cause. The main reason that your doctor may suggest an X-ray of your leg below the knee is to rule out a stress fracture in one of the bones.
A bone scan involves an injection of a very small amount of radioactive material, usually into a vein in your arm. A gamma camera is then used that can detect the radiation emitted by the injected material.
An MRI scan is also sometimes used to help to tell the difference between shin splints and stress fractures.



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