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The next generation of NordiFlex®represents the latest advance in prefilled growth hormone pens from Novo Nordisk. The Novo Nordisk business is based on a clear vision, a strong set of core values and a consistent corporate governance model. Novo Nordisk is a global healthcare company with more than 90 years of innovation and leadership in diabetes care.
Headquartered in Denmark, Novo Nordisk employs approximately 41,600 people in 75 countries and markets its products in more than 180 countries. In the early 20th century, Swedish physician Henrik Sjogren (SHOW-gren) first described a group of women whose chronic arthritis was accompanied by dry eyes and dry mouth.
Sjogren’s syndrome is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that affects the mucous membranes, causing dry mouth, decreased tear production, and other dry conditions of the body’s membranes.
Most of the complications of Sjogren’s syndrome occur because of decreased tears and saliva. Complications in other parts of the body occur rarely in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. The cause of Sjogren’s syndrome is not known, but it is considered an autoimmune disorder. If you have Sjogren’s syndrome, this attack typically starts with your moisture-producing glands, which are called the exocrine glands. People with this disease have abnormal proteins in their blood suggesting that their immune system, which normally functions to protect the body against cancers and invading infections, is reacting against their own tissue. Researchers think Sjogren’s syndrome is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
The possibility that the endocrine and nervous systems play a role is also under investigation. Between 1 and 4 million Americans, or roughly 1 to 2% of the population, have Sjogren’s syndrome.
In Sjogren’s syndrome, the immune system produces lymphocytes (white blood cells) that produce self-reactive proteins called autoantibodies which attack the tear, salivary, and other moisture-producing glands, thus destroying the glands and their ability to produce moisture.
Additionally, because all symptoms are not always present at the same time and because Sjogren’s can involve several body systems, physicians and dentists sometimes treat each symptom individually and do not recognize that a systemic disease is present. Because the symptoms of Sjogren’s are similar to those of many other diseases, getting a diagnosis can take time.
During the years prior to diagnosis, depending on the symptoms, a person might see a number of doctors, any of whom may diagnose the disease and be involved in treatment. Sjogren’s syndrome is serious but generally not fatal if complications are diagnosed and treated early. Dry eyes usually respond to the use of artificial tears applied regularly during the day or to gels applied at night.
All patients should receive regular dental care in order to prevent cavities and tooth loss that may occur as a complication of the disorder. Arthritis symptoms are treated with anti-inflammatory medicines, such as aspirin, acetaminophen, and other NSAIDs.
Hydroxychloroquine, an antimalarial drug used in lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, may be helpful in some patients with Sjogren’s syndrome by reducing joint pain and rash experienced by some patients. A vast majority of patients with Sjogren’s syndrome remain very healthy without any serious complications.
In a small number of people, Sjogren’s syndrome may be associated with lymphoma, a cancer of the lymph glands. People with Sjogren’s syndrome are usually able to live normal lives with very few adjustments.
Patients should see their physician regularly for general health screening, and should pay close attention to any abnormal swelling in the glands around the face or neck, under the arms, or in the groin area, as this may be a sign of lymphoma. A new study has confirmed a long-held suspicion that people with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing age-related dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. To be sure, not everyone with diabetes develops dementia and not everyone who has dementia is diabetic. Currently available measures to prevent or control diabetes may or may not lower the risk of dementia. Based on what we know today, preventing or managing diabetes is the best strategy to avoid further complications, one of which may be dementia. The Health News and Reviews section addresses current health- and lifestyle issues as they are discussed in the press and respective publications. Almost anyone who has ever gone on a diet or bought into a weight loss program knows that lasting success is the real challenge. This heritage has given us experience and capabilities that also enable us to help people defeat other serious chronic conditions: haemophilia, growth disorders and obesity. The syndrome occurs by itself or can and often does occur with other autoimmune diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and other lesser known rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Patients with dry eyes are at increased risk for infections around the eye and may have damage to the cornea. Pain and stiffness in the joints with mild swelling may occur in some patients, even in those without rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
The decreased production of tears and saliva seen in Sjogren’s syndrome occurs when the glands that produce these fluids are damaged by inflammation. Several different genes appear to be involved, but scientists are not certain exactly which ones are linked to the disease since different genes seem to play a role in different people.


This condition can affect people of any age, but symptoms usually appear between the ages of 45 and 55. Many parts of the body can be affected by Sjogren’s syndrome, such as the lungs, brain, nerves, joints, kidneys, thyroid, and liver.
Some patients experience dryness of other mucous membranes (such as the nasal passages, throat, and vagina) and skin. Ophthalmologists, dentists and other specialists also can treat symptoms related to Sjogren’s.
Usually, a rheumatologist (a doctor who specializes in diseases of the joints, muscles and bones) will coordinate treatment among a number of specialists. In one study, the incidence of lymphoma (cancer of the lymph glands) was 44 times higher in people with Sjogren’s syndrome than in the general population.
Rheumatologists are specialists in musculoskeletal disorders and therefore are more likely to make a proper diagnosis. Some patients benefit from using prescription medications that stimulate saliva flow, such as pilocarpine or cevimuline . Patients with dry eyes should see an ophthalmologist (eye doctor) regularly for signs of damage to the cornea. Patients should be aware that they do face an increased risk for infections in and around the eyes and an increased risk for dental problems, both of which are due to the long-term reduction in tears and saliva. When a diagnosis is made, many patients must focus a great deal of attention dealing with dry eyes and dry mouth, but these symptoms tend to subside with time. The latest findings are based on research in Japan that followed over 1,000 men and women, age 60 and older.
Yutaka Kiyohara, professor at the Kyushu University in Fukuoka in Japan and lead author of the study report.
Diabetes may lead to a particular type of dementia, called “vascular dementia,” in which damage to the blood vessels in the brain inhibits the flow of oxygen.
But still, studies have shown time and again that those with Type-2 diabetes are twice as likely to develop a type of dementia like Alzheimer’s disease. Some diabetes drugs have been tested for the effectiveness in the treatment of Alzheimer’s. This will also reduce the risk of other potentially debilitating effects, including heart- and kidney disease and damage to the optical nerves and nerve endings in the extremities. The Eating Lighter – Eating Smarter program offers easy modifications of many popular meal choices. Having lunch or dinner out should be a pleasurable experience, unspoiled by guilt and regret. Dry mouth may cause an increase in dental decay, gingivitis (gum inflammation), and oral yeast infections (thrush) that may cause pain and burning. Rashes on the arms and legs related to inflammation in small blood vessels (vasculitis) and inflammation in the lungs, liver, and kidney may occur rarely and be difficult to diagnose. These glands also produce moisture needed in the vaginal area, and in the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestine) and respiratory tract (airway and lungs). Research suggests that genetic factors and possibly viral infections (as yet unidentified) may predispose people to developing this condition. The virus stimulates the immune system to act, but the gene alters the attack, sending fighter cells (lymphocytes) to the eye and mouth glands. In the majority of cases, the autoimmune response is confined to the tear ducts and salivary glands. Furthermore, dryness can occur for other reasons, such as a side effect of medication like anti-depressants or high blood pressure medication. Sjogren’s syndrome patients must be monitored carefully for development of related autoimmune diseases, lymphoma, and other complications. Eyedrops that reduce inflammation in the glands around the eyes may be used to increase tear production. Any pain or redness in the eyes should be evaluated promptly, as this may signal an infection.
27 percent of the participants who were diabetic at the outset of the study eventually developed dementia, compared to 20 percent of those with normal blood sugar levels. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), almost 26 million adults and children have been diagnosed in the United States alone.
There is also the possibility that the brain’s response to high levels of insulin in the body increases the risk of developing dementia. Type-2 diabetes patients often develop insulin resistance, a condition in which their cells can’t properly use insulin to absorb glucose in the bloodstream.
So far, none of these tests have shown more than modest improvement with regards to the symptoms of the disease. Neurological complications that cause symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and weakness have also been described in some patients. If your exocrine glands fail to create enough moisture, you may experience a number of uncomfortable symptoms.
Other genes are linked to Sjogren’s in people of Japanese, Chinese and African American descent. Once there, the lymphocytes attack healthy cells, causing the inflammation that damages the glands and keeps them from working properly. About half of affected patients also have rheumatoid arthritis or other connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus.


The currently available treatments may help relieve some of the dryness but usually some dryness persists.
To reduce risk for cavities and other dental problems, patients must pay close attention to proper oral hygiene and regular dental care. Another 80 million are considered pre-diabetic, meaning their blood sugar levels are routinely elevated, which can turn into a chronic condition over time if no countermeasures are taken.
These fighter cells are supposed to die after their attack in a natural process called apoptosis, but in people with Sjogren’s syndrome, they continue to attack, causing further damage. The resulting higher insulin levels in the blood can lead to inflammation, which may cause, among other effects, damage to the brain cells. In addition, abnormalities in glucose metabolism and insulin levels in the brain itself may be harmful.
I was very overwhelmed with my new job and turned to food to feel more in control of my life. Some researchers have therefore suggested that Alzheimer’s disease may actually be “Type-3 diabetes.” Obviously, more studies are needed to prove the existence of these connections. It took a lot of work, but I am better now.What is bulimia?Bulimia nervosa (buh-LEE-me-ah nur-VOH-suh), often called bulimia, is a type of eating disorder. A person with bulimia eats a lot of food in a short amount of time (binging) and then tries to prevent weight gain by getting rid of the food (purging). Also, bulimics might exercise a lot, eat very little or not at all, or take pills to pass urine often to prevent weight gain.Unlike anorexia, people with bulimia can fall within the normal range for their age and weight. But bulimia affects people from all walks of life, including males, women of color, and even older women. People with different cultural backgrounds may develop eating disorders because it's hard to adapt to a new culture (a theory called "culture clash").
The stress of trying to live in two different cultures may cause some minorities to develop their eating disorders.Return to topWhat causes bulimia?Bulimia is more than just a problem with food. A binge can be triggered by dieting, stress, or uncomfortable emotions, such as anger or sadness.
Purging and other actions to prevent weight gain are ways for people with bulimia to feel more in control of their lives and ease stress and anxiety.
There is no single known cause of bulimia, but there are some factors that may play a part.Culture. Seeing images of flawless, thin females everywhere makes it hard for women to feel good about their bodies.Families. Parents who think looks are important, diet themselves, or criticize their children's bodies are more likely to have a child with bulimia.A Life changes or stressful events. Traumatic events (like rape), as well as stressful things (like starting a new job), can lead to bulimia.Personality traits.
She may be very moody, have problems expressing anger, or have a hard time controlling impulsive behaviors.Biology.
Genes, hormones, and chemicals in the brain may be factors in developing bulimia.Return to topWhat are signs of bulimia?A person with bulimia may be thin, overweight, or have a normal weight.
Also, bulimic behavior, such as throwing up, is often done in private because the person with bulimia feels shame or disgust.
She or he may be moody or sad, or may not want to go out with friends.Return to topWhat happens to someone who has bulimia?Bulimia can be very harmful to the body.
Look at the picture to find out how bulimia affects your health.Return to topCan someone with bulimia get better?Is it safe for young people to take antidepressants for bulimia? However, drug companies who make antidepressants are required to post a "black box" warning label on the medication. A health care team of doctors, nutritionists, and therapists will help the patient recover. They will help the person learn healthy eating patterns and cope with their thoughts and feelings. CBT that has been tailored to treat bulimia has shown to be effective in changing binging and purging behavior, and eating attitudes. It also appears to help reduce binge-eating and purging behavior, reduces the chance of relapse, and improves eating attitudes.
Women who have recovered from bulimia have a better chance of getting pregnant once their monthly cycle is normal. These things take away nutrients and fluids from a woman before they are able to feed and nourish the baby. Tell your friend you are concerned and that you think these things may be a sign of a problem that needs professional help.Ask your friend to talk to a professional.
Offer to help your friend find a counselor or doctor and make an appointment, and offer to go with him or her to the appointment.Avoid conflicts. Don't say, "If you'd just stop, then things would be fine!"Let your friend know that you will always be there no matter what.Adapted from "What Should I Say?
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